François de Chateaubriand
Mémoires d’Outre-Tombe: Index F
1599-1662. A soldier and administrator admired by Richelieu and Mazarin. He became a Marshal in 1650, but nevertheless refused the blue ribbon of the Order of the Holy Spirit that the young Louis XIV wished to confer on him in 1661.
Fabre d’Églantine, Philippe-François Nazaire
1755-1794. A French dramatist and revolutionist, his chief work, Le Philinte de Molière (1790), was a sequel to Molière’s Le Misanthrope. A member of the Convention, he was selected to devise the names for the months and days of the French Revolutionary calendar. He was guillotined during the Terror.
BkIX:Chap4:Sec2 His fate.
1780-1821. He was a writer of Napoleonic history amongst other works.
BkXIX:Chap9:Sec1 His Biographies of Living Men, and Les Missionaires de 93 (1819).
BkXXII:Chap 20:Sec3 His pamphlet Itinéraire de Buonaparte, 1814.
Fabvier, Charles-Nicolas, Baron
1782-1855. A Napoleonic colonel, he was wounded at Salamanca, Borodino and beneath the walls of Paris. He was Marmont’s aide-de-camp in Russia, and accompanied him in 1817 to pacify Lyons. He fought for Greek independence between 1823 and 1826, and in the Morea in 1828, and in 1830 took part in the July Revolution, being nominated the Commander of Paris and a Peer of France. He was later ambassador to Constantinople and Denmark.
BkXXI:Chap4:Sec3 In Russia in 1812.
BkXXII:Chap12:Sec1 He signed the surrender of Paris in 1814.
BkXXVIII:Chap9:Sec1 A member of the Greek committee in 1825.
An old Italian town, situated 50 km southeast of Bologna. Faenza is noted for its manufacture of majolica ware, known from the name of the town as ‘faience’.
BkXXIX:Chap2:Sec2 Chateaubriand was there in October 1828.
Fain, Agathon Jean-François, Baron
1778-1837. Under the French Consulate he entered the office of the secretary of state, in the department of the archives. In 1806 he was appointed secretary and archivist to the cabinet particulier of the emperor, whom he attended on his campaigns and journeys. He was created a baron of the empire in 1809, and, on the fall of Napoleon, was first secretary of the cabinet and confidential secretary. Among a number of histories, noted for their accuracy and knowledge, he wrote Manuscrit de l’an 1812 (1827).
She was a member of the nobility of Rome in 1828.
Roman Falernian was made from the Aminean grape in the Campania Felix (blessed country) region of Italy. The vineyards occupied the hillsides of Mt. Falernus south of the city of Naples.
BkXXXVIII:Chap10:Sec1 The wine mentioned.
Falkland, Lucius Carey, Viscount
1610-1643. He was Secretary of State to Charles I, and died at the First Battle of Newbury, where the Royalists marginally won a tactical victory.
BkIX:Chap11:Sec1 His realism about the outcome. He sacrificed his parliamentary convictions to the Royalist cause.
A pseudonym used by Armand de Chateaubriand.
A town and comune of the province of Pesaro and Urbino in the Marche region of Italy. It is a coastal resort 12 km southeast of Pesaro, located where the Via Flaminia reaches the Adriatic Sea.
BkXXIX:Chap2:Sec3 Chateaubriand there in 1828.
Farcy de Montvallon, Annibal-Pierre-François
Born 1749. Brother-in-law of Chateaubriand. Captain in the Condé Regiment. Married Julie-Marie-Agathe de Chateaubriand 22nd April 1782, separated 1792.
BkII:Chap7:Sec5 His marriage to Julie.
Farcy de Montvallon, Julie-Marie-Agathe de Chateabriand, Comtesse de
1763-1799 Born 2nd September 1763, she was the wife of Annibal. Sister of Chateaubriand, she married in 1782, and separated in 1792. She was imprisoned 1793-4, and died 25th July 1799.
BkI:Chap1:Sec8 Mentioned as having a true poetic gift.
BkI:Chap2:Sec1 Her birth.
BkII:Chap8:Sec1 Her only daughter Zoé married in 1814.
BkIII:Chap14:Sec3 Chateaubriand refers to her having died.
BkIV:Chap10:Sec1 Her dislike of the provincial life.
BkIV:Chap10:Sec3 Her return to Paris perhaps early in 1788.
BkV:Chap7:Sec1 She wished to return to Paris in 1789 following a trip to Brittany.
BkV:Chap8:Sec1 Arrived in Paris with Chateaubriand on 30th June 1789.
BkIX:Chap2:Sec1 Travelled to Paris with Chateaubriand in mid-1792.
BkX:Chap8:Sec1 BkX:Chap8:Sec2 BkXXXV:Chap6:Sec1 Arrested at Fougères, with Celeste and Lucile, in mid-October 1793. Imprisoned in the town and then transferred to the Convent du Bon-Pasteur at Rennes. Released 5th November 1794.
BkXI:Chap4:Sec1 Julie wrote to London in July and September 1798.
BkXII:Chap6:Sec1 Mentioned, as having died during Chateaubriand’s exile in England.
BkXXX:Chap14:Sec1 Her good works.
1800-1830. A poet and philosopher he was killed in the July Revolution. His friends published a collection of his verse and philosophic work in 1831.
BkXXXII:Chap5:Sec1 He was killed at the corner of the Rue de Rohan and the Rue de Montpensier.
Faria, Joseph, Abbé
1755-1819. A magnetist whose name Dumas borrowed for use in The Count of Monte Christo.
BkXIV:Chap1:Sec2 His experiment with magnetism.
Also known in Greek mythology as the Moirai, and the Parcae, the three Fates were born of Erebus and Night. Clothed in white, they spin, measure out, and sever the thread of each human life. Clotho spins the thread. Lachesis measures it. Atropos wields the shears.
BkXXIX:Chap1:Sec5 Lachesis may play all three roles.
1762-1829. A printer at Neuchâtel, he was a Bourbon agent during the Revolution, and until 1814. He lived in poverty after returning to his native town, and committed suicide.
He was a member of the Committee for the Medal-Winners of July.
BkXXXV:Chap1:Sec1 Mentioned in April 1832.
1772-1844. Historian, linguist and critic, it was he who made the merits of Ossian and Shakespeare known to the French public and spread in France the knowledge of German literature, which had been previously looked upon as unimportant. He was one of the first to investigate Romance literature. He also gathered the remnants of the ancient Basque and Celtic languages.
BkXIV:Chap2:Sec5 Having been named assistant curator of manuscripts for the Royal Library he published a historical poem in Provencal verse (1837: with a translation and introduction), dealing with the crusade against the Albigenses.
c80-150. A sophist and philosopher, he flourished during the reign of Hadrian. A Gaul by birth, a native of Arles, he travelled widely, became eminent, and knew both Plutarch and Aulus Gellius.
BkXLII:Chap6:Sec1 The Twelve Tables were written by the Decemviri Consulari Imperio Legibus Scribundis,(the 10 Consuls) who were given unprecedented powers to draft the laws of the early Roman Republic.
Favras, Thomas de Mahy, Marquis de
1744-1790. A French royalist, who after the outbreak of the French Revolution, plotted (1789) with the Comte de La Châtre to steal Louis XVI away to Metz and to proclaim the Comte de Provence (later Louis XVIII) regent. The plan allegedly also called for the assassination of Jean Bailly, mayor of Paris, and the Marquis de Lafayette, commander of the National Guard. Denounced by some of his agents, Favras was arrested, but he divulged none of the details of the plot. He was indicted despite lack of incriminating evidence. Arrested on the 25th December 1789, he was hanged on the 19th February 1790.
BkV:Chap11:Sec1 Proceedings against him initiated in late 1789.
BkV:Chap14:Sec1 His hanging mentioned.
BkXXXVI:Chap1:Sec1 His sister mentioned.
It is one of the Azores Islands.
BkVI:Chap4:Sec1 Noted for its wine.
Fayel, Dame de
The subject of a thirteenth century Romance ‘Le Roman du Châtelain de Coucilet et la Dame de Fayel’ which relates the story of Raoul de Couci who had been given by his lover, La Dame de Fayel, braids of her hair as a symbol of her devotion. When he left on the Third Crusade, he carried them with him in a jewelled box. In the heat of the fight he was struck by a poisoned arrow and so instructed a servant to cut out his heart, to put it in the box with the braids and to take it back to his lover with a letter, explaining that his heart belonged to her. The lady’s husband caught the servant and, upon discovering the heart, had it made into a meal for his wife. When she realized that she has eaten her lover’s heart, she refused any food and died soon afterward.
Fayolle, André de
Principal of the Jesuit College at Rennes in 1781.
Feltre, Duc de, Henri-Jacques Guillaume Clarke, Comte de Hunebourg, Marshal of France
1765-1818. A politician of Irish descent, he entered the French army in 1782. He served in the early French Revolutionary Wars in the Army of the Rhine and by 1793 had been promoted to general de brigade. In 1795 Clarke was briefly arrested. After his release, Clarke lived in the Elzas until Lazare Carnot sent him to Italy to serve as Bonaparte’s Chief topographical officer. After 18 Brumaire, he served as Chief of the Topographical Bureau, State Councillor, and state secretary for the army and navy. In 1805, he was appointed governor of Vienna, during the war against Prussia in 1806 he served as governor of Erfurt and of Berlin. In 1807, Napoléon appointed him Minister of War. His role in thwarting the British invasion of Walcheren in 1809 lead to the emperor creating him Duc de Feltre. He served as Minister of War until the end of Napoléon’s reign. When the allies neared Paris, Clarke mounted an ineffectual defense of the capital. After Napoléon’s abdication he was replaced as minister of war but Louis XVIII made him a Peer of France. When Napoléon landed in Southern France in March 1815, Clarke was again made Minister of War and served until the Bourbon government fled. Clarke followed the King to Ghent. After Napoléon's second abdication, Clarke was made Minister of War once more and served in that capacity until 1817 when Gouvion Saint-Cyr took over. He was then given command of the 15th Military Division.
Fénelon, François de Salignac de la Mothe
1651-1715 Archbishop of Cambrai (from 1695): as director from 1678 of an institution for Roman Catholic converts he wrote Traité de l’éducation des filles (1687) criticizing the coercive conversion of Huguenots. As tutor to the Duke of Burgundy, grandson of Louis, he wrote his famous Aventures de Télémaque (1699) for his instruction, which alienated the king while his Explication des maxims des saints (1697) containing a defence of Quietism was condemned by the Pope.
d. 1795. He was a Deputy to the Convention.
BkXIX:Chap10:Sec1 His assassination.
Ferdinand VII de Bourbon, King of Spain
1784-1833 King of Spain 1808 and 1813-1833. Excluded from a role in the government, he became the centre of intrigues against the chief minister Godoy and attempted to win the support of Napoleon I. In 1807 he was arrested by his father, Charles IV, accused of plotting his overthrow and the murder of his mother and Godoy. The prestige of the family was shaken, and this facilitated Napoleon’s invasion of Spain. A palace revolution at Aranjuez (March, 1808) caused the dismissal of Godoy and the abdication of Charles in favour of Ferdinand, who was enthusiastically acclaimed by the people. Ferdinand was soon persuaded to cross the French border and meet Napoleon at Bayonne. There he was forced to renounce his throne in favour of Charles IV, who in turn resigned his rights to Napoleon. The emperor gave the Spanish throne to Joseph Bonaparte. During the Peninsular War (1808–14) Ferdinand was imprisoned in France. When Ferdinand was restored (1814) to his throne, he promptly abolished the liberal constitution. After several unsuccessful uprisings, the Spanish liberals (who had organized in secret societies, e.g., the Carbonari) staged a successful revolution in 1820 and forced the king to reinstate the constitution of 1812. The Holy Alliance became alarmed, and the Congress of Troppau was summoned to deal with the Spanish situation.
BkXVIII:Chap3Sec1 BkXXVIII:Chap1:Sec1 In 1822 he was captured by armed revolutionaries opposed to absolutism. The international powers at the Congress of Verona (October 1822), authorized France to intervene in the conflict and restore Ferdinand to his throne, despite Britain’s objection. In April 1823, French forces led by Louis Antoine de Bourbon, Duke of Angoulême (1775-1844), crossed the Pyrenees into Spain. When Cadiz fell to the French in September 1823, Ferdinand was handed over to them and restored to the throne. Renouncing his prior promise of amnesty for the revolutionaries, the king ordered ruthless measures of reprisal against them while French troops stood by helplessly. Chateaubriand had been made Foreign Minister on the 28th December 1822.
BkXXIII:Chap7:Sec1 Ferdinand conferred the Order of the Golden Fleece on Chateaubriand on the 4th December 1823, and the insignia were given to him by Monsieur at the Tuileries on the 8th of April 1824.
BkXXIV:Chap4:Sec1 His dethronement by Bonaparte.
BkXXXI:Chap2:Sec1 He married Marie-Christine de Bourbon-Sicile (1806-1878) on the 22nd of December 1829.
Ferdinand IV of Naples (Ferdinand I of the Two Sicilies).
1751-1825. King of Naples 1759-1806. King of the Two Sicilies 1816-1825.
BkXXXIX:Chap3:Sec1 He died in 1825.
Ferdinand II, King of the Two Sicilies
1810-1859. The son of Ferdinand I and brother of the Duchess de Berry. King of the Two Sicilies 1830-1859.
Ferdinand VII of Hapsburg, Grand-Duke of Tuscany
1769-1824. He was ousted from the Duchy of Tuscany by the French in 1796, receiving in exchange the Ecclesiastical Principality of Würzburg, secularised by the Treaty of Pressburg. He reigned from 1805 to 1814, when he recovered Tuscany, while Würzburg reverted to Bavaria.
BkXXXIX:Chap3:Sec1 He died in 1824
Ferdinand, Prince, see Louis-Ferdinand
Voltaire bought the estate of Ferney on the border of Gex in 1759. He reigned there until 1778, when he returned to Paris to die.
Ferrand, Antoine-François-Claude, Comte
1751-1825. A French statesman and political writer he became a member of the parlement of Paris at eighteen. He left France with the first party of emigrants, and attached himself to the Prince of Condé; late he was a member of the council of regency formed by the Comte de Provence after the death of Louis XVI. He lived at Regensburg until 1801, when he returned to France. In 1814 Ferrand was made minister of state and postmaster-general. He countersigned the act of sequestration of Napoleon’s property, and introduced a bill for the restoration of the property of the emigrants establishing a distinction, since become famous, between royalists of la ligne droite and those of la ligne courbe. At the second restoration Ferrand was again for a short time postmaster general. He was also made a peer of France, and a member of the privy council. He continued his active support for ultra-royalist views until his death.
A town in north-east Italy, in Emilia-Romagna, it was the ancient seat of the Este family. The university dates from 1391. Savanarola the religious reformer was born there.
BkXL:Chap1:Sec1 The Duchesse de Berry meets Chateaubriand there in 1833. Rovigo is between the Adige and the River Po, 40 kilometres south-west of Padua. The Lagoscuro Bridge over the Po is about four miles from Ferrara. Chateaubriand crossed by ferry.
Ferron de la Sigonière, Francois-Prudent Malo
1768-1815 A classmate of Chateaubriand at Dinan, he was a comrade-in-arms in the Army of Princes.
BkIX:Chap14:Sec1 Chateaubriand meets him again in 1792.
BkIX:Chap16:Sec1 With Chateaubriand after their retreat from Verdun.
Feryd-Eddin, Farid ud-Din Attar
c1142-c1220. One of the greatest Sufi mystic poets of Islam, his masterpiece is the Mantiq ut-Tair (The Conference of the Birds), a long allegory of the soul's search for divine truth. His numerous other works include Tadkhirat al-Awliya, (Biographies of the Saints) which contains biographies of many Sufi mystics.
BkVIII:Chap7:Sec1 Chateaubriand quotes from the Conference of the Birds, translated by Silvestre de Sacy in 1819.
Fesch, Cardinal Joseph
1763-1839. Born in Corsica, he was half-brother to Letizia Ramolino, Napoleon’s mother, hence uncle of Napoleon. He helped to negotiate the 1801-2 Concordat. Archbishop of Lyons, created Cardinal in 1803, and appointed Ambassador to Rome in April 1803. He persuaded Pius VII to crown Napoleon in Paris. His later expressions of Loyalty to the Pope caused Napoleon’s displeasure. He lived in Rome under the Restoration and July Monarchy, and died there.
BkXIV:Chap5:Sec1 Chateaubriand served under him as First Secretary to the Rome Embassy.
BkXV:Chap5:Sec1 Absent for Madame de Beaumont’s funeral.
BkXV:Chap7:Sec2 He refused to accept Chateaubriand’s resignation. He sent dispatches criticising Chateaubriand in August 1803 and February 1804.
BkXIX:Chap8:Sec1 His documents regarding Napoleon.
BkXIX:Chap18:Sec2 Mentioned as having money for Napoleon.
BkXX:Chap12:Sec1 Advised Napoleon of the dangers of his course of action.
BkXXX:Chap1:Sec2 A possible candidate for French veto in the Papal Conclave of 1829.
Chateaubriand invites him to dinner in 1829.
Feuillants, Club des
The Feuillants were constitutional monarchists who resigned from the Jacobin Club in July 1791 in protest at the plan to depose the King. In the autumn of 1792 the newly elected National Convention gathered. All members of the Feuillant Club had been deprived of the franchise, and the Convention was predominantly Jacobin.
BkIX:Chap1:Sec1 The Club des Impartiaux founded by monarchists in December 1789, which in April 1790 became the Club monarchique was a separate club not to be confused with the Feuillants.
BkXXXVII:Chap14:Sec1 The monastery of Les Feuillants (a Reform movement of Cistercians) which the Club later used was situated near the Tuileries. Henri IV laid the foundation stone in 1601, and the altar was consecrated in 1608.
Feuqières, Isaac Manasses de Pas, Marquis de
1590-1640. French soldier from a distinguished military family. In 1629 he was made Marechal de Camp, and served in the fighting on the southern frontiers of France. After occupying various military positions in Lorraine, he was sent as an ambassador to Germany, where he rendered important services in negotiations with Wallenstein. In 1636 he commanded the French corps operating with the Duke of Weimar’s forces (afterwards Turenne’s Army of Weimar). With these troops he served in the campaigns of 1637 (in which he became lieutenant-general), 1638 and 1639. At the siege of Thionville (Diedenhofen) in 1639 he received a mortal wound.
1785-1830. Vicar-General of Paris under the Restoration, he was named Bishop of Beauvais in January 1825, then elevated to the Peerage. He became Minister of Religious Affairs on the 4th March 1828.
BkXXVIII:Chap16:Sec1 Appointed as Minister.
Fezensac, Louise de La Live de Jully, Madame de
BkXIV:Chap1:Sec1 Visiting her aunt Madame de La Briche in 1802.
Fichte, Johann Gottlieb
1762-1814. The German philosopher is called by some the father of German nationalism and also of German anti-semitism. He was also anti-Polish. He was one of the leading progenitors of German idealism, forming a bridge between Kant and Hegel. In 1806, in a Berlin occupied by Napoleon, Fichte gave a series of Addresses to the German Nation which inspired German nationalism, (published 1807-1808). He died of typhus.
BkXXII:Chap5:Sec1 His lecture on Duty, given in 1813.
1707-1754. British writer whose works include the novels Joseph Andrews (1742) and Tom Jones (1749). He also wrote comedies for the stage and edited a number of periodicals.
Fieschi, Giuseppe Marco
1790-1836. Chief conspirator in the attempt on the life of Louis Philippe in July 1835 he was a native of Murato in Corsica. He served under Murat, then returned to Corsica, where he was condemned to ten years imprisonment and perpetual surveillance by the police for theft and forgery. After a period of vagabondage he eluded the police and obtained a small post in Paris. With two members of the Société des Droits de l'Homme, Morey and Pépin, he contrived an infernal machine, constructed with twenty gun barrels, to be fired simultaneously. On July 28, 1835, as Louis Philippe was passing along the boulevard to the Bastille, accompanied by his three sons and numerous staff, the machine exploded. A ball grazed the king’s forehead, and his horse, with those of the duke of Nemours and of the prince de Joinville, was shot; Marshal Mortier was killed, with seventeen other persons, and many were wounded; but the king and the princes escaped. Fieschi, was severely wounded, but saved, then subsequently condemned to death, and guillotined.
1752-1788. He was an Italian publicist, born at Naples. The first two books of his great work, La Scienza della legislazione, appeared in 1780. The first book contained an exposition of the rules on which legislation in general ought to proceed, while the second was devoted to economic questions. These two books showed him an ardent reformer, and vehement in denouncing the abuses of his time. He insisted on unlimited free trade, and the abolition of the mediaeval institutions which impeded production and national well-being. Its success was great and immediate not only in Italy, but throughout Europe at large.
1779-1837. An Italian composer in the style of Cimarosa, he was master of the Pontifical Chapel from 1816, and turned to writing religious music. A Dies Irae for eight voices and orchestra survives.
BkXXX:Chap3:Sec1 Alluded to.
Fitz-James, Édouard de, 5th Duke of
1776-1838. Peer of France under the Restoration, he was of the line of the Dukes of Berwick, descended from James II and Arabella Churchill. He was Duke of Fitz-James from 1805.
Flahault de la Billarderie, Auguste Charles Joseph, Comte de
1785-1870. A French general and statesman, he was the illegitimate son of Charles Maurice de Talleyrand and Adèle de Flahaut. He fought under Napoleon I and served as ambassador to Berlin, London, and Vienna under Louis Philippe. He supported the coup (1851) of Louis Napoleon (later Napoleon III) and served again (1860-62) as ambassador to London. The lover of Hortense de Beauharnais, Flahaut was the father of Napoleon III’s half brother, the Duc de Morny.
BkXXIII:Chap18:Sec2 Aide-de-camp after the Hundred Days.
In ancient Rome, the Flamen was a priest of a particular god, the Flamen Dialis the High Priest of Jupiter. The priest wore a cap with a point or peak, an apex.
Flammarens, Chevalier de
Alive in 1677.
d. 1836. Girondist and anti-Napoleon lawyer.
BkXXII:Chap7:Sec1 A Member of the Legislative commission in 1813.
Flavigny, Maurice, Comte de
1799-1873. The elder brother of the future Comtesse d’Agoult, he was a diplomatic secretary in Copenhagen, Madrid, Lisbon and London where he worked with Polignac. He became a Peer in 1841 and represented the monarchist right during the Second Republic, then the Legislature from 1852 to 1863.
BkXXVI:Chap1:Sec1 A secretary at the Berlin Embassy in 1821.
Fleselles, Jacques de
1721-89 Provost of the Merchants of Paris.
A town in Hainaut province, in southern Belgium, its fields have been much fought over. At Fleurus, Mansfield and Christian of Brunswick defeated (1622) the Spanish in the Thirty Years War, the French under Marshal Luxembourg defeated (1690) the Dutch and their allies in the War of the Grand Alliance, and the French under Jourdan defeated the Austrians in a decisive battle (1794) of the French Revolutionary Wars.
BkXXIII:Chap17:Sec1 Napoleon fought the Prussians there on the 15th and 16th June 1815.
BkXXIV:Chap7:Sec1 Jourdan’s victory there in 1794.
Fleury, André-Hercule, Cardinal de
1653-1743 Chief Minister (1726-1743) of Louis XV, he carried out important reforms, reorganizing finances, building roads, and encouraging commerce. A successful diplomat he worked to maintain peace in Europe, but involved France in the War of the Polish Succession (1733-1738).
Fleury, (Abraham-Joseph Bénard)
1750-1822. Actor. Debuted in 1788, and retired in 1818. The greatest comedy actor of his day. Arrested and released in 1793. His ghosted Memoirs by Lafitte were later printed.
BkIV:Chap11:Sec1 Acted at the Théâtre-Français.
Flins des Oliviers, Claude-Marie-Louis-Emman Carbon de
1757-1806. Poet. Dramatist. Collaborated on the Modérateur with Fontanes in 1790.
BkIV:Chap11:Sec1 Chateaubriand met him in Paris.
BkIX:Chap2:Sec1 His comedy Le Réveil d’Épiménide our les Étrennes de la Liberté, which achieved brief success after opening at the Théâtre-Français on the 1st January 1790.
The goddess of Spring and of flowering and blossoming plants. Her cult was in existence in Rome at an early date. A temple was dedicated to her in 238BC on the advice of the Sibylline Books. She was later identified with the Greek goddess Chloris. May blossom was associated with her worship.
Flora, the Courtesan
The Italian city, capital of Tuscany on the River Arno was an early Roman colony and developed as a trading city by the 12th century. Torn by civil strife (between Guelfs and Ghibellines, see Dante’s Divine Comedy) in the 13th and 14th centuries, it flourished again as a commercial centre under three centuries of Medici rule (from 1434). It was a centre of Renaissance art and learning.
BkVIII:Chap5:Sec2 Florence, Alabama.
BkXXXVII:Chap6:Sec1 The Martinella (little hammer) bell was placed on the archway of the Santa Maria gate in April/May 1260 when the Florentines moved against Sienna, giving a month’s warning of their preparations (see Villani’s history). The Carocchio or war-chariot was kept with its bell in the Church of Santa Maria sopra Porta by the gate.
BkXL:Chap2:Sec3 The Accademia della Crusca was founded in Florence in 1582 to maintain the purity of the language. Still in existence today, it was the first such institution in Europe and the first to produce a modern national language. The major work of the society was the compilation of A. F. Grazzini’s Vocabulario, a dictionary of ‘pure’ words published in 1612 and later taken as a model by other European states.
In the late eighteenth century, the whole region of the USA, sometimes also called Louisiana, by the French, south of the Ohio River. The term Florida is reserved for the maritime region, the term Les Florides or The Floridas for the interior. The modern states of Louisiana and Florida are part only of the original Louisiana and Floridas region.
BkVIII:Chap4:Sec2 Greek émigrés to Florida in 1770.
BkXXII:Chap13:Sec1 The ancient mounds there.
Foix, Françoise de
Foix, Gaston de
1489-1512. Duc de Nemours, he was a French general in the Italian Wars; and nephew of Louis XII. As commander of the French army in Italy in 1512, he proved his outstanding ability, making his small army highly effective by the use of surprise and forced marches. He relieved Bologna, defeated the Venetians at Isola della Scala, and Brescia, and successfully laid siege to Ravenna, where he was killed.
Folard, Jean-Charles, Chevalier de
1669-1752. A French soldier and military theorist who championed the use of infantry columns instead of battle lines in warfare. Although he had a small but influential following during his lifetime, his concepts were not generally accepted by Europe's military establishment. During the 18th and 19th centuries, the increasing firepower and accuracy of cannons and rifles finally made his ideas increasingly impractical. Amongst the most discriminating of his critics was Frederick the Great, who is said to have invited Folard to Berlin.
A traveller in the Middle East.
BkXVIII:Chap3Sec4 A letter from him.
An ancient town of Italy in the province of Perugia in east central Umbria, on the Topino river where it leaves the Apennines and enters the wide plain of the Clitunno river system.
An English student he was killed in the 1830 disturbances. See the version given by Alfred Nettement in his Histoire de la Restauration.
A village near Moscow, it was passed by Napoleon’s retreating army on October 20th1812.
Fontaine, Pierre François Léonard
1762-1853. A neoclassical French architect, interior decorator and designer, who worked in such close partnership with Charles Percier, originally his friend from student days, from 1794 onwards, that it is fruitless to disentangle artistic responsibilities in their work. Together, Percier and Fontaine were inventors and major proponents of the neoclassicism recognized as Empire style.
BkXXII:Chap 25:Sec1 Co-designed the Expiatory Chapel (1816-26), Place Louis XVI, on the site of the cemetery where 3000 victims of the Revolution were buried.
BkXX:Chap7:Sec1 The Treaty of Fontainebleau of October 27, 1807 signed between Spain and France, defined the occupation of Portugal.
BkXXII:Chap19:Sec1 Napoleon left on the 20th of April 1814.
BkXLII:Chap7:Sec1 Chateaubriand was there 5th to 8th November 1834.
Fontanes, Louis, Marquis de
1757-1821 French poet and politician, and friend of Chateaubriand, he was a moderate during the Revolution. He was exiled to London. He held various posts during the Empire, ultimately from 1808, becoming Grand Master of the Imperial University under Napoleon, a senator and a Count (1810). He represented conservative Catholic opinion. He acquiesced in the Bourbon Restoration and was made a Marquis in 1817. His poetry was polished and musical in the 18th century style. He translated Pope.
BkIII:Chap5:Sec1 He claimed, according to Chateaubriand, that Chateaubriand was a natural poet as well as prose-writer.
BkIV:Chap12:Sec4 Chateaubriand’s friendship with him.
BkVII:Chap2:Sec1 Chateaubriand refers to his Éloge funèbre de Washington (delivered in February 1800).
BkIX:Chap6:Sec2 His association with the Société monarchique.
BkXI:Chap3:Sec1 BkXI:Chap3:Sec2 BkXXVII:Chap3:Sec1 Chateaubriand, in Berlin, learnt of his death. His relationship with him was established in London which Fontanes reached in January 1798. He remained in London until July 1798. He had co-founded the Mémorial (May-September 1797) in Paris, and reached London via Hamburg.
BkXII:Chap6:Sec1 Encouraged Chateaubriand to return to France in 1800.
BkXIII:Chap3:Sec1 Came to meet Chateaubriand at Ternes in May 1800.
BkXIII:Chap3:Sec2 His house in the Rue Saint-Honoré. He finds temporary shelter for Chateaubriand.
BkXIII:Chap9:Sec1 At the theatre with Chateaubriand in Paris in 1802.
BkXIII:Chap11:Sec2 Initiated changes in literature.
BkXV:Chap6:Sec1 Chênedollé complains of his neglect of him, following the breaking off of his relationship with Lucile. His letter to Chateaubriand where he suggests Chateaubriand should have accepted his legacy from Madame de Beaumont.
BkXVI:Chap1:Sec1 Fontanes used his friendship with Madame Bacciochi on Chateaubriand’s behalf at the time of his resignation in 1804.
BkXVIII:Chap5:Sec1 Mentioned in the winter of 1806-1807.
BkXVIII:Chap6:Sec1 BkXL:Chap2:Sec4 His support for and defence of Les Martyrs. His Stanzas addressed to Monsieur de Chateaubriand regarding Les Martyrs appeared in the Journal du Paris of 25th January 1810, in the Gazette de France, and finally in Le Mercure on 3rd February.
BkXVIII:Chap8:Sec2 Praised in Chateaubriand’s Academy speech.
BkXVIII:Chap9:Sec1 Napoleon’s comment to him regarding Chateaubriand and the Decennial Prize.
BkXXIX:Chap1:Sec5 Chateaubriand remembers him.
BkXXIX:Chap7:Sec2 A letter to him from Rome quoted.
BkXXIX:Chap14:Sec1 The quotation is from his ode ‘Sur mon anniversaire’
Fontanes, Chantal Cathelin, Madame de
d.1829 Married Louis in 1792.
BkXI:Chap3:Sec1 Gave birth to a son at Lyon.
BkXIII:Chap3:Sec2 Chateaubriand introduced to her in May 1800.
Fontanes, Christine de
1801-1873 Daughter of Louis.
BkXI:Chap3:Sec1 She published his works posthumously in 1839.
Fontanges, Marie-Angelica de Scorrailles de Roussille, Duchesse de
1661-1681. One of the many paramours of Louis XIV of France, she was a lady in waiting to Maria Theresa of Spain who became his lover in 1679. She gave birth to a stillborn child and afterwards left the court for a convent, although many believed that Françoise-Athénaïs, Marquise de Montespan had her poisoned. Mlle de Fontanges died in June 1681 in Port-Royal. The fontange, a headdress worn by women in the late 17th and early 18th centuries, was named after her. It is said that she tied her hair up with a ribbon after losing her cap while horseback riding, and the king liked the look.
Fontenay, Vicomte de
1784-1855. Diplomatic secretary at Florence and Naples (where he was Lamartine’s master of diplomacy in 1820) he was First Secretary at St Petersburg from June 1823. He represented France at Wurtemberg from 1827-1850.
BkXXVIII:Chap3:Sec1 In St Petersburg in 1824.
Fontenoy, Battle of
11th May 1745. The battle in the War of the Austrian Succession, in which France defeated Austria and her Dutch and English allies, was fought near Tournai south-east of Brussels, and led to the conquest of Flanders. De Saxe was the French commander.
A town in Baden-Württemberg, Germany, it lies in the district of Rastatt. It is located in the Murg river valley in the northern part of the Schwarzwald Mountains.
BkXXXVIII:Chap10:Sec1 Chateaubriand there in June 1833.
Forbin, Louis-Auguste, Comte de
1779-1841. A French Painter, he was a pupil of David in Paris. He lived in Rome from 1802-1805, accompanied by his friend Granet, also a painter. An intimate friend of Pauline Bonaparte, he became a soldier, rising to the rank of Colonel, but retired to Italy again after Wagram. He was an admirer from 1813-1815 of Madame Rècamier whom he met in Rome. He became Director of the Louvre under the Restoration, and travelled to the Orient 1817-1818.
BkXVII:Chap3:Sec2 Chateaubriand meets him again in Geneva in 1805.
Forbin-Janson, Palamede de
1783-1849. Former Chamberlain of Napoleon, proscribed 1815-1820, he went into sugar production in the Vaucluse. He was Mortemart’s brother-in-law.
BkXXXII:Chap8:Sec1 Active in Paris on the 30th July 1830.
Foresta, Marie-Joseph, Marquis de La Roquette
1783-1858. A Gentleman of the Chamber to Charles X, he was Prefect of the Loire in 1828, resigning in 1830 to attach himself for life to the Comte de Chambord (Henri V).
BkXLI:Chap5:Sec1 In Prague in 1833.
Forlì is a comune and city in Emilia-Romagna, famed as the birthplace of the great painter Melozzo da Forlì.
BkXXIX:Chap2:Sec2 Chateaubriand was there in October 1828.
BkXXIX:Chap2:Sec3 Cesare Borgia besieged Forlì in 1500.
Fornovo di Taro, Italy
The Battle of Fornovo (30km south-east of Parma) took place on 6th July 1495 during the Italian Wars. The result was militarily inconclusive, though Charles VIII of France lost all his Italian spoils and was forced to abandon his claims in Italy, so that strategically it was a victory for the Holy League, especially Venice.
Fors, for Fars-Fausselandry, Vicomtesse de
Pseudonym of the Baron Etienne Leon de Lamothe-Langon (1786-1864) who specialised in penning forged female auto-biographies under the Restoration.
BkXIX:Chap9:Sec1 His Memoirs on the French Revolution.
Fort Royal, Saint-Malo
Following plans designed by Vauban, engineer Siméon de Garangeau (1647-1741) extended the town, revamped its fortifications and built sea forts on the small islands off the city, Petit Bé, Grand Bé and Fort Royal, later renamed Fort National, La Conchée, and Cézembre.
1373-1457. Doge of Venice 1423-1457. In 1445, Foscari’s son Jacopo was tried by the Council of Ten on charges of bribery and corruption and exiled from the city. Two further trials, in 145 and 1456, led to Jacopo’s imprisonment on Crete and his eventual death there. Foscari’s life was the subject of a play The Two Foscari by Byron, which itself served as the basis of an opera I Due Foscari by Verdi. Francesco’s tomb is in the Frari.
1778-1827. An Italian poet and novelist, his works articulated the feelings of many Italians during the turbulent epoch of the French Revolution, the Napoleonic Wars, and the restoration of Austrian rule. After Austria regained Italy in 1814, Foscolo fled first to Switzerland and then to Britain. His popular novel The Last Letters of Jacopo Ortis (1802) bitterly denounced Napoleon’s cession of Venetia to Austria. Among his poems are the patriotic ‘Dei sepolcri’ (1807) and the acclaimed but unfinished Le grazie (1822).
BkXXIX:Chap2:Sec2 A quotation from Dei sepolchri, line 195.
Fossano is a town in the province of Cuneo, in Piedmont, Northern Italy, a suffragan of Turin, situated in a fertile plain on the banks of the Stura river.
BkXIX:Chap12:Sec1 Taken by the French in 1796.
1759-1820. A priest and teacher, he became politically active in the Revolution as a deputy to the National Convention in 1792. He participated in the overthrow of Robespierre in 1794. Named Duc d’Otrante, he was Minister of Police under Napoleon. He was forced into exile in 1816.
BkXXII:Chap 26:Sec1 His conspiracy regarding Napoleon’s return from Elba.
BkXXIII:Chap18:Sec1 Napoleon’s regret he had not had him shot.
BkXXIII:Chap18:Sec2 He presided over the executive committee.
BkXXIII:Chap20:Sec2 Advocated as a Minister in 1815. Chateaubriand cites an article in the Moniteur of 27th Thermidor Year III (14th August 1795).
BkXXIII:Ch20:Sec3 Chateaubriand sees him with Talleyrand at Saint-Denis.
Foucher de Careil, Louis François, Baron
1762-1835. A Napoleonic general, he was the commander of the VI Artillery Corps at Borodino.
BkXXI:Chap3:Sec1 At Borodino.
A fortress town in Brittany, on a hill above the Nançon river. It is known for the immense 11th-15th century Château which was built below the level of the main part of the town on a spit of land between two huge rocky outcrops.
BkII:Chap3:Sec3 Chateaubriand’s eldest sisters accompanied their husbands there after their weddings.
BkIII:Chap14:Sec3 His visit before leaving France for the Holy Land.
BkIV:Chap10:Sec1 Its small town society in winter.
BkIV:Chap10:Sec3 Chateaubriand spends six months’ leave there.
BkV:Chap15:Sec3 Chateaubriand passed through on his way to America in 1791.
Foulon, for Foullon, François-Joseph
1717-1789 General Intendant of Finances, for the army and navy, assistant to the Minister of War. He was charged with provisioning. After the Parisian popular revolution and the storming of the Bastille on July 14, 1789, he was condemned to die by an assembly at the Town hall and killed on July 22, a little before his son-in-law the Intendant Bertier de Savigny. BkV:Chap8:Sec1 Appointed to the War ministry under De Broglie July 12th 1789.
1746-1795. The French revolutionary lawyer, was public prosecutor (March 1793–July 1794) of the Revolutionary Tribunal; he personified the ruthlessness of the Reign of Terror. Among his numerous victims were Marie Antoinette and Danton. After the fall of Robespierre, Fouquier-Tinville was tried and guillotined.
BkXIX:Chap10:Sec1 Tried in 1795.
1772-1837. French utopian socialist, who inspired the founding of the communist community called La Reunion near present-day Dallas, Texas as well as several other communities in America. Fourier declared that concern and cooperation were the secrets of social success. Workers would be recompensed for their labors according to their contribution. Fourier saw such cooperation occurring in communities he called ‘phalanxes’. Phalanxes were based around structures called ‘grand hotels’ (or Phalanstère). These buildings were four level apartment complexes where the richest had the uppermost apartments and the poorest enjoyed a ground floor residence. Wealth was determined by one’s job; jobs were assigned based on the interests and desires of the individual. There were incentives, jobs people might not enjoy doing would receive higher pay.
BkXIII:Chap10:Sec2 An example of a plagiaristic doctrine.
Fox, Charles James
1749-1806. An English Politician, he was the first British Foreign Secretary, 1782. He supported the French Revolution, and in 1798 was dismissed from the Privy Council for opposing war with Revolutionary France. He was briefly Foreign Secretary again before his death in 1806.
Preface:Sect1 Chateaubriand mentions meeting him.
BkXII:Chap5:Sec3 Chateaubriand heard him speak.
BkXX:Chap5:Sec3 Negotiator in Paris before 1806.
Fox, for Folks
Foy, Maximilien Sebastien, General
1775-1825. A French military leader, writer, and statesman, he rose through the ranks during the Napoleonic Wars (1800–15) and emerged as a leading spokesman of the Liberal opposition during the years after the Bourbon Restoration (1815).
BkXXVIII:Chap14:Sec1 His death in 1825.
A 15th century Italian Camaldolese monk from the island of Murano near Venice, he was also a mapmaker, who in 1457 mapped the totality of the Old world with surprising accuracy, including extensive written comments reflecting the geographic knowledge of his time.
BkXXXIX:Chap5:Sec1 His 15th century copy of his Mappamondo in the Marciana Library in Venice, was completed by Andrea Bianco. The original completed in 1459 for Alfonso V of Portugal is lost.
Fra Paolo, Paolo Sarpi
1552-1623. He was a Venetian patriot, scholar, scientist and church reformer who advised the Senate in its dispute with Rome. He published a History of the Council of Trent (1613).
Francesca da Rimini
1255-1285. The daughter of Guido da Polenta of Ravenna, she was a historical contemporary of Dante, who portrayed her as a character in the Divine Comedy. Paolo Malatesta and Francesca became lovers after being seduced by their reading of the story of Lancelot and Guinevere. They were subsequently murdered by Giovanni Malatesta his brother in 1285.
BkXXXIX:Chap3:Sec1 Uncertain attribution. There were a number of Franceschinis. However note the Franceschini Folco Palace built by the silk manufacturers Giovanni and Girolamo Franceschini in Vicenza, in 1770, designed by Ottavio Bertotti-Scamozzi (1719-1790).
Francis of Assisi, Saint
1182?-1226 The Italian Roman Catholic friar who founded the Franciscan order (1209) and inspired followers with his devotion to poverty, simplicity, and love of nature. He was canonized in 1228.
BkXIV:Chap7:Sec1 BkXVIII:Chap3Sec5 His feast day is October 4th, and was being celebrated by the Franciscans in Jerusalem when Chateaubriand arrived there on October 4th 1806. The religious Order of St. Francis had custody of the monastery of Mount Zion. In 1330, Pope John XXII appointed the Prior of the Franciscan house as Custodian of the Order of the Holy Sepulchre. The hymn quoted is now attributed to Jacopone da Todi (d1306).
BkXX:Chap7:Sec2 His sandals, an attribute.
BkXXIX:Chap2:Sec3 His feast day, October 4th.
BkXXX:Chap14:Sec1 His mother was reputed to be French and he spoke the language and makes reference to French literature in his writings.
BkXLI:Chap7:Sec1 Porziuncola, also called Portiuncula (in Latin) or Porzioncula, is a town and parish situated about three-quarters of a mile from Assisi. It is also the name of the little church from which the Franciscan movement started.
Francis (Francesco Gennaro Giuseppe) I of the Two Sicilies
1777-1830. King of the Two Sicilies from 1825 to 1830, his second marriage was to Isabella, Infanta of Spain, the daughter of Charles IV of Spain.
Francis II of Germany, as Francis I Emperor of Austria
1768-1835 Emperor of Germany 1792-1806. The last Holy Roman Emperor. Emperor of Austria as Francis I 1806-1835. Following three defeats by the French in the Napoleonic wars he aligned himself with Napoleon I until 1813. After the Congress of Vienna in 1815, he was guided by his conservative chief minister, Metternich.
BkIX:Chap2:Sec1 The Legislative Assembly declared war on the German states, April 20th 1792. The move precipitated mass defections of officers from the army regiments in France.
BkXIX:Chap3:Sec1 He met Napoleon on Napoleon’s visit to Dresden in May 1812.
BkXX:Chap5:Sec3 Becomes Emperor of Austria 6th August 1806.
BkXX:Chap12:Sec1 His daughter Marie-Louise married Napoleon in March 1810. Austria held Galicia (split between Poland and the Ukraine from 1918) with its Polish aristocracy at the time, so that Napoleon in supporting the restoration of a Polish Kingdom would have been challenging his father-in-law’s claim to Galicia.
BkXX:Chap13:Sec1 He joined Napoleon in Dresden in May 1812. On January 6, 1808, he had married for the third time, Maria Ludovika of Austria-Este (1787–1816). She was the daughter of Archduke Ferdinand Karl of Austria and Maria Beatrice d’Este, Princess of Modena.
BkXXII:Chap9:Sec1 Fighting against Napoleon in 1814.
BkXXXIX:Chap3:Sec1 He died in 1835.
BkXXXIX:Chap14:Sec1 His portrait in Venice in 1833.
BkXL:Chap6:Sec1 Mentioned in 1833.
Francois I, King of France
1494-1547. King of France 1515-1547. His reign was dominated by rivalry with Charles V, the Holy Roman Emperor. Francis was captured at Pavia in 1525. He won control over the French Church through the Concordat of Bologna (1516) and then suppressed French Protestantism.
BkXIV:Chap2:Sec2 BkXIX:Chap13:Sec1 He defeated the Swiss at Marignan (Melegnano near Milan), in September 1515. According to legend King Francis I, en route to Marseilles to confer with Pope Clement about the forthcoming marriage of his son Henri to Catherine de’ Medeci, visited the chapel in Avignon, ‘had the slab of Laura’s stone lifted, took the box, and read the sonnet.’ In honour of Petrarch’s muse, the monarch then dashed off the epitaph quoted.
BkXX:Chap2:Sec2 His love of women, to the detriment of business affairs.
BkXXIV:Chap17:Sec1 Mourned at his death, the death of an age.
BkXXXVII:Chap13:Sec1 His courtesy.
François II, King of France
1544-1560. King of France (1559-60), son of King Henry II and Catherine de’ Medici, he married (1558) Mary Queen of Scots (Mary Stuart), and during his brief reign the government was in the hands of her uncles, François and Charles de Guise. Their ruthless persecution of Protestantism led to the conspiracy of Amboise (1560) an attempt to remove the Guises from power. During Francis’s reign French Protestantism became a political force. Francis was succeeded by his brother, Charles IX.
BkVIII:Chap5:Sec1 His death resulted in Mary Stuart leaving for Scotland.
Chateaubriand’s Christian name.
Francois IV de Lorraine, see Duc de Modène
François de Paule, Saint
Franconi, Antonio (Antoine)
1738-1836. A Venetian equestrian performer who moved to Paris at the age of 20. He established a circus near the Tuileries in 1783. The tradition was carried on by his sons Laurent (1776-1849) and Henri (1779-1849), and by an adopted son of Henri, Adolphe (1801-1855).
A historic region of Germany, which today forms three administrative regions of the German Federal state of Bavaria: Lower Franconia, Middle Franconia, and Upper Franconia. Though its area has shifted, Franconia was one of the five original duchies that eventually made up the Holy Roman Empire. Franconia, east of the Rhine (with the cities of Mainz, Speyer and Worms on the west bank), was part of the Eastern Frankish kingdom, Austrasia.
BkXX:Chap6:Sec1 Napoleon occupied the region in 1806.
Frankfurt am Main, Germany
A city in West Germany in Hessen on the River Main, it is a major banking and commercial centre, the birthplace of Goethe, and the original home of the Rothschilds. It was the seat of the imperial elections and coronations of the Holy Roman Emperors.
BkXXVI:Chap1:Sec1 Chateaubriand there in January 1821.
A village near Kaiserslautern, with the remasins of a 12th-13th century Hohenstaufen Castle above the Speyer brook.
BkXXXVIII:Chap9:Sec1 Chateaubriand there in June 1833.
1706-1790. Delegate from Pennsylvania; born in Boston, Mass.; learned the art of printing, and after working at his trade in Boston, Philadelphia, and London established himself in Philadelphia as a printer and publisher; founded the Pennsylvania Gazette in 1728, and in 1732 began the publication of Poor Richard’s Almanac; State printer; clerk of the Pennsylvania general assembly 1736-1750; postmaster of Philadelphia in 1737; a member of the provincial assembly 1744-1754; a member of several Indian commissions; elected a member of the Royal Society on account of his scientific discoveries; deputy postmaster general of the British North American Colonies 1753-1774; agent of Pennsylvania in London 1757-1762 and 1764-1775; Member of the Continental Congress 1775-1776; signed the Declaration of Independence; president of the Pennsylvania constitutional convention of 1776; sent as a diplomatic commissioner to France by the Continental Congress and, later, Minister to France 1776-1785; one of the negotiators of the treaty of peace with Great Britain; president of the executive council of Pennsylvania 1785-1788; president of the trustees of the University of Pennsylvania; delegate to the Federal Convention in 1787.
BkVIII:Chap5:Sec3 His experiments with electricity.
BkVIII:Chap6:Sec1 His love of his country.
Franklin, Captain John
1786-1847. A British explorer, he served in the Royal Navy during which period he fought at Trafalgar in 1805. From 1819 to 1822 he conducted an overland expedition from the western shore of Hudson Bay to the Arctic Ocean, and surveyed part of the coast to the east of the Coppermine River in north-western Canada. After his return to England he published Narrative of a Journey to the Shores of the Polar Sea, in the Years 1819, 20, 21 and 22 (1823). On a second overland expedition to the same region (1825-27), Franklin led a party that explored the North American coast westward from the mouth of the Mackenzie River, in north-western Canada, to Point Beechey, now in Alaska. A second party followed the coast eastward from the Mackenzie to the Coppermine. He became Governor of Van Dieman’s Land (Tasmania) from 1836-1843. In 1845 he sailed, never to return, with two ships to find the Northwest passage.
He transmitted a despatch to Chateaubriand in Rome in May 1829.
A town and commune in the province of Rome in the Latium region of central Italy, it is located 20 km south-east of Rome, on the Alban Hills close to the ancient city of Tusculum.
1765-1841. Vicar-General of Paris 1819 then King’s Chaplain, he was consecrated Bishop in partibus of Hermopolis. In 1822 he became Grand Master of the University, and in 1824 Education and Ecclesiastical Minister. Installed in Rome after 1830 he was called to Prague in 1833 to become tutor to the Duc de Bordeaux.
BkXXXI:Chap7:Sec1 Charged with offering Chateaubriand a post.
Frederick I, King of Prussia
1657-1713. Frederick, of the Hohenzollern dynasty was (as Frederick III) Elector of Brandenburg (1688–1713) and the first King of Prussia (1701 – 1713).
BkXX:Chap5:Sec3 In 1701 Brandenburg-Prussia became the Kingdom of Prussia with the permission of the Holy Roman Emperor and Saxon Elector August the Strong, King of Poland.
Frederick II, The Great
1712-1786. King of Prussia 1740-1786. He was the son of Frederick-William I. He made Prussia a major European power. An exponent of enlightened despotism he reinvigorated Prussian society. His conquest of Silesia (1740) gave rise to the War of the Austrian Succession (1740-1748). His victory in the Seven Years War (1756-1763) confirmed Prussia’s military supremacy.
BkIV:Chap1:Sec1 BkIV:Chap1:Sec2 Mentioned allusively. Floridan made a fable concerning Frederick’s acceptance of the miller’s refusal to allow the demolition of his mill in the park. Mirabeau noted Frederick’s wish to be buried with his dogs.
BkIX:Chap13:Sec1 His manner of holding his sword at an angle.
BkXVI:Chap2:Sec1 He founded the Order of the Black Eagle.
BkXIX:Chap5:Sec2 Chateaubriand attributes a poetic nature to him.
BkXX:Chap6:Sec2 He seized Silesia in 1740.
BkXX:Chap10:Sec1 His military campaigns. Ordre mince was his standard linear battle formation popular in Europe. Ordre profond tactics involved manoeuvring and fighting in heavy columnar formations, placing emphasis on the shock of cold steel over firepower.
Frederick II of Brandenburg
1413-1470. Frederick II ‘Irontooth’ of the Hohenzollern dynasty, was margrave of Brandenburg, from 1440 until his abdication in 1470.
Frederick-Augustus I of Saxony
1750-1827. He was also Duke of Warsaw. His alliance with Napoleon resulted in defeat in 1813. The country was occupied by Russia, and only restored to full sovereignty after a landswap between Russia, Prussia and Saxony, resulting in the loss of two-thirds of the country's territory.
BkXXIX:Chap2:Sec3 He had made the offering mentioned.
Frederick-William of Brandenburg, the Great-Elector
1620-1688. Of the House of Hohenzollern, he was the Elector of Brandenburg and the Duke of Prussia from 1640 until his death. He is popularly known as the Great Elector (Großer Kurfürst).
Frederick-William I, King of Prussia
1688-1740. Of the House of Hohenzollern, he was known as ‘the Soldier-King’ and was King of Prussia (1713 - 1740). The father of Frederick the Great.
Frederick-William II, King of Prussia
1744-1797. King of Prussia 1786-1797. Nephew of Frederick II, he pursued a policy of territorial aggrandizement, profiting from the partitioning of Poland in 1793 and 1795. From 1792-95 he joined Austria in opposing Revolutionary France.
Frederick-William III, King of Prussia
1770-1840. King of Prussia 1797-1840. Son of Frederick-William II and great-nephew of Frederick the Great, his neutral attitude towards Napoleon damaged the prestige of Prussia which was subjected to France by the Treaty of Tilsit (1807) following the defeats at Jena and Auerstädt. After liberation in 1813 he introduced some reforms but became more repressive in the face of liberal attacks.
BkXVI:Chap9:Sec1 His declaration opening the Prussian Campaign in 1806.
BkXXII:Chap13:Sec1 His entry into Paris in 1814. He had been previously humiliated by Napoleon in Berlin.
BkXXVI:Chap1:Sec1 Chateaubriand presents his letter of accreditation as Ambassador to Berlin to the King.
Frederick-William IV, King of Prussia
1795-1861. The eldest son of Frederick-William III, he became king in 1840. His brothers were William (1797-1888) who succeeded his brother in 1861, Charles (1801-1853) and Heinrich-Albert (1809-1872).
1783-1851. Youngest brother of Frederick-William III, he married Maria Anna of Hesse-Homburg (1785-1863).
BkXXVI:Chap1:Sec1 Chateaubriand met him in Berlin in 1821.
The town in the Var department of south-eastern France was founded by Julius Caesar in 49BC, and it was an important Roman naval port. The Argens River has since silted up the harbour. Many Roman ruins are preserved, notably the oldest surviving arena of Gaul. A French military school and army base are located there.
Fréron, Louis-Marie Stanislas
1754-1802. A French Revolutionary, he was commissioned, along with Barras in 1793, to establish the authority of the convention at Marseilles and Toulon, and was noted for the atrocity of his reprisals, but both afterwards joined the Thermidoriens, and Fréron became the leader of the jeunesse doré and of the Thermidorian reaction. He was elected to the council of the Five Hundred, but not allowed to take his seat. Failing as suitor for the hand of Pauline Bonaparte, one of Napoleon’s sisters, he went in 1799 as commissioner to Santo Domingo where he died.
BkXIX:Chap10:Sec1 During the French Revolution, he ran the newspaper L'Orateur du Peuple, later using his paper as the official journal of the Reaction, and being sent by the Directory on a mission of peace to Marseilles he published in 1796 Mémoire historique sur la reaction royale et sur les malheurs du midi.
BkXIX:Chap10:Sec1 His wish to marry Pauline Bonaparte.
Freslon, Bailli de
Friant, Louis, General
1758-1829. A Napoleonic General, he fought in Italy, at the Pyramids, and Austerlitz, and was wounded at Eylau, Wagram, Smolensk, Borodino, and Waterloo where he was wounded in the hand.
Fribourg (German:Freiburg), Switzerland
A Swiss canton, and a town which is on the Sarine River.
BkXVI:Chap4:Sec1 BkXVI:Chap11:Sec1 The Battle of Freiburg, also called the Three Day Battle, took place on August 3rd, 5th and 9th, 1644 during the Thirty Years' War. The entrenched Bavarians led by von Mercy retreated after three separate days of assault by the French army under Marshals Condé and Turenne. The French then went on to capture the town. The Battle produced the highest number of casualties of any battle in the War. There was a later battle in 1762.
Friedland, Battle of
The Battle of Friedland, fought on June 14, 1807 about twenty-seven miles southeast of the modern Russian city of Kaliningrad, just north of Poland, was a major engagement in the Napoleonic Wars during the War of the Fourth Coalition. After nearly twenty-three hours of fighting, the French troops, commanded by Emperor Napoleon I, managed to score a decisive victory over the Russian army, commanded by Bennigsen. By the end of the battle, the French were in complete control of the battlefield and the Russian army was retreating chaotically over the Alle River, where many soldiers drowned while trying to escape. Friedland effectively brought the Fourth Coalition to an end.
Frioul, Duc de, see Duroc
Frisell, Sir John Fraser
1771-1846. A Scot who travelled to France to assist in the Revolution. Arrested and imprisoned at Dijon, during the Terror, he was subsequently allowed to live in France. He had been friends with Madame de Chastenay, Madame de Beaumont, and Joubert.
1815-1832 Daughter of Sir John Fraser Frisell she died at Passy.
BkXXXV:Chap4:Sec1 Her death mentioned.
Froissart or Froissard, Jean
c1337-1410? French chronicler, poet, and courtier, he was born in Valenciennes. His chronicle, continuing that of Jean le Bel, canon of Liège, covers the history of Western Europe from the early 14th century to 1400, roughly the first half of the Hundred Years War. In literary merit Froissart's chronicle far surpasses similar efforts in any European language. Froissart's poetry is generally charming and light. It somewhat influenced Chaucer, whom Froissart may well have known personally.
Preface:Sect4 An example of a writer who was also involved with warfare.
BkXXXI:Chap1:Sec2 See the Chronicles Book III, Chapter 6.
BkXXXVIII:Chap2:Sec1 See the Chronicles.
1765-1815. A US engineer and inventor widely credited with developing the first steam-powered ship.
Funchal, Count of
He was the Portuguese Ambassador in Rome in 1828.
Furies, Erinys, Erinnys, Eumenides
The Furies, The Three Sisters, were Alecto, Tisiphone and Megaera, the daughters of Night and Uranus. They were the personified pangs of cruel conscience that pursued the guilty. (See Aeschylus – The Eumenides). Their abode was in Hades by the Styx.
BkII:Chap4:Sec1 They appear together.
BkXXI:Chap5:Sec1 The spirits of divine retribution.
BkXXX:Chap2:Sec1 A wood sacred to them near Rome mentioned, where Gaius Sempronius Gracchus was killed. This grove was near the temple of Furrina, whom Cicero (De Natura Deorum) deemed one of the Furies. It may possibly be that of the Villa Sciarra on the Janiculum (Via Dandolo).
A character (possibly the name of a historical person) in the reconstructed and therefore mythical Swiss legend of William Tell, according to which Albert of Austria, with the view of depriving the Forest lands of their ancient freedom, sent bailiffs (among them Gessler) to Uri and Schwyz, who committed many tyrannical acts, so that finally on 8th November 1307, at the Rutli, Werner von Stauffacher of Schwytz, Walter Fürst of Uri, and Arnold von Melchthal in Unter-walden, each with ten companions, among whom was William Tell, resolved on a rising to expel the oppressors, which was fixed in literature at New Year’s Day 1308. The underlying reference is to a legend of the Swiss Confederation the origin of which dates back to the agreement between the three mountain cantons of Uri, Schwytz and Unterwalden in 1291. Supposedly representatives of the three cantons met in the Grutli (or Rutli) meadow in 1307, and took an oath of loyalty in the joint struggle against Austrian rule.
Fürstenberg, Barons and Princes
Fürstenberg is the name of a noble house in Germany, based primarily in southern Baden-Württemberg. The family derives its name from the fortified town of its founder, Count Heinrich von Fürstenberg.
BkXXXVI:Chap7:Sec1 The Danube has a major tributary, its traditional source, at Donauschingen, which rises in the grounds of the Fürstenberg Palace.
He was the Ambassador for Naples in Rome in 1828. A member of the Spinelli family, he was perhaps the aged Tomasso, Marquis of Fuscaldo (1743-1830)?
A town situated opposite Venice, where the Brenta meets the Venice Lagoon.
Fyon, Jean-Joseph de, General
1747-1818. A Revolutionary General from Verviers, he was a burgomaster (1772). A colonel of volunteers in 1790, he became General of the Army of the North in 1793. Imprisoned for conspiring against the Republic, he was subsequently freed.
BkXIX:Chap11:Sec1 Active in defending the Tuileries in 1795.