François de Chateaubriand
Mémoires d’Outre-Tombe: Index H
b. 1456. A French heroine known as Jeanne Fourquet and nicknamed Jeanne Hachette (‘Jeanne the Hatchet’). We have no precise information about her family or origin. She is known solely for an act of heroism which on 27 June 1472 saved Beauvais when it was on the point of being taken by the troops of Charles the Bold, duke of Burgundy. The town was defended by only 300 men-at-arms, commanded by Louis de Balagny.
76-138AD. Roman Emperor (117-138). Trajan’s ward, he was a successful military commander in Parthia, and he became Emperor at Trajan’s death. Defeating a major conspiracy in 118, he toured the provinces from 120 to 131. He had a mainly defensive policy, though he subdued a Jewish revolt in 132-135. He lived in and further beautified Rome from 131 until his death.
BkXIV:Chap7:Sec1 His tomb on the Tiber was known as Hadrian’s Mole or Mausoleum but is now commonly referred to as Castel Sant’Angelo.
Hague, Cap de la
A rocky promontory, on the Cotentin coast, it forms the westernmost cape of the Cherbourg peninsula.
BkVIII:Chap7:Sec1 Mentioned. Chateaubriand confuses it with the Cap de la Hougue which is the Eastern Cape of the peninsula.
BkXXIV:Chap4:Sec1 Again Chateaubriand confuses it with Cape de la Hougue. Tourville was defeated by the English here in 1692.
Hainault, Phillippa of
c1314-1369. The Queen consort of Edward III of England, Philippa was born in Valenciennes (then in Flanders, now France) and was the daughter of William III, Count of Hainaut and Jeanne de Valois, the grand-daughter of Philip III of France. She married Edward at York Minster, in October, 1327.
Alcyone was the daughter of Aeolus, granddaughter of Polypemon, and wife of Ceyx. She and Ceyx foolishly compared themselves to Juno and Jupiter, for which the gods drowned Ceyx in a storm. Alcyone leapt into the sea to join him, and both were transformed into kingfishers or Halcyons. In antiquity it was believed that the hen-kingfisher layed her eggs in a floating nest in the Halcyon Days around the winter solstice, when the sea is made calm by Aeolus, Alcyone’s father. (The kingfisher actually lays its eggs in a hole, normally in a riverbank, by freshwater and not by seawater.)
Hall, Captain Basil
1788-1844. A British naval officer and traveller, in the service from 1802 to 1823, he commanded vessels on scientific assignments and voyages of exploration. He wrote of them in his Account of a Voyage of Discovery to the West Coast of Corea and the Great Loo-Choo (1818); in Extracts from a Journal Written on the Coasts of Chile, Peru, and Mexico (1823); and in Fragments of Voyages and Travels (1831–33). After leaving the Navy he travelled in the United States, his Travels in North America (1829) forming a valuable description of America. He was a member of the Royal Society. His father Sir James Hall was at Brienne Military College with Bonaparte, and was a well-known amateur scientist.
Hallay-Coëtquen, Jean George Charles Frédéric Emmanuel, Marquis du
Hallay-Coëtquen, Comte du
Brother of the Marquis.
Halleck, Fitz Greene
1790-1867. American poet, b. Guilford, Conn. He was joint author, with Joseph Rodman Drake, of the humorous lampoons “Croaker Papers,” most of which were printed in the New York Evening Post in 1819. In the same year he published his long satire, Fanny (1819), in the style of Byron's Beppo. His poem “Marco Bozzaris,” popular as a recitation, and his “Green Be the Turf above Thee,” an elegy on the death of Drake, were the best known of Halleck’s graceful verses. For many years he was personal secretary to John Jacob Astor.
BkVIII:Chap5:Sec3 His poem Marco Bozzaris.
Wood nymphs in Greek mythology.
The city of northern Germany on the Elbe River, it lies northeast of Bremen. Founded by Charlemagne in the early ninth century, the city quickly grew in commercial importance and in 1241 formed an alliance with Lübeck that became the basis for the Hanseatic League.
BkXXII:Chap3:Sec1 The French evacuated the city on March 12th 1813.
Hamilton, Sir William
1730-1803. British Ambassador at Naples, he was the husband of Emma (Harte) Hamilton, Nelson’s Emma.
Hamilton, Alexander Hamilton, Marquess of Douglas, 10th Duke of
Hamilton, Charlotte, Duchess of Somerset
Hamilton, Emma Lyon, Lady
1765?-1815. Mistress of Horatio Nelson, she had been the mistress of Charles Greville, then of Sir William Hamilton, ambassador to Naples, whom she married (1791). She gained enormous influence with Neapolitan Queen Marie Caroline. Her intimacy with Nelson began in 1798, and after returning to England with him, she bore him a daughter, Horatia, in 1801. Although she received legacies from both her husband and Nelson, she was imprisoned for debt in July 1813, and died in poverty and obscurity at Calais.
BkXII:Chap5:Sec1 The Cashmere shawl was discovered by English ladies at the end of the 18 century, at a time when oriental influence was visible in European fashion and art: Napoleon’s soldiers, returning home from the campaign in Egypt, introduced the fashion in France, Lady Hamilton and Nelson took it to Naples and the painter, Vigée Le Brun, to St. Petersburg.
Hamlet is the protagonist of the play of that name by Shakespeare.
BkXII:Chap1:Sec1 The tradition (due to his first biographer Nicholas Rowe, in 1709) that Shakespeare played the part of the ghost of Hamlet’s father in the play.
BkXIV:Chap2:Sec3 A reference to the play, possibly Act III and the play within the play.
BkXXXVI:Chap11:Sec3 The gravediggers appear in ActV:I.
Hampton Court, England
BkXII:Chap5:Sec1 Since the 1530s there has been a Communication Gallery linking the King’s and Queen’s apartments, although the present gallery was built for William III in the 1690s. The gallery is hung with a series of portraits painted by Sir Peter Lely between c1662-5, known as the Windsor Beauties. They were painted for Anne Hyde, Duchess of York (wife of James II) and represent the most beautiful women at the court of Charles II (1660-85). They were sometimes thought to have been Charles II’s mistresses but the only genuine candidate is the portrait of Barbara Villiers, Duchess of Cleveland.
The town in Hesse, Germany is located 10 km east of Frankfurt am Main. The Battle of Hanau was fought between the French and Austro-Bavarian armies on October 30-31, 1813 during the Liberation Wars against Napoleonic France. Bavaria, a former French ally, joined the Sixth Coalition according to the Treaty of Ried concluded just before the battle of Leipzig. An Austro-Bavarian corps under prominent Bavarian Field marshal von Wrède attacked the retreating French army at Hanau, Hesse, however, were routed by Napoleon. Wrède received a wound to the head.
BkXXII:Chap6:Sec1 The Battle.
Handel, George Frederick
1685-1759. German composer. He travelled to Italy where he became famous as a harpsichordist and a master of the Italianate style of composition. He visited England in 1712 and remained there. After various appointments he became Director of the Royal Academy of Music on its foundation in 1720. He became blind towards the end of his life. His works include the oratorios Saul (1739) and Messiah (1742), and the Water Music (1717) He was buried in Westminster Abbey.
1791-1861. A Bohemian philologist, he was appointed librarian of the Prague Museum in 1818. On the 16th of September 1817 Hanka alleged that he had discovered some ancient Bohemian manuscript poems of the 13th and 14th century in the church tower of the village of Kralodwor, or Königinhof. These are now considered a forgery. In 1848 Hanka, who was an ardent Panslavist, took part in the Slavonic congress and other peaceful national demonstrations, being the founder of the political society Slovanska Lipa. He was elected to the imperial diet at Vienna, but declined to take his seat. In the winter of 1848 he became lecturer and in 1849 professor of Slavonic languages in the university of Prague, where he died. BkXXXVII:Chap11:Sec1 Mentioned.
247-183 BC. The Carthaginian general, who during the second of the Punic Wars between Carthage and Rome, took an army of more than 100,000, supported by elephants, from Spain to Italy in an effort to conquer Rome. The army crossed the Alps, and this troop movement is still regarded as one of the greatest in history. Hannibal won several victories on this campaign but was not able to take Rome.
BkXXII:Chap 20:Sec3 Hannibal died by drinking poison near Bithynia in a place called Libyssa.
BkXXVIII:Chap11:Sec1 An incident from his life, refer to Polybius and Livy.
BkXXXVI:Chap8:Sec1 Mentioned for his sincerity.
BkXLII:Chap7:Sec1 A supposed prediction of his birth in Aeneid IV:625
Hardenberg, Charles-Auguste, Baron then Prince de
1750-1822. A Hanoverian lawyer, he entered the service of the King of Prussia in 1791, having negotiated the Treaty of Basel in 1795. He was Foreign Minister from 1804-6, then Chancellor from 1810, attending the Congress of Vienna. He spent some time in Rome after the Congress of Troppau which annoyed the King.
BkXXVI:Chap5:Sec1 Chateaubriand’s pen portrait of him.
BkXXVI:Chap7:Sec1 Chateaubriand accused of writing to him prematurely in January 1821.
Harlay, Achille de
c530-514BC. He and Aristogeiton (circa 550 - 514 BC) known as the Liberators or the Tyrannicides became heroes in Athens through their role in the overthrow of the Tyranny of the Peisistratid family.
Harold II Godwinson
c1022-1066. King of the Angles, he was the last Ango-Saxon king of England, reputedly designated heir by the dying Edward the Confessor. He was the son of Earl Godwin. Having defeated his brother Tostig and Harold II Hardraade of Norway at the Battle of Stamford Bridge, he was in turn defeated at Hastings, by William the Conqueror.
Harrowby, Dudley Ryder, 1st Earl of
1691-1756. A prominent British politician of the Pittite faction and the Tory party, was the eldest son of Nathaniel Ryder, 1st Baron Harrowby, and was born in London. His long association with the Tories did not prevent him from supporting Catholic Emancipation and the easing of restrictions on Protestant Dissenters, or from supporting the movement for electoral reform; he also favoured the emancipation of the slaves. He met Chateaubriand in Paris in 1814 at Madame de Stael’s.
Mid-2nd century BC. A Carthaginian general (surname unknown: a familiar and confusing Carthaginian first name). According to Appian he begged Scipio for his life during the siege of Carthage, but his wife upbraiding him for cowardice killed their two sons and threw herself into the flames.
BkXVIII:Chap2:Sec1 His wife mentioned.
Haselbach (Liskova, Slovakia)
A village in the Ruzomberok district of Slovakia, it was the border crossing post, in 1833, into Bohemia.
Hastings, Battle of
The battle between the Normans and English at Senlach Hill on the 14th October 1066, near Hastings, in which William, Duke of Normandy, successfully claimed the English crown. The death of Harold II opened the way to a Norman conquest of England.
Haugwitz, Christian August Heinrich, Graf von
1752–1832. He was Prussian foreign minister (1802–4, 1805–6). In 1805, after the French victory at Austerlitz, Haugwitz tried to appease Napoleon by concluding treaties that involved a humiliating Prussian subservience to French policy and an open Franco-Prussian alliance. Dissatisfaction with the terms and continued French mobilization on Prussia’s frontiers finally led in October, 1806, to Prussia’s declaration of war against France and subsequent defeat at Jena. Haugwitz, dismissed from office, retired to Italy, where he died.
Haussez, Baron d’
1778-1854. He was last Minister of the Navy under the Restoration.
BkXXXVII:Chap6:Sec1 He published a work on British History, Great Britain in 1833.
Hautefeuille, Charles-Louis-Texier, Comte d’
1770-1865. He became a Marshal.
Hautefeuille, Anne de Beaurepaire, Comtesse d’
She was the wife of the Comte.
BkIV:Chap9:Sec2 Authoress of l’Âme exilée a novel that appeared in 1837, under the pseudonym Anne-Marie.
Hauterive, Alexandre-Maurice Blanc de Lanautte, Comte d’
1754-1830. French statesman and diplomatist, was educated at Grenoble, where he became a professor. In 1790 he applied for and received the post of consul at New York. Under the Consulate, however, he was accused of embezzlement and recalled. In 1798, after trying his hand at farming in America, Hauterive was appointed to a post in the French foreign office. In this capacity he made a sensation by his L'Etat de la France a la fin de l’an VIII (1800), which had been commissioned by Napoleon Bonaparte, as a manifesto to foreign nations, after 18th Brumaire. This won him the confidence of Bonaparte, and in 1805 he was made a Councillor of State, and up to 1813 was more than once temporarily minister of foreign affairs. He attempted, though vainly, to use his influence to moderate Napoleon’s policy, especially in the matter of Spain and the treatment of the Pope. A difference of opinion with Talleyrand led to his withdrawal from the political side of the ministry of foreign affairs, and he was appointed keeper of the archives of the same department. There is a detailed account of Hauterive, with considerable extracts from his correspondence with Talleyrand, in the Biographie universelle by Artaud de Montor, who published a separate life in 1831.
BkXXIII:Chap3:Sec1 His papers.
Havré et de Croy, Joseph Annet Auguste Maximilien, Duc de
1744-1839. A member of the French aristocracy, his sister Louise Elizabeth de Tourzel, (1749-1832) was governess to the children of Louis XVI. She played the part of ‘Baronne Korff’ in the abortive escape to Varennes. She was arrested after August 10, but was released.
BkXXII:Chap 22:Sec1 Captain of the Lifeguards at the Restoration in 1814.
Haydn, Franz Joseph
1732-1809. An Austrian composer, in 1761, he became Kapellmeister to the Esterházy family, a post he held throughout his life. He visited London in 1791 and 1794.
BkXVIII:Chap3Sec1 His oratorio The Creation (1798) was performed in Paris, in the presence of the First Consul, on the 24th of December 1800, with Garat, as tenor, in an adaptation by Steibelt. Pleyel published a piano version in 1801. Chateaubriand’s comment suggests that he mistook Beethoven for the composer of the oratorio, or was perhaps thinking of the Eroica symphony.
An aide de camp to the Duc d’Orléans.
BkXXXII:Chap13:Sec1 At Neuilly on the 30th of July 1830.
An officer of Ben-hadad II, king of Syria, who ultimately came to the throne, according to the word of the Lord to Elijah (1 Kings 19:15), after he had put the king to death (2 Kings 8:15)
1745-1792. An English explorer, who in 1768 examined portions of the Hudson Bay coasts with a view to improving the cod fishery, and in 1769-1772 he was employed in north-western discovery, searching for copper mines described by the Indians. On his third attempt (December 1770 to June 1772) he was successful, not only discovering the copper of the Copper Mine River basin, but tracing this river to the Arctic Ocean. He reappeared at Fort Prince of Wales on 30 June 1772. Becoming governor of this fort in 1775 he was taken prisoner by the French under La Pérouse in 1782. He returned to England in 1787.
BkVII:Chap1:Sec1 His discovery of the Copper Mine River.
The Goddess of Youth, and cup-bearer to the gods. She had the power of restoring youth and beauty.
1783-1836. Bishop of Calcutta (1822), and poet. His fame rests mainly on his fine hymns. A Journey Through India was published posthumously in 1838.
Hecla or Hekla, the loftiest of 20 active volcanoes in Iceland (5102 ft.); is an isolated peak with five craters, 68 miles east of Reykjavik; its most violent outbreak in recent times continued from 1845 to 1846; its last eruption was in March 1878.
BkXXIV:Chap8:Sec1 His lasting fame embodied in his deeds. The reference is to the Palatine Anthology VII:137.
Hector, Charles-Jean, Comte d’
1722-1808. Distinguished in numerous naval actions. Commander of the port of Brest in 1783, he was charged with a general inspection of the French ports, by Louis XVI. He was made a Vice-Admiral in 1792. Joined the émigré Princes at Coblenz, and helped to forward the Quiberon landing. Died in England.
A city in Baden-Württemberg, Germany, it is halfway between Stuttgart and Frankfurt. The name Heidelberg is an adaptation of Heidelbeerenberg (Blueberry Mountain). Heidelberg lies on the Neckar at the point where the river leaves its narrow, steep valley in the Odenwald to flow into the Rhine valley where, 20 kilometres northwest of Heidelberg, it joins the Rhine at Mannheim.
BkXXXVIII:Chap8:Sec1 Chateaubriand there in June 1833. The Heidelberg Tun is an extremely large wine vat in the cellars of Heidelberg Castle. The present one with a capacity of approximately 220,000 litres was made in 1751.
A port, in the north-western Netherlands, at the northern end of the North Holland Canal, it lies opposite Texel Island on the Marsdiep, a channel linking the North Sea and Waddenzee. In 1794 a French cavalry troop captured a Dutch fleet icebound in the Marsdiep, and in 1799 Den Helder was the site of the Russo-British troop landing that began the unsuccessful campaign to overthrow the Batavian Republic.
BkVIII:Chap5:Sec1 Greece, her homeland.
c250-c330. The mother of the Emperor Constantine, she was revered as a saint. Her feast day was later moved to the 18th August causing some confusion.
Helen of Wurtemberg, Frédèrique-Marie-Charlotte, Grand-Duchess Elena Paulovna of Russia
BkXXX:Chap6:Sec1 Chateaubriand welcomes her in April 1829.
Heliodorus of Emesa
A Greek writer known for the ancient Greek romance called the Aethiopica (the Ethiopian Story) or sometimes ‘Theagenes and Chariclea’. According to the ecclesiastical historian Socrates Scholasticus (Hist. eccles. V. 22), the author of the Aethiopica was a certain Heliodorus, bishop of Tricca in Thessaly. But it is now thought that the real author was a sophist of the 3rd century AD.
c203-222. A Roman emperor of the Severan dynasty who reigned from 218 to 222, during his reign, he showed a disregard for Roman religious traditions and sexual taboos. He was one of the most reviled Roman emperors to early Christian historians and later became a hero to the Decadent movement of the late 19th century.
d.1794 An anti-semitic pamphleteer from Alsace.
The straits that link the Propontis with the Aegean Sea, and form the entrance to the passage to the Black Sea from the Mediterranean. Named after the mythological Helle, and close to the site of Troy.
1787-1850. Public Prosecutor at Rennes from September 1830, he had published in 1827 an Essay on the Constitutional Regime. He showed real bitterness in his pursuit of Berryer and his supposed accomplices.
1101-1164. The illicit lover of Abelard she was possibly the author of the Letters attributed to them both, and a proponent of the power of secular love.
BkXVII:Chap5:Sec1 Chateaubriand quotes from her first letter to Abelard.
1715-1771. A French philosopher, one of the Encyclopedists, he held the post of farmer-general (i.e., tax collector). In 1751 he retired to the country, devoting himself to writing and philanthropic enterprises. His book De l'esprit (1758, tr. Essays on the Mind, 1807) was condemned by the Pope and by the Parlement of Paris. Agreeing with Locke’s doctrine that the minds of men are originally blank tablets, Helvétius maintained that all men are born with equal ability and that distinctions develop from the totality of educational influences. Like Condillac he maintained that all forms of intellectual activity have their beginning in sensation. In ethics a utilitarian, he judged the good in terms of self-satisfaction and regarded self-interest as the sole motive for action. Both Jeremy Bentham and James Mill acknowledged his influence. De l'homme, was posthumously published (1772) and translated as A Treatise on Man: His Intellectual Faculties and His Education (1777).
BkXIII:Chap10:Sec1 A major European name.
Hénin, Laure-Auguste de Fitzjames, Madame d’
1744-1814. Lady-in-waiting to Marie-Antoinette.
BkV:Chap14:Sec1 Her fashionable soirees.
Hénin, for Hennin, Pierre-Michel
1728-1807. A clerk in the Foreign Ministry from 1749-1792. His dismissal during the Revolution ruined him. He consoled himself by writing.
Henri II, King of France
1519-1559. King of France 1547-1559, he was the husband of Catherine de Medici from 1533. He was a systematic persecutor of the Huguenots, a persecution which led to the Wars of Religion.
Henri III, King of France
1551-1589. King of France 1574-1589, during the Wars of Religion, he was elected King of Poland in 1573, he abandoned that country on succeeding to the French throne. In France he was caught between the Catholic and Huguenot parties. After fleeing Paris in 1588 following an uprising he allied himself with the Huguenot Henry of Navarre. He was assassinated by a Dominican priest Jacques Clément while besieging Paris on 1st August 1589.
BkXXVII:Chap3:Sec1 The origin of the dandy in his reign.
BkXXVIII:Chap11:Sec1 His Protestant leanings.
BkXXX:Chap2:Sec2 The politeness shown at his Court.
BkXXXII:Chap14:Sec1 A Valois.
BkXXXV:Chap20:Sec1 His mignons, or favourites. The term is used in a sexually derogatory sense.
Henri IV, King of France
1553–1610. King of France (1589–1610) and, as Henry III, of Navarre (1572–1610), son of Antoine de Bourbon and Jeanne d’Albret, he was the first of the Bourbon kings of France. Raised as a Protestant, he was recognized (1569) by the Huguenot leader Gaspard de Coligny as the nominal head of the Huguenots. As a result of the temporary reconciliation (1570) between the Huguenots and the crown, Henry was betrothed to Margaret of Valois, sister of King Charles IX. A few days after his marriage (Aug. 18, 1572) the massacre of the Huguenots (the Saint Bartholomew’s Day Massacre) took place. Henry saved his life by abjuring Protestantism; however, he remained a virtual prisoner of the court until 1576, when he escaped, returned to the Protestant faith, and joined the combined Protestant and moderate Roman Catholic forces in the fifth of the Wars of Religion. Henry became the legal heir to the French throne upon the death (1584) of Francis, duke of Alençon, brother and heir to King Henry III, who had succeeded Charles IX in 1574. The Catholic League, led by Henri, 3rd Duc de Guise, refused to recognize a Protestant as heir and persuaded the king to revoke concessions to the Protestants and to exclude Henry of Navarre from the succession. In the resulting war, known as the War of the Three Henrys, Henry of Navarre defeated (1587) the king's forces at Coutras but was reconciled with Henry III when the League revolted against him (1588). After Henry III's death (1589), Henry IV defeated the League forces under the duc de Mayenne at Arques (1589) and Ivry (1590) but was forced to abandon the siege of Paris when the League received Spanish aid. In 1593 he again abjured Protestantism, allegedly with the remark, “Paris is well worth a Mass.” He was received in Paris in 1594. His conciliatory policy soon won him general support. To rid France of Spanish influence, Henry declared war on Spain (1595) and brought it to a successful conclusion with the Treaty of Vervins (1598). Henry soon turned to the internal reconstruction of his war-ravaged kingdom. With the Edict of Nantes (1598) he established political rights and a measure of religious freedom for the Huguenots. Aided by Baron de Rosny (later Duc de Sully), Henry restored some measure of financial order, encouraged agriculture, founded new industries, built roads and canals, expanded foreign trade through commercial treaties with Spain, England, and the Ottoman Empire, and encouraged colonization of Canada. Anxious to see prosperity reach all classes, he is reputed to have said, “There should be a chicken in every peasant's pot every Sunday.” In his foreign policy Henry sought to weaken the Spanish and Austrian Hapsburgs. He was preparing to oppose them on the question of the succession to the Duchies of Cleves and Jülich when he was stabbed to death by a fanatic, François Ravaillac. Henry’s marriage to Margaret of Valois was annulled in 1599. His mistresses included Gabrielle d’Estrées and Henriette d’Entrangues. In 1600 he married Marie de’ Medici, who was regent during the minority of their son Louis XIII. Numerous anecdotes and legends about Henry bear witness to his gallantry, his Gallic wit, and his concern for the common people, which have made him probably the most popular king among the French.
BkI:Chap4:Sec4 His siege of Saint-Malo. In 1590, Saint Malo refused to sign up with the Ligue or Henry IV, Protestant King of France. They proclaimed their own ‘Republic’ which lasted four years. Their motto was ‘Ni Français, ni Breton, Malouin suis.’ (‘Neither French nor Breton, but from St Malo’.)
BkIII:Chap8:Sec1 Mentioned. His mistresses.
BkXIX:Chap5:Sec1 His poor spelling.
BkXIX:Chap9:Sec3 Henri’s battle-helmet was decorated with a panache of white feathers. He famously said ‘Let my white panache be your rallying point, you’ll always find it on the path of honour and victory’.
BkXXIV:Chap17:Sec1 Mourned at his death, the death of an age.
BkXXVIII:Chap11:Sec1 His Protestant leanings.
BkXXXII:Chap9:Sec1 His statue on the Pont-Neuf in 1830.
BkXXXII:Chap16:Sec1 His adoption of the Catholic faith for political reasons.
BkXXXV:Chap24:Sec1 His murder by Ravaillac on 14th May 1610.
BkXXXVI:Chap11:Sec1 He visited the Château de Fervaques.
BkXXXVII:Chap5:Sec1 His recantation in 1593.
BkXXXVII:Chap13:Sec1 His frankness.
BkXXXVII:Chap14:Sec1 Jean Châtel attempted to assassinate Henri on 27 December 1594. The son of a cloth merchant he managed to gain entry to the King’s chamber. When Henry stooped to help two officials kneeling before him to rise, Châtel attacked him with a knife, cutting his lip.
BkXXXIX:Chap8:Sec1 He presented his armour, preserved in the Arsenal at Venice, to the city as the first Catholic Power to recognize him.
Henri V, of France, Duc de Bordeaux, Comte de Chambord
1820-1883. Bourbon claimant to the French throne, posthumous son of Charles Ferdinand, duc de Berry. His original title was Duke of Bordeaux. His grandfather, Charles X, abdicated in his favour during the Revolution of 1830, and he is known to the legitimists as Henry V, although he never held the throne. He accompanied Charles into exile and spent most of the rest of his life at Frohsdorf, Austria. In 1832 his mother, Caroline de Berry, unsuccessfully attempted to overthrow Louis Philippe. Efforts to reconcile his claims with those of the Orleanist pretender, Louis Philippe Albert d’Orléans, after the February Revolution of 1848, met with little success. In 1871, after the fall of the Second Empire, Chambord’s prospects improved, and in 1873 the Orleanist pretender relinquished his claims in Chambord’s favor. However, his stubborn adherence to the Bourbon flag in preference to the national flag, destroyed his chance of recognition. He died without issue, and his claims passed to the house of Bourbon-Orléans.
BkIV:Chap10:Sec1 Mentioned as the Duc de Bordeaux.
BkXIV:Chap6:Sec1 Lamented here by Chateaubriand.
BkXXIII:Chap18:Sec1 His grandfather’s abdication in his favour.
BkXXV:Chap12:Sec1 BkXL:Chap7:Sec1 His birth on 29th September 1820, St Michael’s Day. The phrases used of him derive from Monseigneur Macchi, and Lamartine’s Ode on the Birth of the Duke of Bordeaux (written in Naples 1820, published 1822) respectively.
Chateaubriand left Berlin to go to his baptism in 1821.
BkXXVIII:Chap17:Sec1 An allusion to Chateaubriand’s support for him.
BkXXXIII:Chap1:Sec1 Support for him in 1830.
BkXXXIII:Chap4:Sec1 Charles X insists vainly on his being recognised as king.
BkXXXIII:Chap7:Sec1 Chateaubriand promotes him as future monarch.
BkXXXIII:Chap8:Sec1 He travels into exile in 1830.
BkXXXIV:Chap12:Sec1 The orphan.
BkXXXVII:Chap9:Sec1 Chateaubriand implies that he is being kept away from him.
BkXXXVII:Chap12:Sec1 At the Hradschin on 29th May 1833.
BkXXXVII:Chap14:Sec1 Chateaubriand’s summary of his situation.
BkXXXVIII:Chap4:Sec1 Chateaubriand discusses his education with the Dauphine.
BkXXXVIII:Chap10:Sec1 Sends Chateaubriand a seal.
BkXLI:Chap6:Sec1 At Bustehrad, Prague, 27th of September 1833.
Henry of Prussia, Prince
1726-1802. Brother of Frederick II, he was a patron of the philosophes.
Henri-Albert de Prusse, Heinrich Albrecht, Prince
1809-1872. He was the son of Frederick-William III.
Henriette d’Angleterre, Henrietta Anne of England
1644-1670. Duchesse d’Orléans, she was called Madame as the sister-in-law of Louis XIV of France. The daughter of Charles I and Queen Henrietta Maria of England, she was taken (1646) to France when civil war raged in England; in 1661 she married Philippe I, Duc d'Orléans, brother of Louis XIV. On Louis’s behalf she negotiated the Treaty of Dover with her brother, King Charles II (1670). She died shortly after her return from England, at Saint-Cloud; it was rumoured that she had been poisoned by her husband. Jacques Bossuet’s funeral oration for Madame is one of his best-known sermons.
BkXX:Chap3:Sec1 Her death at Saint-Cloud.
Henriot, for Hanriot, François
1759-1794. A partisan of the Revolution, Hanriot showed great courage in the rising of August 10, 1792, after which he was elected commandant of the sans-culotte section of the Paris National Guard. His coolness and military ability were decisive in the overthrow of the Girondins in May–June 1793. Hanriot was elected permanent commander in chief of the Guard, thanks to the favour of the radical sections. A loyal supporter of Robespierre in his persecution of opponents, Hanriot and Robespierre fell from power in July 1794 and were guillotined together.
Henry I, King of England
1070-1135. Son of William the Conqueror and Matilda of Flanders.
Henry VII, Tudor, King of England
1457-1509. Reigned 1485-1509. Henry Tudor was the posthumous son of Edmund Tudor, 1st Earl of Richmond, a half-brother of King Henry VI of England. His mother was Margaret Beaufort, a descendant of King Edward III through John of Gaunt and Katherine Swynford. From his father, he inherited the title Earl of Richmond; from his mother, his questionable claim to the throne of England. He was born in Pembroke, Wales, but grew up in exile in Brittany, having fled from the Yorkist kings of England. He was the founder of the Tudor dynasty, unifying the warring factions in the Wars of the Roses. Although supported by Lancastrians and Yorkists alienated by Richard III's usurpation, Henry VII's first task was to secure his position. In 1486 he married Elizabeth of York, eldest daughter of Edward IV, thus uniting the Houses of York and Lancaster.
BkI:Chap4:Sec3 His time in Brittany.
BkX:Chap5:Sec2 In Westminster Abbey, the Lady chapel he had built now bears his name. The chapel has a spectacular fan-vaulted roof and the craftsmanship of the Italian sculptor Torrigiano can be seen in Henry’s fine tomb. The banners of the Knights of the Order of the Bath surround the walls. The tomb of Lady Elizabeth Nightingale (by Roubiliac 1705-1762) shows her being attacked by Death with a spear.
BkXXXVI:Chap11:Sec3 His account books.
Henry VIII, Henry Tudor, King of England
1491-1547. King of England and Lord of Ireland (later King of Ireland) from 1509 until his death, he was the second monarch of the Tudor dynasty, succeeding his father, Henry VII. He is famous for having been married six times and for wielding the most untrammelled power of any British monarch. Notable events during his reign included the break with Rome and the subsequent establishment of the independent Church of England, the Dissolution of the Monasteries, and the union of England and Wales.
BkX:Chap5:Sec2 In June 1520 Henry met Francis I of France between Guines and Ardres, not far from Calais, in France, for the purpose of arranging an alliance. Both kings brought large retinues, and the name given the meeting place reflects the unexampled splendour of the pageantry. The political consequences were negligible.
BkXII:Chap1:Sec1 Chateaubriand’s perception of his reign.
BkXII:Chap5:Sec1 Henry used Richmond Palace but later exchanged it for Hampton Court, built by Cardinal Wolsey.
BkXX:Chap9:Sec1 His break with Rome, the Act of Supremacy of 1534.
BkXXVII:Chap11:Sec1 As a famous Englishman.
BkXXX:Chap2:Sec2 His schism with Rome.
d. 1838. A member of the National Assembly during the Revolution, he belonged to the party of the Mountain, and was a colleague of Robespierre and Saint Just. After the death of Robespierre he was proscribed by the convention, and sentenced to imprisonment for life in the Castle of Ham, but lived in concealment, under the assumed name of Arnold, for a number of years. Having cast his vote for the death of Louis XVI, he was excepted from the general amnesty on the restoration of the Bourbons, and was ordered to leave France in thirty days; and, accordingly, with all his family, except one son, who remained in Paris, on the 21st of January, 1816, the day on which Louis XVI was beheaded, he sailed from Havre for the United States. From Towanda he removed to Pittsburgh, where be died in 1838.
A commune in the northwestern suburbs of Paris, it is located 12.5 miles from the centre of Paris.
BkXXXI:Chap8:Sec1 Chateaubriand was there in July 1830.
Hercé, Mgr Urbain-René de
1726-1795. Bishop of Dol 1767-1790. Born Mayenne 6th February 1726, he took refuge in England in October 1792. He was Grand-Almoner of the Royal Catholic Army with the powers of an apostolic-vicar. Taken prisoner in the hospital at Quiberon he was shot after the Quiberon landing.
Hercé, Abbé François de
1733-1795. Younger brother of Urbain, he was born in Mayenne. He was shot after the Quiberon landing.
Herculaneum (Herculanum, Erculano)
The ancient Roman town, on the Gulf of Naples was destroyed, along with Pompeii, in the eruption of Mount Vesuvius in AD 79.
The Hero, son of Jupiter, was set in the sky as the constellation Hercules between Lyra and Corona Borealis.
BkVI:Chap5:Sec1 BkXXXI:Chap1:Sec2 His pillars, at the entrance to the Mediterranean, were, in ancient times, the limits of the western world (namely Mount Abyla in North Africa, near Ceuta, and Mount Calpe, Gibraltar, well south-east of Seville).
BkXI:Chap3:Sec2 His heroic strength.
BkXVI:Chap8:Sec1 Hercules Ogmius, the Celtic Hercules, was shown with multitudes following him, drawn by fine chains of gold and amber inserted into their ears, the chains proceeding from his mouth.
BkXXVII:Chap3:Sec2 A reference to his period as a slave to Queen Omphale of Lydia when he dressed in women’s clothes and did their work. Chateaubriand applies it to Metternich, to Guizot, and the Countess von Lieven.
Herder, Johann Gottfried
1744-1803. German poet, critic, theologian and philosopher, is best known for his influence on authors such as Goethe and the role he played in the development of the larger cultural movement known as Romanticism.
A miser, he appears in epigram 171 of the Palatine Anthology Book XI.
Hermus (Gediz), River
The river drains a large area of the central Aegean region of western Turkey.
A priestess of Venus, she loved Leander. He swam across the Hellespont to visit her. One night he was drowned, and she followed. See Marlowe and Chapman’s poem, and Byron’s Don Juan Canto II (Byron repeated the swim in 1810)
Herod, the Great
c73-4BC. King of Judea 37-4, he was supported by Mark Antony as Roman ruler in Judea.
BkXLII:Chap17:Sec1 The reference appears to be a concatenation of Luke XIII:1 and Acts of the Apostles XII.
c484-c425BC. The Greek historian, born at Halicarnassus, was exiled for political reasons to Samos. He subsequently moved to Athens and then to the Athenian colony of Thurii in Southern Italy. His account of the Graeco-Persian Wars in nine books made him the first critical historian, and the ‘Father of History’.
BkVIII:Chap7:Sec1 Chateaubriand refers to Histories III:102-105.
BkXXXVII:Chap14:Sec1 For the Psylli and the Nasamonians see Histories IV:170-176.
Herschel, Friedrich Wilhelm
1738-1822. English astronomer (born in Germany) who discovered infrared light, catalogued the stars and discovered the planet Uranus in 1781.
BkXII:Chap5:Sec1 Among the many telescopes he constructed was his 40 foot focal length reflecting telescope, used in 1789 to discover new moons of Saturn. He had already discovered Uranus in 1781 using a smaller telescope, while observing from his house in Bath.
1750-1848. Noted discoverer of comets, worked with her brother William.
The Greek word means Western, and was applied by the Greeks to Italy and subsequently by the Romans to Spain.
In Greek mythology, daughters of Atlas, they lived in a fabulous garden located at the western extremity of the world. There they guarded (with the aid of the dragon Ladon) a tree that bore golden apples. Hercules killed the dragon and obtained the apples as one of his 12 labours. Among the names given to them are Aegle (‘dazzling light’), Erytheia (or Erytheis), and Hesperia (or Hespere or Hespereia)
In west-central Germany, one of the sixteen federal states (Bundesländer) its capital city is Wiesbaden (Kassel until 1945 ) while its economic centre and largest city is nearby Frankfurt and the surrounding Rhine Main Area.
BkXXVI:Chap8:Sec1 Following the reorganization of the German states in 1803, the markgraviate was raised to a principality and Landgrave Wilhelm IX took the title Wilhelm I, Elector of Hesse. The principality became known as Kurhessen, although still usually referred to as Hesse-Kassel. In 1806, Wilhelm I was dispossessed by Napoleon for his support of Prussia, and Kassel became the capital of a new Kingdom of Westphalia under Napoleon’s brother Jérôme. The Elector was restored following Napoleon’s defeat in 1813, and although the Holy Roman Empire was now defunct, Wilhelm retained his title of Elector, as it gave him pre-eminence over his cousin, the Grand Duke of Hesse-Darmstadt. In 1866 Hesse was annexed by Prussia.
Heyden, Sigismund Ludwig Gustaf, Admiral Count
1772-1850. Commander-in-chief of the Russian squadron at the Battle of Navarino, he was made a full Admiral in1834.
BkXXIX:Chap13:Sec2 Commander of a squadron in the Mediterranean in 1828.
Heygate, Sir William
MP for Sudbury (1818-1826). Lord Mayor of London in 1822.
BkXXVII:Chap3:Sec1 The Lord Mayor’s Barge mentioned.
Congregations of hermits living according to the rule of St Augustine with supplementary regulations taken from St Jerome’s writings. Their habit was white, with a black cloak. Established near Toledo in 1374, the order soon became popular in Spain and Portugal, and in 1415 it numbered 25 houses. It possessed some of the most famous monasteries in the Peninsula, including the royal monastery of Belem near Lisbon, and the magnificent monastery built by Philip II at the Escorial. The order decayed during the 18th century and was completely suppressed in 1835.
BkXX:Chap7:Sec2 The Escorial congregation.
d 368. Bishop of Poitiers, he opposed Arianism. Exiled to Phrygia he wrote De Trinitate in twelve volumes.
Hildebert, Le Vénérable
c1056-1133. Bishop of Le Mans (1096–1125), and archbishop of Tours (1125–33). He was taken prisoner when Le Mans was captured (1099) by William II of England and was carried away to England, where he spent a year. When he was at Tours he came into conflict with Louis VI of France over the king's supposed right to present the deanery of Tours. Hildebert attended the First Lateran Council. He completed the cathedral at Le Mans. He was one of the most prolific writers of his period; especially noteworthy are his Latin hymns and poems. He wrote several elegies, a mythological poem on the destruction of Troy, lives of St. Hugh of Cluny and St. Mary of Egypt, and miscellaneous works, such as an interpretation of the Mass.
BkVIII:Chap5:Sec3 His Poem The Ruins of Athens, in The Ruins of Athens, Titania's Banquet, A Mask; and other Poems (1842).
Hingant de la Tiemblais (or Thiemblaye), François-Marie
1761-1827. A Councillor in the High Court of Brittany, he was a former colleague of Chateaubriand’s brother. He emigrated to England with Chateaubriand.
BkXXXIV:Chap8:Sec1 His friendship with Chateaubriand in London in 1793.
BkX:Chap6:Sec2 Rescued from extreme poverty by his relatives.
BkX:Chap10:Sec1 His absence.
BkXXIX:Chap1:Sec5 Chateaubriand remembers him.
He was involved in a conspiracy with Arthur de Montauban.
Hingray, Charles Joseph
1796-1870. A Republican and a Deputy to the National Assembly in 1848.
BkXXXII:Chap11:Sec1 A member of the Republican Municipal Commission in July 1830.
An English Sailor on the ship taking Napoleon to Elba in 1814.
BkXXII:Chap 20:Sec3 Mentioned.
c460-c377 BC. A Greek physician, he travelled widely in Greece and Asia Minor and whose followers influenced medical science until the 18th century.
BkV:Chap11:Sec1 Mentioned as a pioneer of medicine.
BkX:Chap4:Sec1 The medical profession generally are his followers.
BkXVIII:Chap5:Sec2 The epigram referred to is in the Palatine Anthology IX:53
Histoire philosophique des deux Indes
A work (1780) by Guillaume-Thomas Raynal (1713-1796) that strongly condemned European colonialism for destroying cultures and peoples.
Hoche, General Lazare
1768-1797. A French general in the French Revolutionary Wars, he was given command of the army of the Moselle. In 1793, he drove the Austrians across the Rhine. Accused of treason by his rival, General Pichegru, he was imprisoned in 1794. After his release, he was given the command in the Vendée. He pacified (1795) that province, but his attempted invasion of Ireland (1796) was thwarted by bad weather. In 1797 he defeated the Austrians at Neuwied. He died of consumption.
BkXX:Chap1:Sec1 His ill luck mentioned.
BkXXII:Chap15:Sec1 A great general of the Republic.
BkXXIV:Chap7:Sec1 His victories paved the way for later achievements.
The 1st Battle of Hochstadt (on the left bank of the Danube in Bavaria, 34 miles north-east of Ulm)) was fought on September 20, 1703, and resulted in a French-Bavarian victory under General Villars against the Austrians under General Stirum. The 2nd battle (known in England as Blenheim) was fought at the town of Blenheim (now Blindheim) on the Danube River, 10 miles southwest of Donauwörth in Bavaria, and engaged about 52,000 English and Austrian troops under Marlborough and Eugene, and about 60,000 French and Bavarian troops under the French marshal Camille, Comte de Tallard. The 3rd Battle of Hochstadt was fought on June 19, 1800 and resulted in a French victory under General Moreau against the Austrians under General Kray.
BkXX:Chap2:Sec1 The 3rd Battle.
Hocquart, Henriette Pourrat, Madame
Daughter of the banker, Pourrat. Wife (1789) of Gilles Toussaint Hocquart de Turtot (1765-1835), Baron of the Empire, Peer under the Restoration, she was the sister of Madame Lecoulteux, whom Chénier wrote of as ‘Fanny’.
1767-1810. A Tyrolean innkeeper and patriot, he was the leader of a rebellion in 1809 against Napoleon’s forces. Captured by Italian troops on January 2, 1810, he was sent to Mantua in chains to face a court martial. Reportedly Napoleon had given an order to ‘give him a fair trial and then shoot him’ (although he later claimed to Prince Metternich that Hofer was executed against his wishes). Andreas Hofer was executed by a firing squad on February 20, 1810. He refused a blindfold.
BkXX:Chap5:Sec3 His death.
Hohenhausen, Elise, Baronin von
1789-1857. The daughter of General Adam Ludwig von Ochs, she was a translator of Byron and Scott who ran a famous literary salon in Berlin (1820-1824). She discovered Heine in Hamburg and promoted his work.
Hohenlinden, Battle of
The Battle of Hohenlinden near Munich was fought on December 3, 1800, during the French Revolutionary Wars. It resulted in a French victory under General Moreau against the Austrians and Bavarians under Archduke John, forcing him to sign an armistice.
c1497-1543. A German painter, born in Augsburg, in 1515 he settled in Basel where he designed the woodcuts of The Dance of Death. Through Erasmus he obtained the patronage of Sir Thomas More in England (1526-28). He settled in England in 1532 and became court painter to Henry VIII. His father Hans Holbein the Elder (c1465-1524) was also a painter.
BkV:Chap14:Sec1 BkXXXV:Chap11:Sec1 The Dance of Death woodcuts, were designed by Holbein and engraved by Hans Lütszelberger: the series of forty-one dates from around 1524-1527. The prints were collected in a volume produced at Lyons in 1538 and reproduced throughout Europe. The watercolour Chateaubriand saw was Feyerband’s 17th century reconstruction of the original fresco, not Holbein’s work but dating from around 1440. The fragments were rediscovered in 1805 and are in the Basel museum.
Holbourn, London, England
The area of London is named after a tributary to the river Fleet that flowed through the area, the Hole-bourne (the stream in the hollow). Holborn is also the name of the area’s principal east-west street, straddling the borders of the London Borough of Camden, the City of Westminster and the City of London.
BkX:Chap4:Sec1 Chateaubriand’s attic lodging there was at the far western end of Holborn somewhere between the British Museum and Tottenham Court Road.
BkXI:Chap2:Sec1 Chateaubriand lived at 50 Rathbone Place, near St Giles Circus, then from January to August 1797 at 15 Greville Street, Holborn, his editor’s house. From January to August 1798 he was at 12 Hampstead Road (now 127-129 opposite St James). At the end of 1798 and 1799 he was at 11 Upper Seymour Street (Now number 20) near Portman Square. In the spring of 1799 however he was living in Fitzroy Sqaure.
Holland, Henry Richard Vassall Fox, 3rd Baron
1773-1840. A British politician, nephew of Charles James Fox, he was a member of the Whig opposition party from 1797 and served as Lord Privy Seal in the coalition ministry of 1806–7. When the Whigs returned to power, he served as the chancellor of the duchy of Lancaster (1830–34, 1835–40). He was best known for his influence on literature, politics, and letters through the hospitality that Holland House in London provided for the brilliant and distinguished people of his day. His son the 4th baron edited Holland's Foreign Reminiscences (1850) and Memoirs of the Whig Party (1852).
BkXII:Chap3:Sec1 Mentioned as a man of letters in 1822.
BkXXIV:Chap11:Sec1 Spoke in the Lords on the 18th May 1817 regarding the conditions of Napoleon’s imprisonment on St Helena.
BkXXVII:Chap2:Sec1 Chateaubriand hears him speak in 1822.
Hollfeld (Hohlfeld), Bavaria
A town in the district of Bayreuth, in Bavaria, Germany, it is situated 20 km west of Bayreuth, and 30 km east of Bamberg.
BkXLI:Chap7:Sec1 Chateaubriand there again in late September 1833.
(Apocrypha) The Assyrian general was decapitated by the biblical heroine Judith.
Holstein, Christian von Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Augustenburg, Crown Prince of Sweden
1768-1810. Chosen by the Swedish States on the 14th of June 1809 as heir to the Swedish crown, he was the King of Denmark’s brother in law. He died on the 28th of May 1810.
The Palace of Holyroodhouse, or informally Holyrood Palace, founded as a monastery by David I of Scotland in 1128, served as the principal residence of the Kings and Queens of Scotland from the 15th century. The Palace stands in Edinburgh at the bottom of the Royal Mile.
fl. c 8th century BC. The Greek epic poet is known as the author of the Iliad, concerning the Trojan War, and the Odyssey, concerning the wanderings of Odysseus after the War. Believed to have been born in Ionia, in Asia Minor, and according to legend was blind. He is the archetypal great poet, whose work profoundly influenced Western Civilisation.
BkV:Chap6:Sec1 His genius.
BkVI:Chap5:Sec1 Mentioned as writer of the Odyssey.
BkVII:Chap10:Sec1 His imagined giants.
BkIX:Chap9:Sec1 A travelling copy of his works.
BkIX:Chap14:Sec1 Chateaubriand refers to Odyssey IV:601-609. Telemachus is speaking about Ithaca, the island unfit for horses, to Menelaus who is described as α̉γαθος Μενέλαος, Menelaus of the loud war-cry.
BkX:Chap4:Sec1 Subject of a poets’ toast.
BkX:Chap9:Sec1 Subject of interest to a Hellenist.
BkXII:Chap1:Sec1 For the Prayers, and their ‘halting gait’ see Iliad IX:502. Creator of Classical literature.
BkXVII:Chap1:Sec1 For the Gate of Ivory through which false dreams pass, see Odyssey XIX:526-527 as well as Virgil’s Aeneid VI:893-896.
BkXVIII:Chap3Sec5 The exemplar of Greek literature.
BkXVIII:Chap5:Sec2 A broken plaster bust of him.
BkXXIV:Chap8:Sec1 As writer of the Iliad.
BkXXV:Chap6:Sec1 Chateaubriand had a Greek copy of his works, an Iliad and Odyssey published by Wettstein of Amstedam in 1707, with facing page Latin translation. He rebound this in 12 volumes, and kept only the first three (Iliad I-XII) in 1817.
BkXXVII:Chap5:Sec1 The ‘laughter of the gods’ in Homer.
BkXXVIII:Chap11:Sec1 Every educated man should possess his works.
BkXXVIII:Chap15:Sec1 The epithets associated with his deities, e.g. ‘bright-eyed’ Athene.
BkXXXVI:Chap11:Sec1 See Odyssey XIV.
BkXXXVI:Chap11:Sec3 His blindness.
BkXXXIX:Chap3:Sec1 Mentioned in Voltaire’s Candide.
BkXXXIX:Chap21:Sec1 Ios is an island in the Cyclades group in the Aegean Sea between Naxos and Santorini. Ancient tradition claimed that Homer’s mother was from Ios, and that he himself was buried on the island - there are signs of Mycenaean settlement.
c350-429. Early in the 5th century Honoratus founded an abbey on St Honorat in the Lérin Isles, following the collapse of Roman power in the north of Gaul, one of the oldest in France. The abbey adapted the Benedictine rules early-on, and had many illustrious Bishops and Saints. Honoratus himself was Bishop of Arles for the last two years of his life (429-430).
Honoria, Justa Grata Augusta
417-c455. After plotting against her brother, the sister of the Western Roman Emperor Valentinian III, was hurriedly betrothed to Flavius Bassus Herculanus, a senatorial nonentity: at which point she achieved her greatest notoriety, writing a letter to Attila the Hun in spring 450 asking him to save her from the unwanted marriage. Taking the letter — which came with her ring as proof it was sent by her — as a betrothal and thus an invitation to invade the Western Roman Empire, using the letter as his excuse and ‘asking for half of the western Empire as dowry’, Attila ravaged Gaul and Italy from 451 to 453. Only the influence of their mother Galla Placidia convinced Valentinian to exile, rather than kill, Honoria, after the emperor discovered his sister’s plan.
384-423. Emperor of the West 395-423. Son of Theodosius I, he was a puppet Emperor initially controlled by his father-in-law, the Vandal general Stilicho. After the Visigothic invasion of Italy in 402, Honorius and the imperial court retired from Milan to the inaccessible and heavily defended city of Ravenna. Only rarely did later emperors reside for any length of time elsewhere. Meanwhile, palace intrigues resulted in Stilicho’s assassination in 408, and Honorius was left to deal with Alaric and the Visigoths. The indecisive Emperor influenced first by one adviser and then another vacillated between resistance and conciliation. The end result was the sack of Rome in 410.
BkXXIX:Chap2:Sec2 The anecdote is from Procopius (The Vandal War: I:2) ‘Honorius raised a hen called Rome.’
Hospital, Michel, Chancelier de l’,
1505-1573. A native of the Auvergne, he was Chancellor of France, appointed by Catherine de Medici. He was a Humanist and advocate of religious toleration, and guided the young Charles IX. He later retired to Vignay.
Horace, Quintus Horatius Flaccus
65-8BC. The Roman poet employed Greek metres in his brilliant Odes and Epodes, and also wrote his Satires, poems of Roman social and political life.
BkI:Chap1:Sec1 BkXXIX:Chap14:Sec1 Chateaubriand quotes the Odes: BookI: XI, from the famous ode containing the phrase carpe diem: ‘seize the day’, the quotation actually referring to time rather than space (spatio brevi spem longam reseces).
BkII:Chap3:Sec4 An unexpurgated Horace falls into the young man’s hands.
BkVII:Chap8:Sec2 Chateaubriand quotes the Odes: Book I: VII line 13.
BkXII:Chap3:Sec1 The precise cadences in the classical pronunciation of his work are unknown today.
BkXVIII:Chap3Sec5 The quotation is from Epodes XVI:41-42
BkXXX:Chap4:Sec1 BkXXXV:Chap15:Sec1 BkXXXVIII:Chap5:Sec1 Horace travelled the Via Tiburtina on his way to and from Rome. His farm was in the Sabine Hills, north-east of Rome. He may also have had a villa in Tibur.
BkXXX:Chap13:Sec1 His villa in Rome (unknown). His mention of Lydia in the Odes.
BkXXXVI:Chap10:Sec1 For Carpe diem see Odes I:11 lines 7-8.
BkXXXIX:Chap3:Sec1 Mentioned in Voltaire’s Candide. See Satires I:5 for the Journey to Brundisium.
BkXLI:Chap1:Sec1 See Odes I:2 lines 7-8.
Horatius Cocles, 6th Century BC, was a legendary hero of ancient Rome. With two companions he defended the Sublician Bridge against Lars Porsena and the army of the Etruscans, while the Romans cut down the bridge behind. Horatius then threw himself into the Tiber and swam in safety to the shore. A statue was erected in his honour in the temple of Vulcan, and he received as much land as he could plough around in a single day. According to another version, Horatius alone defended the bridge, and was drowned in the Tiber. See Livy II.10, who does not refer to the wound.
BkI:Chap5:Sec2 Chateaubriand refers to his cognomen, Cocles, the one-eyed.
Horrion, J., Le Père
A Jesuit priest, he found a manuscript of Livy’s Books 3 and 30 at Bamberg in 1615.
Hortense de Beauharnais, Queen of Holland, then Duchesse de Saint-Leu
1783-1837. The Queen of Holland (1806–10), daughter of Alexandre and Josephine de Beauharnais and wife of Louis Bonaparte, she was the mother of Napoleon III and by her lover, the Comte de Flahaut, of the Duc de Morny.
BkXX:Chap5:Sec3 She had three sons by her husband, one by her lover.
BkXXXV:Chap18:Sec1 Mentioned in 1832.
Houdetot, Elisabeth-Francoise-Sophie de la Live de Bellegarde, Comtesse d’
1730-1813. Married to the Comte de Houdetot in 1748, in 1753 she formed with the Marquis de Saint-Lambert a connection which lasted till his death. Mme de Houdetot has been made famous by the chapter in Rousseau’s Confessions in which he describes his unrequited passion for her. When questioned on the subject she replied that he had much exaggerated. A view differing considerably from Rousseau’s is to be found in the Mémoires of Mme d’Épinay, Mme de Houdetot’s sister.
BkXIV:Chap1:Sec2 Present at Le Marais.
BkXVII:Chap2:Sec1 A survivor from the age of philosophy.
Hougoumont, Manor of
A fortified manor-farm on the field of Waterloo, it was heroically defended by the Allies.
Huart for Huard de Saint-Aubin, Léonard Jean Aubry, Baron General
1779-1812. A Napoleonic General killed at Borodino in 1812, he fought in Italy and at Wagram.
Revolutionary general in the Army of the West, he was denounced for his cruelty in the Vendée, having been supported by Robespierre.
Hudson Bay Company
Hudson Bay is a vast shallow oceanic bay in North Central Canada, linked to the Atlantic Ocean by the Hudson Strait, and the Arctic Ocean by Foxe Channel. It is frozen during the winter. The Hudson Bay Company formed in 1670 was a fur-trading company given settlement and trading rights in Canada. Its first governor was Prince Rupert. After uniting with its rival the Northwest Company in 1821 it maintained a monopoly until 1859. It sold its territory to Canada in 1870 but remained a major fur-trading agency headquartered in London.
In the north-east USA, the Hudson River flows from the Adirondack Mountains to New York Bay, where it forms part of New York Harbour. An important commercial waterway linked by canals to the Great Lakes and the St Lawrence Seaway.
BkVII:Chap2:Sec1 Chateaubriand sailed up-river in 1791.
1802-1885. The Poet dramatist and novelist of the romantic school of the 19th century, whose most famous works in English are his two epic novels The Hunchback of Notre Dame (1831) and Les Misérables (1862). He was exiled in 1851 by Napoleon III, but returned to France in 1870 in triumph, and his final years marked by public veneration.
BkXXII:Chap15:Sec2 The quotation is from Buonaparte (Odes 1:11)
Hugues, see Capet
Hulin, Comte Pierre-Auguste, General
1759-1841. Commander of the Paris National Guard, then had a military career in Italy etc. He was commandant of the Castle of Milan in 1797-8, commander of the Consular Grenadier Guard from 1803. He campaigned in Austria and Germany, commanding in Vienna and Berlin. He returned to Paris as Commander of the 1st Military Division (Paris) till 1814.
BkXVI:Chap4:Sec1 BkXXII:Chap1:Sec1 Wounded in the jaw, in Malet’s attempt on the Emperor’s life in 1812. He issued a pamphlet regarding the Duc d’Enghien’s trial in 1823, Explications offertes aux hommes impartiaux.
Humboldt, Friedrich Wilhelm Karl Heinrich Alexander von
1769-1859. A scientist and explorer, he explored Central and South America (1799-1784) with Aimé Bompland (1773-1858). He subsequently explored Central Asia. His great work Kosmos (1845-1862) set out his views on the universe. The Humboldt Current and Glacier were named for him.
Humboldt, Karl Wilhelm von
1767-1835. German scholar and statesman, and brother of Alexander, he was a friend of Schiller and Goethe. He founded Berlin University in 1809, and was subsequently employed as a diplomat. His writing on ‘language’ was innovative. The Prussian Ambassador in Rome, he received Madame de Staël in 1805.
BkXXVI:Chap3:Sec1 In Berlin in 1821.
1711-1776. Scottish philosopher and historian whose sceptical arguments concerning induction, causation and religion, including the thesis that human knowledge arises only from sensory experience, shaped 19th- and 20th-century empiricist philosophy. His works include A Treatise of Human Nature (1739–1740) and History of England (1754–1762).
A canton and a commune in Alsace, France. Now part of the Haut-Rhin département, on the left bank of the Rhine, the town originally passed by purchase to Louis XIV. It was fortified by Vauban and a bridge built across the Rhine. The fortress capitulated to the Austrians in August 1815 and the works were shortly afterwards dismantled. In 1871, the town passed, with Alsace-Lorraine, to the German empire. Alsace-Lorraine returned to France after the First World War, was retaken by Germany in 1940, and finally returned to France once again in 1945.
Hunt, James Henry Leigh
1784-1859. The English poet, critic, and journalist, he was a friend of the eminent literary men of his time, and his home was the gathering place for such notable writers as Hazlitt, Lamb, Keats, and Shelley. With his brother John, Hunt established in 1808 the Examiner, a liberal weekly to which he contributed political articles. Because of an outspoken article casting aspersions on the prince regent, the brothers were imprisoned from 1813 to 1815, but they continued to edit the journal from jail. In 1822, Hunt joined Shelley and Byron in Italy and launched the Liberal (1822–23), which proved a failure. During other periods Hunt contributed to the Indicator (1819–21), the Tatler (1830–32), and Leigh Hunt's London Journal (1834–35). His literary fame rests chiefly on his miscellaneous light essays, his lyrics “Abou Ben Adhem” and “Jenny Kissed Me,” and his witty and informative autobiography (1850). The Story of Rimini (1816), based on the love of Paolo and Francesca, is his only long poem of consequence.
BkXII:Chap3:Sec1 Mentioned as a recognised living poet in 1822.
Huss, John (Jan Hus)
c1369-1415. A Czech religious thinker, philosopher, reformer, and master at Charles University in Prague. His followers became known as Hussites. The Roman Catholic Church considered his teachings heretical, and Hus was excommunicated in 1411, condemned by the Council of Constance, and burned at the stake.
Hyacinthe, see Pilorge
Hyde de Neuville, Jeane-Guillaume, Baron
1776-1857. A French aristocrat, diplomat, and politician, he was the son of Guillaume Hyde, who belonged to an English family which had emigrated with the Stuarts after the rebellion of 1745. He was only seventeen when he successfully defended a man denounced by Fouché before the revolutionary tribunal of Nevers. From 1793 onwards he was an active agent of the exiled princes: he took part in the Royalist rising in Berry in 1796, and after the 18 Brumaire coup tried to persuade Napoleon to recall the monarchy. An accusation of complicity in the conspiracy of 1800-1801 was speedily retracted, but Hyde de Neuville retired to the United States, returning only at the Restoration. He represented France in the United States (1816-1820), Brazil (1820-1822) and Portugal (1823-4), before becoming Minister for the Navy in Martignac’s cabinet of 1828. After the revolution of July 1830 he entered an all but solitary protest against the exclusion of the legitimate line of the Bourbons from the throne, and resigned his seat. His Mémoires et souvenirs (1888), compiled from his notes are of great interest for the Revolution and the Restoration. He was a close friend of Chateaubriand whom he met in Cadiz in the spring of 1807.
BkXXVII:Chap10:Sec1 Mentioned in Paris in August 1822.
BkXXVIII:Chap3:Sec1 Chateaubriand writes to him in Portugal in 1824. Hyde de Neuville was involved in defending the monarchy of Jean VI against the attempts of his son Dom Miguel to take power. He proposed that the French troops in Spain be moved there. Canning then demanded his recall, which was effected December 1824.
BkXXXII:Chap8:Sec1 Appointed as a Commissioner on the 30th July 1830 to confer with the Peers.
BkXXXII:Chap10:Sec1 In the Chamber of Peers on 30th July 1830.
The spa resort is in southern France, in the Var department on the French Riviera. Offshore are the Îles de Hyères, a small group of islands including Porquerolles.
BkXXX:Chap5:Sec1 Thierry writes to Chateaubriand from there in 1829.
Hygieia was a daughter of Asclepius (Aesculapius). She was the goddess of health, cleanliness and sanitation (and later: the moon), and played an important part in her father's cult. She was often depicted as a young woman feeding a large snake wrapped around her body. Sometimes the snake would be drinking from a jar that she carried. These attributes were later adopted by the Gallo-Roman healing goddess, Sirona.
Hymettus, Hymettos, Mount
A mountain in Attica south of Athens, it was famous for its wild-flower pasture for bees (See Pausanias I 32 i.) and had a shrine and statue of Zeus of Rain and Far-seeing. (The long Hymettos ridge bounds the plain of Attica on the east, made up of bluish-grey Hymettian marble overlying Pentelic marble, which was worked in ancient times. The hills were then heavily forested.)
BkXVIII:Chap1:Sec1 The thyme there. Chateaubriand visited in 1806.
BkXXVI:Chap1:Sec1 The mountain range near Athens.