François de Chateaubriand

Mémoires d’Outre-Tombe: Index D


Dabancourt, for D’Abancourt, Charles Xavier Joseph de Franque Ville de,

1758-1792. A French statesman, and a nephew of Calonne, he was Louis XVI’s last minister of war (July 1792), and organised the defence of the Tuileries prior to the attack of August 10. Commanded by the Legislative Assembly to dismiss the Swiss Guards, he refused, and was arrested for treason to the nation and sent to Orléans to be tried. At the end of August the Assembly ordered D’Abancourt and other prisoners to be transferred to Paris with an escort commanded by Claude Fournier, the American. At Versailles they learned of the massacres at Paris, and D’Abancourt and his fellow-prisoners were murdered in cold blood on September 8, 1792. Fournier was unjustly charged with complicity in the crime.

BkXIX:Chap8:Sec1 Mentioned.


c.600-639 King of the Franks 632-639. The last of the Merovingians to exercise personal rule, he made himself independent of the great nobles, especially of Pepin of Landen. He extended his rule over the Basques and the Bretons. His reign was prosperous; and he acted as a patron of learning and the arts. He founded the first great abbey of Saint-Denis, where he is buried.

BkIII:Chap1:Sec1 BkIV:Chap9:Sec2 Mentioned.

BkIX:Chap8:Sec2 The body of Saint Hubert was preserved at Andain in the Ardennes, in an abbey founded by Dagobert. Hubert was Bishop of Liège and patron saint of hunters.

BkXXIII:Chap20:Sec3 His founding of the Abbey at Saint-Denis.

BkXXVI:Chap1:Sec1 The celebrated song concerning ‘Good king Dagobert’ dated from the Revolution, in which the sans-culottes ridiculed the monarchy, and was inspired by a supposed incident from Dagobert’s life in which he arrived at a council meeting with his trousers askew.

Dalberg, Karl Theodore Anton Maria von, Prince

1744-1817. Bishop of Constance 1800, Archbishop-Elector of Mainz 1802, Primate of the German Confederation (Ratisbon, 1803), he was a supporter of Napoleon. He died in Ratisbon.

BkXXXVI:Chap8:Sec1 Mentioned.

Dalberg, Emmerich Joseph, Duc de

1773-1833. A Nephew of Charles, he was in the service of the Grand-Duke of Baden, then attached himself to Napoleon, became a naturalised Frenchman, and assisted in the marriage of the Emperor with Marie-Louise. On the fall of Napoleon, he became a member of the provisional government. He accompanied Talleyrand to the Congress of Vienna as a plenipotentiary, and received a peerage from Louis XVIII and the Turin embassy. He is attributed with part-authorship of the Histoire de la Restauration of Capefigue.

BkXXII:Chap17:Sec1 A Member of the Provisional Government in 1814.

Dalbignac, Colonel

He was aide-de-camp to Marshal Ney during the retreat from Moscow.

BkXXI:Chap5:Sec3 Carried Ney’s letter to Napoleon in Russia.

Dalesme, Jean-Baptiste, General

1763-1832 Commander of the French Garrison on Elba, he was former deputy for the Haute-Vienne to the Legislative Corps.

BkXXII:Chap 26:Sec1 Napoleon’s letter to him.

Dallas, Lady

The wife of Charles Dallas (d.1855, Governor of St Helena for the East India Company, 1828-1836).

BkXXIV:Chap16:Sec1 Planted trees in the Valley of the Tomb.

Damas, Ange-Hyacinthe-Maxence, Baron de

1785-1862. General in the Russian army (1814), he was Minister of War (1823), and replaced Chateaubriand as Foreign Minister in June 1824. In 1828 he became tutor to the Duc de Bordeaux at Holyrood and Prague until 1833. He then retired to his estates in Dordogne.

BkXXVIII:Chap16:Sec1 Supports Villèle over the disbanding of the National Guard in April 1827.

BkXXVIII:Chap16:Sec1 He became tutor to the Duc de Bordeaux in 1828.

BkXXXI:Chap4:Sec1 Mentioned in 1829.

BkXXXVI:Chap10:Sec1 Mentioned in 1833.

BkXXXVII:Chap2:Sec1 BkXXXIX:Chap1:Sec1 Tutor to the Duc de Bordeaux in Prague in May 1833. He was a member of the Prague ‘triumvirate’.

BkXXXVII:Chap3:Sec1 BkXXXVII:Chap6:Sec1 Chateaubriand questions his ability.

BkXXXVII:Chap4:Sec1 BkXXXVIII:Chap4:Sec1 Henri’s dislike of him.

BkXLI:Chap6:Sec1 At Bustehrad, Prague, 27th of September 1833.

Damas, Comte Alfred de

1794-1840. The brother of Baron Damas, and a former Gentleman of the Chamber.

BkXXXVII:Chap5:Sec1 At dinner in the Hradschin Palace on the 25th of May 1833.


The capital and largest city of Syria. Founded approximately 2500 BC, it is thought to be the oldest continuously-inhabited city in the world, before Al Fayyum, and Gaziantep. The Burid Emirs withstood a siege of the city during the Second Crusade in 1148.

BkXXV:Chap9:Sec1 It never in fact became a Crusader principality.

Damasus I, Pope

c304-384. He was elected pope in October, 366, by a large majority, but a number of adherents of the deceased Liberius chose the deacon Ursinus (or Ursicinus), had the latter irregularly consecrated, and resorted to bloodshed in order to seat him in the Chair of Peter. Valentinian recognized Damasus and banished (367) the anti-Pope Ursinus to Cologne,

BkXXX:Chap2:Sec1 Mentioned.

Damaze de Raymond

A French writer and translator, his work on Russia, Tableau historique, géographique, militaire et moral de l'empire de Russie, was published in 1812. He was killed in a duel.

BkXVIII:Chap9:Sec1 Championed the Essay on Revolutions in his Réponse aux attaques dirigées contre M. de Chateaubriand, accompagnée de pièces justificatives, Paris 1813.

Dambray, Charles-Henri, Chevalier

1760-1829. French magistrate, he retired to Oissel during the Revolution and Empire. Louis XVIII at the Restoration made him Chancellor, Minister of Justice, and President of the Chamber of Peers. He took refuge in England during the Hundred Days.

BkXXII:Chap 24:Sec1 In 1814.

BkXXIII:Chap4:Sec1 Warns Chateaubriand of the King’s flight in March 1815.

BkXXIII:Chap8:Sec1 In Ghent in 1815.

BkXXIII:Chap19:Sec1 In Mons in 1815.

BkXXV:Chap2:Sec1 Chancellor in 1816. Chateaubriand corresponds with him.

Damiens,, Robert-François

1715-1757. He attained notoriety by unsuccessfully attempting the assassination of Louis XV in 1757. He was executed in barbaric fashion.

BkXLII:Chap10:Sec1 Mentioned.

Damietta, Egypt

A port in Dimyat, Egypt on the Mediterranean Sea at the Nile delta, about 200 kilometres north of Cairo, it was the object of the Seventh Crusade, led by Louis IX of France. His fleet arrived there in 1249 and quickly captured the fort, though he refused to hand it over to the nominal king of Jerusalem, to whom it had been promised during the Fifth Crusade. However, Louis too was eventually defeated in Egypt and was forced to give up the city.

BkXIX:Chap16:Sec1 Saint Louis the compassionate.

BkXL:Chap5:Sec1 The port mentioned.

Damrémont, General Chalres-Marie Denys de

1783-1837. Aide de camp to Marmont, he followed the King to Ghent during the Hundred Days. He later fought brilliantly in Spain and Algeria.

BkXXII:Chap12:Sec1 He signed the surrender of Paris in 1814.

Dandin, Georges

A character in a play by Molière, George Dandin ou le Mari confondu, was a 1668 comedy.

BkXXXI:Chap2:Sec1 Chateaubriand parodies part of Act II, Scene 8.

Dandini, Ercole, Cardinal

1759-1840. He was Cardinal of the Curia from 1823.

BkXXX:Chap4:Sec1 Mentioned.

Dandolo, Enrico, Doge

1107?-1205. The Doge of the city-state of Venice from 1192 until his death, he is remembered primarily for deflecting the Fourth Crusade away from fighting Islam and into attacking the Christians of Croatia and the Byzantine Empire.

BkXXXVII:Chap14:Sec1 The quote is from Villehardouin’s The Conquest of Constantinople, 34.

BkXXXIX:Chap12:Sec1 BkXXXIX:Chap17:Sec1 BkXXXIX:Chap19:Sec1

Mentioned. Constantinople fell in 1204.

Dangeau, Philippe de Courcilon, Marquis de

1638-1720. A French officer and author, born in Chartres, he is best remembered for keeping a diary from 1684 till the year of his death. These Memoirs, which Saint-Simon said were ‘so insipid as to make you feel ill, contain many facts about the reign of Louis XIV.

BkXXVI:Chap5:Sec1 His Journal mentioned.

Danican, Auguste

1763-1848. A revolutionary general, dismissed during the War of the Vendée for ineptitude, he had been found a job in Rouen. After Vendémiaire he sought refuge in England where he published a pamphlet opposing the Convention in 1796.

BkXIX:Chap11:Sec1 He was summoned from Rouen to head the Sections.


A French officer who worked with Lazare Carnot.

BkXIX:Chap12:Sec2 Mentioned.

Dante Alighieri

1265-1321 An Italian Poet, born in Florence, he was actively involved in the struggle between the Black Guelphs supported by the Pope, and the White Guelphs who favoured a democratic commune. He was exiled and settled eventually in Ravenna c. 1318. Author of La Vita Nuova (c.1292) an autobiographical work concerning his love for Beatrice (probably based on Beatrice Portinari who died at the age of 24), various political and literary treatises, and La Divina Commedia, started c. 1307 a spiritual journey through the divine realms.

Preface:Sect3 Mentioned by Chateaubriand.

Preface:Sect4 An example of a writer involved with the politics and social upheaval of his times.

BkI:Chap4:Sec2 Chateaubriand quotes from Paradiso XVII, 58-69.

BkV:Chap12:Sec1 His descriptions of Florentine factionalism.

BkX:Chap2:Sec1 Chateaubriand quotes Inferno XXXII:127.

BkX:Chap9:Sec1 The Divine Comedy mentioned.

BkX:Chap9:Sec2 Chateaubriand quotes from Inferno I:73.

BkXII:Chap1:Sec1 Great poet of the Early Middle Ages.

BkXII:Chap1:Sec1 Referred to in a poem of Michelangelo’s.

BkXII:Chap1:Sec1 Originator of modern Italian literature.

BkXII:Chap5:Sec1 Chateaubriand quotes from Purgatorio VIII:5-6

BkXIII:Chap11:Sec1 Ginguené accused Chateaubriand of a lack of appreciation for Dante which Chateaubriand subsequently rectified in his Essai sur la litterature anglaise.

BkXIV:Chap4:Sec1 Chateaubriand quotes from Inferno XIV:46-47.

BkXIX:Chap3:Sec1 A reference to Purgatorio VI:20

BkXXIV:Chap9:Sec1 The quotation is from Purgatorio I:22-24. ‘I turned towards the right, looking towards the Pole and saw four stars…’

BkXXIV:Chap12:Sec1 He stayed in the Monastery of Santa Croce in Corvo in Liguria The monastery was visited by Dante who negotiated a peace between the Bishop of Luni and the Marquis of Malaspina.

BkXXV:Chap1:Sec1 Dante, accompanied by Virgil, meets the other great poets Homer, Horace, Ovid and Lucan in Limbo, See Inferno IV:82-105.

BkXXVI:Chap5:Sec1 He was as involved in politics as in poetry.

BkXXVIII:Chap16:Sec1 See Inferno Canto IX:118.

BkXXIX:Chap1:Sec5 See Purgatorio VIII:6

BkXXIX:Chap2:Sec2 BkXXIX:Chap6:Sec1 He died in exile at Ravenna in 1321 and his tomb is near the Basilica of St Francis. A bag supposedly containing some of his ashes has recently been discovered in Florence. The tomb’s exterior is Neo-Classical, 1780, built by Camillo Morigia. The first quotation is from Purgatorio XVI:65-66. The second and third are from Vita Nuova XXI:39 and 71-76. The fourth is from Purgatorio XXX:126-127, where Beatrice reproaches Dante. The fifth is from a Latin letter to a Florentine friend, of 1315-1317. The sixth is from Inferno XV:85.

BkXXIX:Chap2:Sec3 The reference is to Inferno:75

BkXXX:Chap14:Sec1 See Paradiso XI:58-75.

BkXXXIX:Chap4:Sec1 He visited Venice in 1306 and 1321 as an emissary from Ravenna.

BkXXXIX:Chap5:Sec1 The 14th century Divine Comedy in the Marciana in Venice.

BkXXXIX:Chap8:Sec1 See Inferno XXI:7-15.

BkXXXIX:Chap15:Sec1 Artaud’s translation of the Divine Comedy. The quotations are from Purgatorio XXX, lines 31-32, and then lines 28-29.

BkXL:Chap2:Sec1 His possible visit to Paris.

BkXLII:Chap2:Sec1 See Inferno I:49-50.

Danton, Georges-Jacques

1759-1794 A statesman and orator, he was a leader of the Cordeliers in 1789 and 1790, and became Minister of Justice in the new Republic in 1792. A member of the first Committee of Public Safety, he lost power as the Reign of Terror developed. He and his followers were arrested in March 1794, charged with conspiracy and guillotined.

BkIX:Chap1:Sec1 The Legislative Assembly elected on a restricted middle-class franchise met on 1st October 1791. It excluded all members of the Constituent Assembly. Danton was not initially elected to it.

BkIX:Chap3:Sec1 A contingent of 500 citizen soldiers from Marseilles who had put down a royalist insurrection in Arles, equipped by Danton, arrived in Paris towards the end of July 1792, bringing with them the Marseillaise penned by Rouget de Lisle at Strasbourg for the Army of the Rhine and adapted by the fédérés.

BkIX:Chap4:Sec1 BkIX:Chap4:Sec2 BkXXXIX:Chap3:Sec1

Description and fate.

BkXI:Chap3:Sec3 BkXIII:Chap4:Sec1 BkXXXIV:Chap12:Sec1

BkXXXV:Chap26:Sec1 BkXLII:Chap2:Sec1 Mentioned.

BkXXIV:Chap5:Sec1 Quoted.

Dantzig, François Joseph Lefebvre, Duc de, Marshal of France

1755-1820. A Marshal of France, he rose from the ranks in the Revolutionary Wars and distinguished himself under Napoleon. He aided Napoleon in the coup of 18 Brumaire and was later made (1803) duke of Dantzig. His wife, who had been a washerwoman, caused some sensation through her unconventional manners and is the heroine of Victorien Sardou’s play Madame Sans-Gêne.

BkXX:Chap6:Sec2 His taking of Danzig on the 27th of May 1807 after a long siege.

BkXXI:Chap8:Sec1 Commanded the infantry during the retreat.


Europe’s second-longest river (after the Volga) originates in the Black Forest in Germany as two smaller rivers, the Brigach and the Breg, which meet at Donaueschingen, and it is from here that it is known as the Danube, flowing generally eastwards for a distance of some 1770 miles, passing through several Central and Eastern European capitals, before emptying into the Black Sea via the Danube Delta in Romania.

BkXXXVI:Chap6:Sec1 Chateaubriand crosses it in 1833.

BkXXXVI:Chap7:Sec1 Ister was the Roman name for the lower course of the Danube, the Euxine being the Black Sea.

Danzig (Dantzig), Poland

Gdańsk (German name Danzig), the port in Northern Poland, is on the Baltic. It developed as a trade centre during the Renaissance. It was at times under Prussian control (1793-1807 and 1814-1919). From 1807-1815 it was the Free City of Danzig, during the Napoleonic era.

BkI:Chap1:Sec9 It was besieged by Russian forces during the Battle of Danzig in 1734, in the War of the Polish Succession. It fell in 1735.

BkIV:Chap6:Sec1 BkXLII:Chap10:Sec1 Chateaubriand’s father encountered the Russians there.

BkXX:Chap6:Sec2 Lefevbre took Danzig on the 27th of May 1807 after a siege commencing on the 19th of March.

BkXX:Chap13:Sec1 Napoleon there 7-11 June 1812.


The Hellespont was the ancient name of this strait separating Europe from Asian Turkey, connecting the Sea of Marmara with the Aegean Sea.

BkXVIII:Chap2:Sec1 Chateaubriand there in September 1806.

BkXXIX:Chap13:Sec2 Mentioned.

Darfur, Africa

A region of the far-western Sudan in which Sultan Abd-er-Rahman reigned 1785-1799, surnamed el-Rashid or the Just. While Napoleon was campaigning in Egypt, Abd-er-Rahman wrote to congratulate the French general on his defeat of the Mamluks. To this Bonaparte replied by asking the sultan to send him by the next caravan 2000 black slaves upwards of sixteen years old, strong and vigorous. Abd-er-Rahman also established a new capital at Al Fashir, the royal township, which he established as capital in 1791/2.

BkXIX:Chap18:Sec1 His exchange of letters with Napoleon.

Darius III, Codomannus

d.330BC. King of ancient Persia (336–330). A cousin of Artaxerxes III, he was raised to the throne by the eunuch Bagoas, who murdered both Artaxerxes and his son, Arses; Darius in turn murdered Bagoas. When Alexander invaded Persia, Darius was defeated at the battle of Issus (333), and again at the battle of Gaugamela, near Arbela (331). Darius was forced to flee to Bactria. It was there that the satrap, Bessus, had him murdered. These events ended the Persian Empire and marked the start of the Hellenistic period in the Eastern Mediterranean. Darius III is probably the Darius the Persian mentioned in the Bible (Nehemiah: 12.22).

BkXXIII:Chap12:Sec1 Defeated at Arbela.

Daru, Pierre-Antoine-Noël Bruno, Comte

1726-1829 A French soldier, administrator, statesman, and writer, he served in the French Revolutionary Wars, was imprisoned during the Reign of Terror, and became chief of the army commissary under Napoleon I, who made him a Count. His exemplary administration contributed to Napoleon’s victories. Daru also filled various cabinet posts under Napoleon and was made a peer after the restoration of the Bourbons. His writings include histories of Venice and Brittany, and translations of Horace.

BkXVIII:Chap8:Sec2 Takes a copy of Chateaubriand’s Academy acceptance speech to Napoleon. In fact it was Regnaud and Ségur who informed Napoleon of the affair.

BkXXI:Chap1:Sec1 His disapproval of the Russian Campaign of 1812.

BkXXI:Chap4:Sec4 His advice to Napoleon in Moscow in 1812.

Darwin, Erasmus

1731-1802. British physician, scientist, reformer, and poet, whose Zoonomia (1794–1796) anticipated the evolutionary theories of his grandson Charles.

BkXII:Chap3:Sec1 Mentioned.

Dasté, Madame

A woman of the Bordeaux Market in 1820.

BkXXV:Chap12:Sec1 Mentioned.

David, King of Israel

d.962BC. King of Israel c1000-962BC, he was anointed by Samuel as successor to Saul. After Saul’s death he was proclaimed King of Hebron, and then all Israel. He conquered Jerusalem and united the tribes.

BkXIII:Chap7:Sec2 The words are those of David after the death of his child by Bathsheba. Samuel: XII.23

BkXIII:Chap11:Sec2 See the Psalm of David XXIV:9

BkXX:Chap4:Sec1 Anointed by Samuel, see 1st Samuel XVI;13

BkXXII:Chap13:Sec1 See Psalms CXXXVII:6

BkXXXIX:Chap1:Sec1 Jesus was traditionally of the House of David.

BkXLII:Chap13:Sec1 See 1st Samuel:XVI.

David II, King of Scotland

1324-1371. King of Scotland from 1329, and allied with France, he was defeated at Neville’s Cross in 1346 and imprisoned till 1357.

BkXXXVIII:Chap2:Sec1 Chateaubriand incorrectly writes Robert Bruce, his father, who was succeeded by David in 1329.

David, Jacques-Louis

1748-1825 French painter in the Neoclassical style. In the 1780s his cerebral brand of History painting marked a change in taste away from Rococo frivolity towards a classical austerity and severity, chiming with the moral climate of the final years of the ancien régime. He became an active supporter of the Revolution and a friend of Robespierre, and was effectively a dictator of the arts under the French Republic. Imprisoned after Robespierre’s fall from power, he later aligned himself with Napoleon I. It was at this time that he developed his ‘Empire style’, notable for its use of warm Venetian colours. David had a large number of pupils, making him the strongest influence on French art of the 19th century, especially academic Salon painting.

BkXIII:Chap4:Sec1 His influence on taste.

BkXXIX:Chap1:Sec2 His unfinished portrait of 1800 of Madame Récamier reclining, is in the Louvre.

David, Pierre-Jean

1788-1856. Usually called David d’Angers, he was a French sculptor noted for his pediment of the Pantheon, his marble Philopoemen in the Louvre and his monument to General Gobert in Père Lachaise Cemetery. In addition to that of Gobert, he did sculptures for seven other tombs at Père Lachaise, including the bronze busts of the writer, Honoré de Balzac and physician Samuel Hahnemann. His marble bust of Chateaubriand executed in July 1829 is now at Combourg. He also executed a medallion portrait of the writer in the following year.

BkXXXV:Chap17:Sec1 Chateaubriand had met Dumas at his house

Davoust, (or Davout) Louis Nicolas, Marshal, Duc d’Anerstädt, Prince d’Eckmühl

1770-1823. One of Napoleon's ablest generals, Davout defeated a Prussian army at Auerstadt (1806) and played a brilliant part in the victory at Wagram (1809). He also fought (1812) in the Russian campaign. Napoleon made him duke of Auerstedt, prince of Eckmühl, and gave him political posts including control of N Germany and Poland (1807–9). During the Hundred Days, Davout was minister of war, and after the final defeat of Napoleon (1815) and the restoration of King Louis XVIII he was for several years deprived of his rank and titles.

BkXX:Chap5:Sec1 As commander of the III corps of the Grande Armée, Davout rendered the greatest services. At the Battle of Austerlitz, after a forced march of forty-eight hours, the III corps bore the brunt of the allies' attack.

BkXX:Chap6:Sec1 He took Leipzig in October 1806.

BkXX:Chap10:Sec1 Made a crucial attack at Wagram.

BkXXI:Chap2:Sec1 BkXXI:Chap3:Sec1 At Borodino.

BkXXI:Chap6:Sec1 At Smolensk in November 1812.

Dazincourt, (Joseph-Jean-Baptiste Albouy)

1744-1809. An actor, he debuted in Regnard’s Les Folies amoureuses 1776. Created the role of Figaro in Beaumarchais’ play in 1784. He was favoured by Napoleon.

BkIV:Chap11:Sec1 Actor at the Théâtre-Français.

Deane, Silas

1737-1789. Political leader and diplomat in the American Revolution. A lawyer and merchant at Wethersfield, Conn., he was elected (1772) to the state assembly and became a leader in the revolutionary cause. He was (1774–76) a delegate to the Continental Congress, which sent (1776) him as diplomatic agent to France. There Deane worked with Pierre de Beaumarchais in securing commercial and military aid for the colonies, obtaining supplies that were of material help in the Saratoga campaign (1777). He recruited a number of foreign officers, such as the Marquis de Lafayette, Casimir Pulaski, Baron von Steuben, and Johann De Kalb. Late in 1776, Congress sent Benjamin Franklin and Arthur Lee to join Deane. Together they arranged (1778) a commercial and military alliance with France. Deane, however, was soon recalled by Congress and was faced with accusations of profiteering made against him by Lee. Embittered, unable to clear himself, and accused as a traitor after publication of some pessimistic private letters, Deane lived the rest of his life in exile. In 1842 Congress voted $37,000 to his heirs as restitution and characterized Lee’s audit of Deane’s accounts ‘a gross injustice.’

BkIX:Chap5:Sec1 Mentioned.

Deboffe, Joseph C.

London Bookseller who handled the sale of Chateaubriand’s Essai, 1797. Cox and Baylis the printers are recorded as selling through Deboffe, and through Dulau and Co. Deboffe, who imported foreign books, had premises at 7 Gerard Street (1792-1807) and 10 Nassau Street (1808-1818), both in Soho. A. B. Dulau and Co, printers and French booksellers, operated from 37 Soho Square (1800-1843) and ran a circulating library. Both also sold the Mercure de France.

BkX:Chap5:Sec1 BkX:Chap6:Sec1 BkXI:Chap1:Sec1 Contracted to sell the Essai, subject to a promise of reimbursement for poor sales.

BkX:Chap7:Sec1 Lent Chateaubriand money to reach Beccles, and gave him a letter of introduction to the minister there.

BkXI:Chap2:Sec1 The Essai was printed in 1797 and appeared on the 18th of March.

Decazes, Élisée, Baron

A diplomat, he was the nephew of the Duke Decazes.

BkVI:Chap1:Sec1 Second secretary since 1818.

Decazes, Élie, Duc

1780-1860 French statesman, he was a favourite of King Louis XVIII, who made him a duke in 1820. A lawyer and judge (Seine, 1806), Decazes was Secretary to Louis Bonaparte (1807), a Councillor at the Paris Court (1811), and Secretary to Madame Mère. At the Restoration he supported the new regime, and stayed loyal during the Hundred Days. Minister of Police in 1815 (September, succeeding Fouché), he was influential in the French government (Interior Minister, December 1818) even before he became (1819) Premier. His government maintained a precarious balance between the ultra-royalists and the radicals, as he emerged as a leader of the moderates supporting a constitutional government. His downfall came when the ultra-royalists accused him of complicity in the assassination (1820) of the Duc de Berry. He resigned, but Louis XVIII made him a Duke, and sent him as ambassador to England (1820–21). Decazes continued to figure in politics until the February Revolution of 1848.

BkVI:Chap1:Sec1 French Ambassador to London 1820-1822, prior to Chateaubriand.

BkXXV:Chap2:Sec1 His reaction to La Monarchie selon la Charte.

BkXXV:Chap4:Sec1 A favourite of Louis XVIII.

BkXXV:Chap5:Sec1 BkXXV:Chap11:Sec1 A Minister in 1815. He came originally from Libourne, hence was a southerner. His fall. Chateaubriand’s comment about his feet slipping in blood was published in his ‘Paris Letter’ in the Conservateur of 3rd March 1820.

BkXXV:Chap13:Sec1 Decazes resigned on the 17th February 1820. On the 20th Richelieu accepted the Presidency of the Council, while Comte Simon took the Interior Ministry.

BkXXVI:Chap11:Sec1 Replaced as ambassador in London, by the decree of 9th January 1822, by Chateaubriand.

BkXXVII:Chap2:Sec1 Chateaubriand entrusted by Louis with discussing him with George IV.

BkXXXII:Chap2:Sec1 Quoted.

Decazes, Monsieur

Father of the Minister.

BkXXV:Chap5:Sec1 Mentioned.

Dee, River

There are three rivers of that name in the UK. Here it is the river in north-east Scotland, flowing east to the sea at Aberdeen.

BkXII:Chap4:Sec2 Byron, whose early childhood was spent in Aberdeen, as the bard of the Dee.

Deffand, Marie de Vichy-Chamrond, Madame du

1697-1780. French woman of letters, whose salon was frequented (1753-80) by the leaders of the Enlightenment. She is widely considered the most brilliant woman of her era. Her letters (1766-80) to Horace Walpole, whom she loved deeply, are typical of her brilliant, witty correspondence.

BkXIII:Chap7:Sec2 Madame de Vintimille might have lived in her company.

Dego, Battle of

14th-15th April 1796. After his success at Montenotte two days before, Napoleon pushed the Austrians from the town of Dego in Lombardy. An Austrian assault in turn ejected him, but a personally led counterattack won the battle for Bonaparte and the French.

BkXIX:Chap14:Sec3 Mentioned.

Degousée, Joseph

A Republican.

BkXXXII:Chap16:Sec1 At the Palais-Royal on the 31st of July 1830.

Del Drago, Princess

She was a member of the Roman nobility in 1828.

BkXXIX:Chap8:Sec1 Mentioned.


He was an aide-de-Camp to Marmont in 1830. Is this possibly Charles Édouard Delarue-Beaumarchais, 1799-1878, who was later a Brigadier-General in 1852?

BkXXXII:Chap12:Sec1 At Saint-Cloud 30th July 1830.

Delattre, Doctor

Chateaubriand’s doctor in Jersey. He came from Saint-Servan and had practised in Jersey since 1791.

BkX:Chap3:Sec1 Treated Chateaubriand during the winter of 1792-3.

De Launay, Bernard-René Jourdan, Marquis

1740-1789 Governor of the Bastille.


A gentleman of the neighbourhood of Combourg.

BkIV:Chap5:Sec1 Signatory to Chateaubriand’s father’s death certificate.

Delaunay, Maître Mathieu

A member of the League.

BkXXXII:Chap15:Sec1 Mentioned.

Delaunay-Boisé-Lucas, see Boisé-Lucas

Delaware River

The Delaware is a major U. S. river on whose banks Philadelphia stands.

BkVI:Chap7:Sec1 BkVIII:Chap7:Sec1 Mentioned.

Delessert, Benjamin

1773-1847. Industrialist and economist he was a Deputy 1817-1824 and 1827-1842. His brother Gabriel was Prefect of Police 1836-1848.

BkXXXII:Chap8:Sec1 Appointed as a Commissioner on the 30th July 1830 to confer with the Peers.

Delessert, Valentine de Laborde, Madame

1806-1894. The niece of Natalie de Nouailles she married Gabriel Delessert (1786-1858) in 1824. He became Prefect of Police from 1836 to 1848, and a Peer of France. Merimée’s future Muse she collaborated on the Legitimist paper La Mode where her drawings were a great success.

BkXXXV:Chap4:Sec1 Mentioned.

Delga, Jacques-Michel, Colonel

1771-1809. Fought in Italy and Egypt. He was Squadron-Leader, commanding the Guards infantry at Vincennes on the execution of the Duc d’Enghien. He commanded the 2nd Line Regiment in Germany and Austria. Made a Baron of the Empire, and a General on the eve of his death at Wagram, the appointment was never made official.

BkXVI:Chap5:Sec1 Gave the order for the Duc d’Enghien’s execution?

Deliège, Monsieur

A claimant on the French Embassy in London in 1822.

BkXXVII:Chap1:Sec1 Mentioned.


BkXXX:Chap13:Sec1 BkXXXVIII:Chap5:Sec1 A pseudonym for Tibullus’ mistress.


The lover of Samson, she cut off his hair which was his strength and betrayed him to the Philistines. See Judges 16.


Delille, Jacques

1738-1813. Born in the Auvergne, he received his education at the Collège de Lisieux in Paris and became an instructor at the Collège de la Marche in the same city. His translation into verse of Virgil’s ‘Georgics’, which appeared in 1770, had great success and eventually won for him a seat in the French Academy. He was afterwards appointed to the chair of poetry in the Collège de France and through the patronage of the Count d’ Artois he received as a benefice the Abbey of Saint-Severin, but took only minor orders. The French Revolution deprived him of his position and benefice, and in 1794 he had to leave France; his exile was spent in Switzerland, Germany, and England. He returned to France in 1802 and again took his seat in the French Academy.

BkIV:Chap12:Sec4 Mentioned.

BkXI:Chap2:Sec2 Described. He wrote of the émigré ills in his poem La Pitié of 1803.

BkXI:Chap5:Sec1 In London from July 1799, lodging with Dulau. His poem L’Imagination which appeared in Paris in 1806 has echoes of the Génie.

BkXVIII:Chap8:Sec2 Chateaubriand’s praise of him in his Academy speech.

BkXIX:Chap9:Sec1 Lines quoted from La Pitié (1830)

BkXXII:Chap3:Sec1 His death on the 2nd of May 1813.

Delille, Marie-Jeanne Vaudechamps, Madame

b 1772 A servant from Saint-Diez the Vosges, employed as a governess, 34 years his junior, whom Delille married in 1801. He had taken refuge with her in the Vosges during the Terror.

BkXI:Chap2:Sec2 Her tyrannical treatment of him mentioned.

Delisle de Sales, Jean-Baptiste Claude Isoard

1741-1816 Philosopher. Author of Philosophie de la nature (1770), which was condemned by the Chatelet and the author imprisoned there in 1777. He was sentenced to banishment but the sentence was quashed. He also wrote the Histoire des Hommes (1780-1785). A prolific, fertile, and somewhat neglected writer and compiler.

BkIV:Chap10:Sec3 BkIV:Chap11:Sec1 Mentioned as an acquaintance of Julie, and described. He collected a library of 36,000 volumes.

Della Genga, Cardinal, see Leo XII

Della Marmora, Carlo Ferrer, Cardinal

1757-1831. Cardinal from 1824.

BkXXX:Chap4:Sec1 Mentioned.

Della Somaglia, Cardinal, see La Somaglia

Delloye, Henri-Louis

A Paris printer and bookseller he established with Sala the company which became the owner of Chateaubriand’s Memoirs.

BkXL:Chap4:Sec1 Mentioned.


The Greek island in the Aegean, one of the Cyclades, was the birthplace of, and sacred to, Apollo (Phoebus) and Diana (Phoebe, Artemis), hence the adjective Delian. Its ancient name was Ortygia. A wandering island it gave sanctuary to Latona (Leto). Having been hounded by jealous Juno (Hera), she gave birth there to the twins Apollo and Diana, between an olive tree and a date-palm on the north side of Mount Cynthus. (Pausanias VIII xlvii, mentions the sacred palm-tree, noted there in Homer’s Odyssey 6, 162, and the ancient olive.) Delos then became fixed in the sea. In a variant she gave birth to Artemis-Diana on the islet of Ortygia nearby.

BkI:Chap4:Sec5 Saint-Malo is Chateaubriand’s ‘Delos’.

BkVIII:Chap4:Sec2 The Greek island mentioned.

Delphi, Greece

A village in Phocis at the foot of Mount Parnassus (modern Kastri), it was the site of the ancient temple and oracle of Apollo. A stadium for the Pythian Games stood nearby. Its influence declined after the 4th century BC and it was closed by the Christian Emperor Theodosius in 390AD.

BkXVIII:Chap3Sec5 Mentioned.


A work by Madame de Staël.

BkXXIX:Chap1:Sec4 Mentioned.

Delzons, Alexis-Joseph, General

1775-1812. A Napoleonic general, he fought in Egypt and Europe. He was killed at Maloyaroslavets during the retreat from Moscow.

BkXXI:Chap5:Sec1 Mentioned.

Demaret, for Desmarest, Pierre-Marie

1764-1832. Originally a priest, at Chartres, he became a violent Jacobin from 1792 until 1799. Sponsored by Réal and Fouché he became Divisional Chief of the Sûreté, and head of the Secret Police under Napoleon, until 1814.

BkXVIII:Chap7:Sec1 Armand taken to his office in Paris.

Demir-Capi, Khan of

Demir-Capi, the ‘Iron Gate’, was the Turkish name for various narrow passes, for example that at Derbend between the Caucasus and the Caspian Sea (see Marco Polo’s Travels, Chapter V) or that near Medina said to have been made by the sword of Ali, Mohammed’s son-in-law (See Hakluyt’s Navigations etc IX.)

BkXVIII:Chap4Sec1 The name of a Khan (=Caravanserai) which Chateaubriand stayed at.


384-322BC. Athenian orator and statesman, he opposed Macedonian ambitions in the Philippics. The Macedonians defeated the Athenian-Theban alliance at Chaeronea in 338, assuring Macedonian supremacy in Greece. After the death of Alexander, he fostered a Greek revolt, was condemned to death, fled Athens and committed suicide.

BkVIII:Chap5:Sec3 He was chosen, according to Plutarch, to give the funeral oration for the dead of Chaeronea.

BkXII:Chap3:Sec1 The precise harmonies in the classical pronunciation of his work are unknown today.

BkXIX:Chap1:Sec1 Chateaubriand refers to his famous Oration on the Crown: 13.

BkXXIV:Chap5:Sec1 BkXXX:Chap11:Sec2 A famous orator.

Denis, Charles-Nicolas

1751-1822. A Paris notary, he operated there from 1780.

BkXXV:Chap6:Sec1 He handled a number of transactions for Chateaubriand and ran a sale of Chateaubriand’s country house, by lottery, in 1817.

Denis, Colonel, see Damrémont, General de

Denis, Marie-Louise Mignot, Madame

1712-1790. The daughter of Voltaire’s sister. In 1737, Voltaire assisted in arranging the marriage of his niece, and assumed financial responsibility for her on the premature death of her husband in 1744. Marie Louise was hostess to the many people who visited Voltaire’s chateau at Ferney. On Voltaire's death in 1778, Madame Denis inherited the bulk of his estate. Preferring Paris society, she sold the chateau and returned to the capital.

BkXXVI:Chap9:Sec1 Voltaire’s letter to her of 26th December 1750.

Denmark, Christian-Frederick, Prince of

1786-1848. Cousin of King Frederick VI, he succeeded him in 1839 as Christian VIII. As governor and King (May–October, 1814) of Norway he accepted a liberal Norwegian constitution that is still in use with some modifications. His reign brought prosperity to Denmark. The nature of Danish rule in the duchies of Schleswig-Holstein became a prominent issue in 1846. His son Frederick VII succeeded him.

BkXXVII:Chap5:Sec1 Chateaubriand gives a reception for him.

Denmark, Caroline Amalia of Augustenburg, Princess of

1796-1881. She was the daughter of Louise Augusta of Denmark, and married Prince Christian in 1815. They lived in comparative retirement as leaders of the literary and scientific society of Copenhagen until he inherited the throne.

BkXXVII:Chap5:Sec1 Mentioned.

Denon, Dominique Vivant, Baron

1747-1825. A Writer, and painter, he carried out missions for the Foreign Office in Russia and Switzerland in the 1770’s. He was Secretary to the Embassy in Naples in 1785. Lived in Venice until 1793, when, expelled as a possible spy, he returned to France. Aged 50 he went on Napoleon’s Egyptian expedition of 1798. On his return he worked on countless engravings from the journey, and published his narrative, which helped to create the fashion for all things Egyptian and gave him an International reputation. In 1802 he became Director of the Central Museum of the Arts, and on the fall of the Empire the first Director of the Louvre.

BkXVIII:Chap5:Sec2 Chateaubriand’s portrait by Girodet accepted for the Salon.

BkXIX:Chap17:Sec1 Chateaubriand quotes from his Voyage dans la basse et haute Égypte pendant les campagnes de général Bonaparte, 1802.

BkXXXIX:Chap16:Sec1 An attendee at Contessa Albrizzi’s salon.


He was a companion of Armand de Chateaubriand in 1809.

BkXVIII:Chap7:Sec1 Imprisoned at Coutances.

Desaix de Veygoux, Louis-Charles-Antoine, General

1768-1800. A French general in the Revolutionary Wars, he served under Jourdan and Moreau on the Rhine and distinguished himself in Napoleon’s Egyptian campaign. He saved the day for Napoleon at Marengo, dying in the battle.

BkXIX:Chap3:Sec1 His noble birth.

BkXIX:Chap14:Sec1 Went with Napoleon on the Egyptian Campaign.

BkXIX:Chap17:Sec1 BkXIX:Chap18:Sec1 Subdued Upper Egypt in 1799, pursuing Murad Bey during the latter half of 1798, and defeating him decisively at Samhoud in January 1799. In March he was at Aswan, 800 kilometres from Cairo. Napoleon sang his praises.

BkXX:Chap2:Sec1 His death at Marengo on the 14th of June 1800, was on the same day Kléber was assassinated.

De Sales, Delisle (= Izouard, Isoard, Isouard, Jean-Baptiste Claude)

c1741-1816. A philosopher and writer, his De la Philosophie de la Nature (1766) caused a scandal for its professed atheism and nihilism. The work was condemned to be burned, the author imprisoned and the censor exiled. Delisle filed for appeal and was supported by the whole circle of the philosophes who saw in him the champion of liberty of thought and expression. He spent the rest of his life trying to earn himself a reputation as a writer and philosopher and his production of works dealing with a variety of subjects is impressive. He wrote speculative books on utopias etc, and various tracts on happiness, the freedom of the press etc. He published Ma République in 1787.

BkXI:Chap2:Sec1 Chateaubriand sent him a copy of the Essai.

BkXIII:Chap3:Sec2 He published Mémoire en faveur de Dieu in 1802 (Year X). Chateaubriand looked him up in Paris in 1800.

Desbassyns, Philippe, Comte de Richemont

1774-1840. A Colonial administrator he became deputy for the Meuse under Charles X.

BkXIX:Chap16:Sec3 His sister Mélanie married Joseph de Villèle in 1799.

Desbordes-Valmore, Marceline

1786-1859. She was a French lyric poetess.

BkXLII:Chap6:Sec1 Mentioned.


He was concierge at Chateaubriand’s house in the Rue d’Enfer in June 1832.

BkXXXV:Chap4:Sec1 Mentioned.

Desclozeaux, see Ducluzeau


She is the tragic heroine of Shakespeare’s Othello, Othello being a Moor of Venice.

BkXXVII:Chap11:Sec1 BkXXXIX:Chap21:Sec1 Mentioned.

BkXXXIX:Chap13:Sec1 See Othello I:3:164-165. Chateaubriand adapts the lines.

Desgarcins, Magdeleine-Marie (originally Louise)

1769-1797. A French actress, born at Mont Dauphin (Hautes Alpes), in her short career she became one of the greatest of French tragdiennes, the associate of Talma, with whom she nearly always played. Her debut at the Comédie Francaise occurred on the 24th of May 1788, in Bajazet, and was a great success. She was one of the actresses who left the Comédie Francaise in 1791 for the house in the Rue Richelieu, soon to become the Théatre de La République, and there her triumphs were no less in King Lear, Othello, La Harpe’s Melanie et Virginie, &c. Her health, however, failed, and she died insane, in Paris, on the 27th of October 1797.

BkIV:Chap11:Sec1 Actress at the Théâtre-Français.

BkXI:Chap3:Sec1 Fontanes addressed her in verse in the Journal de Paris of 15th June 1788, after her debut.

Desgenettes, René-Nicholas

1762-1837. Inspector General of the Health Service, he published a Medical History of the Army of the East in 1802.

BkXIX:Chap16:Sec2 BkXXI:Chap5:Sec1 Present in Egypt at Jaffa in 1799.


He transmitted a despatch to Chateaubriand in Rome in May 1829.

BkXXX:Chap10:Sec1 Mentioned.


French Ambassador to Constantinople in the 17th Century.

BkXXIX:Chap7:Sec1 Mentioned.

Deshoulières, Antoinette de Ligier de la Garde, Madame

1637-1694. A French poetess, she was appreciated by Voltaire.

BkXLII:Chap6:Sec1 Mentioned.

Désilles de Cambernon, Marc, Seigneur de La Fosse-Hingant

c.60 years of age in 1793. He was the treasurer of the Breton Conspiracy. He fled to Jersey after the failure of the conspiracy where he met Chateaubriand.

BkV:Chap15:Sec3 His family mentioned. One of his daughters, Jeanne, and his brother-in-law Michel Picot de Limoëlan (father of Chateaubriand’s schoolfriend) were guillotined in June 1793, along with the Comtesse de Trojolif.

Desjardins, Captain

Captain of a fishing-vessel of 160 tons, the Saint-Pierre, out of Saint-Malo, commissioned to take a group of seminarists to Baltimore (illegally).

BkV:Chap15:Sec4 He agreed to take Chateaubriand also.

Desmarets, Jean

c1312-1383 Advocate-General at the High Court of Paris. Beheaded, 1383.

BkII:Chap7:Sec2 Chateaubriand quotes him.

Desmarets, Charles

1763-1830 Chief of the Imperial Police.

Desmaret, Cyprien-

He was a member of the Committee for the Medal-Winners of July.

BkXXXV:Chap1:Sec1 Mentioned in April 1832.

Desmortiers, Louis-Henri

1782-1869. Councillor at the Court of Paris during the Restoration, he was Royal Prosecutor under the July Monarchy.

BkXXXV:Chap6:Sec1 He interviews Chateaubriand in 1832.

Desmoulins, Lucie Simplice Camille Benoist

1760-1794. A French revolutionary and journalist, his oratory of July 12th 1789 contributed to the storming of the Bastille two days later. His pamphlets and journals, such as Révolutions de France et de Brabant (1789), were received with immense enthusiasm. Elected to the Convention (1792), he attacked the Girondists in the Histoire des Brissotins; but late in 1793, after the execution of Girondist leaders, Desmoulins, along with Georges Danton, counselled moderation, publishing the journal Le Vieux Cordelier. He was arrested with Danton and others, and executed. His beautiful wife, Lucile Duplessis, was guillotined shortly after.

BkIV:Chap12:Sec1 BkXIII:Chap4:Sec1 He frequented the dubious area of the Palais-Royal, but in fact was noted for his conjugal fidelity.

BkV:Chap8:Sec1 He became distinguished as a popular orator in June 1789.

BkIX:Chap3:Sec2 Camille used the title procureur-général de la lanterne in his pamphlets.

BkIX:Chap4:Sec1 One of Danton’s ‘Furies’.

BkIX:Chap4:Sec2 Guillotined at the age of 34 (born March, died April) though he claimed to be 33 still, the same age as Jesus, in front of the tribunal.

BkXXXIV:Chap12:Sec1 BkXLII:Chap2:Sec1 Mentioned.

Desmoulins, Lucile (Duplessis)

1770.1794. The daughter of Annette Duplessis and Claude Duplessis, a Treasury official. She married the French revolutionary Camille Desmoulins (her childhood tutor) on December 29 1790 at The Church of Saint Sulpice in Paris. The only child of the marriage, Horace Camille, was born on July 6 1792. Less than two months after her husband was sent to the guillotine she was arrested for supposedly exciting a prison revolt to free him, she told the Tribunal that she was happy for death for ‘you send me to my husband.’ She was sent to the guillotine on April 13 1794..

BkIX:Chap4:Sec2 Mentioned indirectly.


An entrepreneur who built eating establishments at Montrouge.


Despinois for Despinoy, Hyacinthe-François-Joseph, General

1764-1848. A Napoleonic general, he fought at Mantua. He was Commander of the 1st Military Division at Paris 1815-1819. He later turned against Napoleon and his old comrades.

BkXIX:Chap12:Sec2 Napoleon’s early opinion of him.


Bankers in Weimar in 1804.

BkXV:Chap6:Sec1 Mentioned.


A resident of Saint-Malo.

BkI:Chap3:Sec3 Chateaubriand’s writing-master.

Desprez, Louis

1799-1870. A French artist, he won the Grand Prix de Rome in 1826.

BkXXIX:Chap14:Sec1 He executed a bas-relief based on Poussin’s Shepherds in Arcady for the tomb.

Despuig y Dameto, Antonio, Cardinal

1745-1813. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of July 11, 1803; received the red hat, July 14, 1803; and the title of S. Callisto, September 26, 1803. He was Archpriest of the patriarchal Liberian basilica, December 28, 1803. Pro-vicar of His Holiness for Rome, March 26, 1808, he was forced by the French to leave Rome, November 11, 1809; because of his poor health he was allowed to return to Italy and went to live in Lucca. Collector of books and art, in his farm of Raixa, between Palma and Sóller, established a museum surrounded by beautiful gardens. He was Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, 1810 until his death.

BkXX:Chap9:Sec1 With the Pope at the time of the latter’s arrest in 1809.

De Quelen, Hyacinthe Louis

1778-1839. Archbishop of Paris from 1821, the favours of Louis XVIII and Charles X did not make him subservient. As a peer of the realm he opposed, on behalf of the middle classes, the conversion of the national debt. At his reception into the French Academy he publicly lauded Chateaubriand, then in disgrace. After the Revolution of 1830 the archbishop, twice driven from his palace, had to seek refuge in humble quarters and to bear in silence the worst calumnies against his person. However, when the epidemic of 1832 broke out, he transformed his seminaries into hospitals, and personally ministered to the sick at the Hôtel-Dieu.

BkXXVIII:Chap6:Sec1 Intervened on Chateaubriand’s behalf with Charles X.

Desrenaudes, Martial Borye-Desrenaudes, Abbé

1751-1825. Vicar-General of Autun under Talleyrand, he became Imperial Censor. An advisor to the University he wrote his Literary Memoirs.

BkXXIII:Chap5:Sec1 He officiated as sub-deacon at the First Federation on the Champ de Mars.

Detroit, Michigan

The city in Michigan, USA, on the Detroit River is a major port serving the Great Lakes.

BkVII:Chap9:Sec1 The Indian tribes from there.


A town in the district of Kitzingen, in Bavaria, Germany, it is situated on the right bank of the Main, 17 km east of Würzburg.

BkXXXVIII:Chap7:Sec1 Chateaubriand there 2nd of June 1833.


b.c 511. She was the Gallo-Roman wife of Theodobert, King of the Franks, who subsequently deserted her.

BkIX:Chap16:Sec1 Mentioned.

Deutz, Simon

1802-1852. Born in Cologne, he was a Catholic convert from Judaism, recommended to the Duchess de Berry by Pope Gregory VII as a suitable person for a secret mission. Identified by the French authorities as an agent of the Duchess de Berry, he secured his freedom by betraying her, for 500,000 francs to Thiers. he ended his life in Louisiana.

BkXXXV:Chap25:Sec1 BkXLII:Chap2:Sec1 Mentioned.

Devienne, Françoise Thévenin, called Sophie

1763-1841. She played soubrettes at the Théâtre-Français from 1785 to 1813 when she retired.

BkXVII:Chap4:Sec1 Her relationship with Monsieur Saget.

Devoise, Monsieur and Madame

Jacques-Philippe Devoise was French Consul-General at Tunis from 1792-1819.

BkXVIII:Chap2:Sec1 Hospitable to Chateaubriand in 1807.

Devonshire, née Georgina Spencer, Georgiana Cavendish, 5th Duchess of

1757-1806 A patroness of letters, she was famous not only for her marital arrangements, her beauty and sense of style, and her political campaigning, but also for her love of gambling.

BkXXIX:Chap1:Sec2 Her meeting with Madame Récamier in 1802.

Diamante, Gio Balta

Bursar of the Cathedral of Ajaccio in July 1771.

BkXIX:Chap3:Sec1 Napoleon’s baptism was carried out by his uncle Lucien, the archdeacon, assisted by Diamante.


Daughter of Jupiter and Latona (hence her epithet Latonia) and twin sister of Apollo, Roman Goddess of the moon and the hunt, she carries a bow, quiver and arrows. She and her followers are virgins. She was worshipped as the triple goddess, as Hecate in the underworld, Luna the moon, in the heavens, and Diana the huntress on earth. (Skelton’s ‘Diana in the leaves green, Luna who so bright doth sheen, Persephone in hell’)(See Luca Penni’s – Diana Huntress – Louvre, Paris, and Jean Goujon’s sculpture (attributed) – Diana of Anet – Louvre, Paris.)

BkIII:Chap8:Sec1 Mentioned.

BkXIV:Chap2:Sec2 Cellini’s semicircular bronze relief of Diana as The Nymph of Fontainebleau (1542-3, Louvre), whose model was possibly Diane de Poitiers.

BkXXXVIII:Chap5:Sec1 Phoebe, like Cynthia, is an epithet of Diana and a name for the Moon.

Diane de Poitiers, Duchesse de Valentinois

1499-1566. Mistress of Henry II of France, noted for her beauty, Diane, who was much older than Henry, retained her influence over him until his death (1559). She maintained friendly relations with the queen, Catherine de’ Medici, while completely eclipsing her. In the rivalry for Henry’s favour between Anne, Duc de Montmorency, and the Guise family, she took sides against whichever party was more powerful at the moment. She supported the king’s anti-Protestant policy. After Henry’s death, she was forced to retire from court.

BkXVII:Chap1:Sec1 Mentioned.

Diderot, Denis

1713-1784 Philosopher. Editor (after 1750) of the Encyclopédie. With Voltaire a creator of the Enlightenment. Fascinated by science he developed a form of pantheism. His Lettre sur les aveugles (1749) and other writings were materialistic and anti-Christian.

BkII:Chap3:Sec3 His play le Père de famille printed in 1758, and performed in Paris in 1761. The play seen by Chateaubriand at Saint-Malo in 1779.

BkX:Chap8:Sec2 In July 1749, he was arrested and imprisoned at Vincennes as author of the Lettre sur les aveugles à l'usage de ceux qui voient. His publishers gained greater freedom for Diderot in prison, including the right to receive visitors, and finally his liberation, in November 1749.

BkXIII:Chap10:Sec1 A major European name.

BkXIV:Chap1:Sec2 His association with Rousseau’s set.

Didon, Dido

The Phoenician Queen of Carthage, Elissa or Dido, was a manifestation of Astarte, the Great Goddess. A Sidonian, she founded Carthage, loved Aeneas, and committed suicide when he deserted her. (See Virgil, Aeneid, Book IV, and Marlowe’s The Tragedy of Dido, Queen of Carthage: See also Purcell’s operatic work ‘Dido and Aeneas’.)

BkII:Chap3:Sec4 Mentioned, an example of a famous female lover.

BkVI:Chap8:Sec1 Ercilla told her tale in his epic poem La Araucana.

BkXIV:Chap2:Sec3 BkXXIX:Chap13:Sec4 The heroine of Virgil’s Aeneid.

BkXVIII:Chap2:Sec1 Chateaubriand thinks of her in the ruins of Carthage.

BkXVIII:Chap8:Sec1 Founder of the city of Carthage, with its harbours.

BkXIX:Chap5:Sec2 The main role in the opera Dido (1783) by Niccolo Piccini (1728-1800).

BkXXII:Chap 26:Sec1 She is supposed to have marked out the boundaries of Carthage. Arriving as an exile she asked the local inhabitants for a temporary refuge, only as much land as could be encompassed by an oxhide. She cut the oxhide into fine strips enough to surround an entire nearby hill, which was therefore afterwards named Byrsa ‘hide’.

BkXL:Chap1:Sec1 For Dido’s half-finished palace see Virgil’s Aeneid IV:88-89

BkXLI:Chap2:Sec1 For Aeneas’ meeting with Dido in the Underworld see Aeneid VI:450-476.

BkXLII:Chap7:Sec1 See Aeneid IV:625

Die, Béatrice, Comtesse de

12th century. The wife of Guillaume de Poitiers, she was a troubadour who sang of her ‘lover’ Raimbaut d’Orange. A few poems survive, one with musical score. Die is in the Drôme, in the Rhone Alps.

BkXLII:Chap6:Sec1 The langue d’Oc or Occitan is a Romance dialect language still spoken in Occitania (i.e. Southern France, Monaco and some valleys of Italy and Spain).


The town and commune in the Seine-Maritime département of Haute-Normandie (eastern Normandy). A port on the English Channel, famous for its scallops, and a regular departure point for England.

BkI:Chap6:Sec1 BkII:Chap1:Sec1 BkII:Chap3:Sec1 BkII:Chap4:Sec1 BkXIII:Chap1:Sec1 Chateaubriand notes the chapter as written there.

BkII:Chap5:Sec1 BkXVIII:Chap9:Sec1 BkXXII:Chap9:Sec1 He was obliged to seek refuge there in 1812 following a police injunction.

BkIV:Chap10:Sec1 BkIV:Chap10:Sec2 He rejoined the second battalion of his regiment there in 1789 (or possibly earlier in 1787).

BkXIII:Chap1:Sec1 Madame de Longueville there in 1650.

BkXXII:Chap9:Sec1 The reference is to BkII:Chap5:Sec1.

BkXXIX:Chap7:Sec2 Pierre Belain (1565-1636) sailed from Dieppe to the Antilles and claimed them for France in 1625.

BkXXXI:Chap8:Sec1 Chateaubriand set off for Dieppe on the 26th of July 1830, and arrived on the 27th. He met Madame Récamier there.

BkXLI:Chap6:Sec1 Mentioned.


The town, the Prefecture of the Alpes de Haute Provence in the south of France, is 39 kilometres from Sisteron.

BkXXIII:Chap1:Sec1 Napoleon passed through in March 1815 during his return from Elba.

Dijon, France

The capital of the Côte-d’Or, on the Burgundy canal, it is the former capital of Burgundy.

BkXXX:Chap2:Sec2 The birthplace of de Brosses.

Dillingen, Bavaria

Dillingen an der Donau (Dillingen on the Danube) in Bavaria, Germany is the administrative centre of the district of Dillingen. The counts of Dillingen ruled from the 10th to the 13th century, in 1258 the territory was turned over to the Prince Bishops of Augsburg. After the Reformation, the Bishops of Augsburg moved to the Catholic city of Dillingen and made it one of the centres of the Counter-Reformation.

BkXXXVI:Chap7:Sec1 Chateaubriand there in May 1833.

Dillon, Édouard, Comte de

1754-1839. ‘Le Beau Dillon’ an army officer, was an uncle of the Comtesse de Boigne.

BkV:Chap14:Sec1 An associate of Lauzun.

Dillon, Hélene-Éléonore, Marquise d’Osmond

1753-1831. She was the daughter of Robert Dillon, Seigneur de Terrefort (1710-1769) and Mary Dicconson. She married (1778) René Eustache d’Osmond. The famous memoir writer, Adèle-Louise-Eléonore d'Osmond, Comtesse de Boigne (1781-1866), was her daughter.

BkXXVII:Chap3:Sec2 Mentioned.


A town in Brittany, in the Cotes-d’Armor Départemente, sited high above the River Rance.

BkI:Chap1:Sec9 BkI:Chap3:Sec1 BkIX:Chap14:Sec1 Mentioned.

BkI:Chap6:Sec2 Once part of the Forest of Broceliande.

BkV:Chap5:Sec1 On the River Rance.

BkXI:Chap6:Sec1 Chateaubriand’s uncle, Bedée, retired and died there.

Dinan, College of

The College was attached to the diocese of Saint-Malo which lacked such an establishment. It was re-founded in 1777 by Mgr des Laurents, and prepared students for the seminary. The school year as at Rennes began on the 18th October, Saint Luke’s day.

BkII:Chap10:Sec2 Chateaubriand was there until the spring of 1784.

BkXII:Chap5:Sec1 Mentioned.


She was the sister of Sheherazade, here a nickname given to an army captain.

BkIX:Chap13:Sec1 Mentioned.

Dinelli, Captain

He was second in command on Chateaubriand’s ship to Tunis.

BkXVIII:Chap2:Sec1 BkXXXIX:Chap21:Sec1 Mentioned. A polacre, the word used by Chateaubriand, was a three-masted Mediterranean merchant vessel.


The village is near Combourg.

BkIV:Chap5:Sec1 Mentioned.

Dino, Dorothée, Duchesse de

1795-1862. Dorothée de Courlande married Comte Edmond de Périgord, great-nephew of Talleyrand who granted the young couple the Duchy of Dino in Calabria awarded to him at the Congress of Vienna in exchange for the Principality of Benevento. She was probably Talleyrand’s mistress. She became Duchesse de Talleyrand in 1838, and Duchesse de Sagan in 1845.

BkIV:Chap1:Sec2 BkXXVI:Chap1:Sec1 The owner of Chateaubriand’s residence in Berlin.

BkXLII:Chap8:Sec1 Her daughter Pauline (1820-1890), eighteen years old, who was possibly Talleyrand’s daughter, had Dupanloup as confessor, who arranged Talleyrand’s last rites at the request of the family. Pauline grew up with Talleyrand whom he called his ‘angel in the house’.

Diocletian, Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus

245-313 AD. Roman Emperor 284-305. Born in Dalmatia he rose to prominence in the Army. Diocletian ruled the Eastern Empire. In 305 he retired to Split in Croatia. He put an end to the disastrous phase of Roman history known as the ‘Military Anarchy’ or the ‘Imperial Crisis’ (235-284). He established an obvious military despotism and was responsible for laying the groundwork for the second phase of the Roman Empire, which is known variously as the ‘Dominate,’ the ‘Tetrarchy,’ the ‘Later Roman Empire,’ or the ‘Byzantine Empire.’ His reforms ensured the continuity of the Roman Empire in the east for more than a thousand years.

BkXVIII:Chap4Sec1 Diocletian’s column, also called Pompey’s Pillar, at Alexandria.

BkXVIII:Chap6:Sec1 The state of religious belief under Diocletian. His wife and daughter have been deemed Christian sympathisers. Diocletian himself tried to unify religion around the pagan gods of Rome, and persecuted other religious groups including the early Christians, unlike the tolerance displayed in early Imperial Rome towards the cults and religions of conquered territories. Christianity however survived, and prospered with the conversion of Constantine not long after Diocletian’s rule. References to his court, are allusions to Napoleon’s court, in Les Martyrs.

BkXXIII:Chap1:Sec1 In 305 he retired to Salona (now Split, Croatia) where the magnificent remains of his palace are still extant.

BkXXX:Chap12:Sec1 Dedicated in 306, the Baths of Diocletian in Rome remained in use until the aqueducts feeding them were cut by the Goths in 537.

BkXLII:Chap8:Sec1 He died in Salona.

Diodorus Siculus

d. after 21BC. A Sicilian historian, he wrote, in Greek, a world history in 40 books, ending with Caesar’s Gallic Wars. Fully preserved are Books I–V and XI–XX, which cover Egyptian, Mesopotamian, Indian, Scythian, Arabian, and North African history and parts of Greek and Roman history. It is valuable as a source for the lost works of earlier authors, from whom he borrowed freely, and for his chronological lists of prominent figures from the 5th cent. to 302BC..

BkXIX:Chap5:Sec2 The young Napoleon studied his works.


The son of Tydeus king of Argos, he was a Greek hero in the war against Troy. See Homer’s Iliad.

BkXXXII:Chap9:Sec1 Mentioned.


1708?-1804. Cezzar Ahmet Pasha also identified as Djezzar Pasha, was a Bosnian-born Ottoman governor who defeated Napoleon during the Egyptian campaign, in Syria at the siege of Acre. Djezzar, which translates as Butcher, was known for his brutal techniques when handling enemies.

BkXIX:Chap16:Sec2 Napoleon fought him at Acre.

Dnieper, River

The river flows from Russia through Belarus and then Ukraine. It has its source in the Valday Hills of central Russia, and runs south eventually flowing into the Black Sea. 115 kilometres of its length serves as a natural border between Belarus and Ukraine.

BkXXI:Chap1:Sec1 Smolensk is on the Dnieper.

BkXXI:Chap2:Sec1 Herodotus, in his Inquiries, refers to it as the Borysthenes, derived from a local name for the Scythian river-god.

BkXXI:Chap7:Sec1 Napoleon in retreat crossed the river on the 19th November 1812.

Dodona, Greece

The mountain valley oracle of Dodona lies about 22km south-west of Ioannina, in Epirus. It was the site of the oracle of Dione, and subsequently that of Zeus.

BkXXIX:Chap7:Sec1 At the site bronze cauldrons on tripods were set up so that when the wind blew, the cauldrons would touch open another, emitting a bell-like sound which was said to be the Voice of Zeus.


The first town of note, in Ille-et-Villaine, south-east of Saint-Malo and North of Rennes, when entering Brittany from Normandy, it is bordered by marshland, and was once the capital of Brittany.

BkI:Chap3:Sec1 Combourg was built by Junken, Bishop of Dol in 1016.

BkI:Chap6:Sec2 Once part of the Forest of Broceliande.

BkI:Chap7:Sec1 Chateaubriand passes through on his way to Combourg in May 1777.

BkII:Chap1:Sec1 Chateaubriand attends Dol College.

BkII:Chap3:Sec1 Chateaubriand returns to College after the holidays.

BkII:Chap3:Sec3 The third year at Dol.

BkII:Chap4:Sec1 Towards Vivier sur Mer, Le Mont Dol is a dome like lump of granite which rises out of the marshland to a height of 65 metres. It was an ancient Druidic ritual site.

BkII:Chap4:Sec3 Chateaubriand acquires marsh fever there.

Dol, College of

The school at Dol that Chateaubriand attended.

BkI:Chap6:Sec1 The decision for him to attend the college.

BkI:Chap7:Sec3 Its principal, Abbé Portier.

BkII:Chap6:Sec2 Chateaubriand’s first communion prior to leaving the school, 11th April 1781.

BkII:Chap7:Sec2 BkII:Chap8:Sec1 BkXII:Chap5:Sec1 Mentioned.

Dôle, France

A town in the Jura department of Eastern France, in Franche-Comté, on the Doubs River, it was the capital of Franche-Comté until Louis XIV conquered the region; he shifted the parlement from there to Besançon. The university, founded (1422) by Philip the Good of Burgundy, was also transferred to Besançon at that time. Louis Pasteur was born there; his home is now a museum.

BkXIX:Chap5:Sec2 Napoleon Bonaparte posted there.

Dombrowski (Dabrowski), Jan Henryk, General

1755-1818. He is regarded as a Polish national hero for his part in Tadeusz Kosciuszko’s rebellion against Russia (1794); he later organized and commanded the Polish legions in Napoleon’s army. In 1812 he commanded one of the Polish divisions in the invasion of Russia, where he was wounded while covering the passage of the Berezina River. He fought in the Battle of Leipzig in 1813, and in 1814 he returned to Poland, where he was one of the generals entrusted by the Russian tsar with the reorganization of the Polish Army. In 1815 he was appointed general of cavalry and senator of the new Kingdom of Poland.

BkXXI:Chap7:Sec1 At the Berezina.

Dominic, Saint

Saint Dominic (Guzman) (1170-1221) the founder of the Order of Preachers, called Dominicans or Black Friars. He was born at Calahorra in Spain of noble parentage. As a young man he became a canon and preached against heresy. He was active among the Albigensians, trying to convert by persuasion, as Simon de Montfort was perpetrating his massacres. He preached throughout Europe and died in Bologna.

BkI:Chap4:Sec5 BkXXIX:Chap15:Sec1 Mentioned.

BkXX:Chap7:Sec2 His flaming-torch, an attribute.

Dominique L’Encuirassé, Saint Dominic Loricatus

995-1060. Throughout his life Dominic wore a cuirass of rough iron chain mail next to his skin (hence the name Loricatus, which means clothed in armour). He wore it not for protection, but for mortification. He became a hermit, then a Benedictine monk of Fontavellana Abbey.

BkIX:Chap12:Sec1 Mentioned.

Domenichino, Dominico Zampieri

1581-1641. A student of Carracci, Il Dominichino, as he was known, was one of the most important upholders of the tradition of Bolognese classicism.

BkXXX:Chap5:Sec1 BkXL:Chap2:Sec3 He painted the lunettes depicting the Life of St Jerome in Sant’Onorio, Rome.

BkXXXVIII:Chap8:Sec1 Mentioned.

Domitian, Titus Flavius Domitianus

51-96AD. The son of Vespasian and brother of Titus, he was Roman Emperor from 81 to 96. He ruled harshly and controlled the Senate. His reign of terror ended in his own murder.

BkXXIX:Chap16:Sec1 Mentioned.


The name was given to the Brittany coast between the Rance and the Morlaix, where 6th Century Breton islanders landed to escape the Anglo-Saxons.

BkI:Chap6:Sec2 Mentioned.


A city in the Province of Verbano-Cusio-Ossola, in the region of Piedmont, Italy, earlier known as Oscela, Oscella, Oscella dei Leponzi, Ossolo, Ossola Lepontiorum, and Domo d’Ossola (because it is in the Ossola valley), Domodossola is situated at the confluence of the Bogna and Toce Rivers, at the foot of the Italian Alps.

BkXXXIX:Chap3:Sec1 Chateaubriand was there in September 1833.

BkXLI:Chap2:Sec1 Mentioned.


A city in the German State of Bavaria (Bayern), in the region of Swabia (Schwabenland) founded where the Danube (Donau) and Wörnitz rivers meet. Historically important as the site of one of the incidents which led to the Thirty Years’ War (1618-1648), in 1606, the Lutheran majority barred the Catholic residents of the town from holding a procession, causing a violent riot to break out. Donauwörth was again the scene of war in 1704, the War of the Spanish Succession (1702-1713). The Duke of Marlborough marching from Flanders to Bavaria came to the Danube. The French had decided to make a crossing, were surprised by Marlborough’s troops and after heavy fighting pulled back. This allowed Marlborough to capture Donauwörth and cross the river.

BkXXXVI:Chap7:Sec1 BkXXXVI:Chap8:Sec1 Chateaubriand there in May 1833.

Donnadieu, Gabriel, Baron

1777-1849. A Republican general he was compromised by a conspiracy against Napoleon and interned at Tours in 1812. In 1814 he transferred allegiance to the Bourbons and in 1816 put down Didier’s insurrection at Grenoble. He was a commander in the Spanish expedition of 1823.

BkXXIII:Chap9:Sec1 In Ghent in 1815.

Dorat, Claude-Joseph

1734-1780. He obtained a great vogue with a number of heroic epistles. Besides light verse he wrote comedies, fables and novels. His books were lavishly illustrated by good artists and expensively produced, to secure their success. He was inept enough to draw down on himself the hatred both of the philosophe party and of their arch-enemy Charles Palissot, and thus cut himself off from the possibility of academic honours. Le Tartufe litteraire (1777) attacked La Harpe and Palissot, and at the same time D’Alembert and Mlle Lespinasse.

BkXI:Chap3:Sec1 His affected school of literature.

Doria Pamphili, Giuseppe Maria, Cardinal

1751-1816. Arrested by the French authorities in March 1798, he was finally expelled from the territory of the Roman Republic. He accompanied Pope Pius VI to Sienna in April 1798, the exile decreed by Napoleon; he then went to Genoa. He participated in the conclave of 1799-1800 in Venice and entered Rome with the new Pope Pius VII on July 3, 1800. Pro-camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church, November 13, 1801; occupied the post until his expulsion from Rome by the French in the spring of 1808. He was transferred to Paris by order of Napoleon in September 1809, and attended the wedding of Napoleon and Marie-Louise of Austria in Paris on April 2, 1810; all the eleven cardinals who assisted were ‘Red Cardinals’. In 1811, he was designated by Napoleon, as sub-dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals, to be part of a group of five cardinals sent to Savona to obtain from Pope Pius VII, who was a prisoner in that city, the approval of the decisions of a national council celebrated in Paris from September 3 to 20, 1811. In 1813, Napoleon made him intermediary to negotiate the Concordat of Fontainbleau.

BkXXII:Chap2:Sec1 At Fontainebleau in 1813.

Doria, Lamba

1250-c1323. Genoese admiral and politician, brother of Oberto (Captain of the People), won a major sea battle against the Venetian Doge Andrea Dandolo at Curzola in 1296.

BkX:Chap3:Sec3 Quoted, at the death of his son.

Doria, Princess

She was a close friend of Bernetti.

BkXXIX:Chap4:Sec1 Mentioned.

Doria Riparia, Italy, River

Its source is a mountain lake on Mont Cenis, from which it cascades down to Suza in Italy.

BkXIV:Chap6:Sec1 Chateaubriand followed its course in 1803.

Dorica (Doricha)

Athenaeus wrote: ‘Naucratis has produced some celebrated courtesans of exceeding beauty; as Doricha, who was beloved by Charaxus, brother of the beautiful Sappho, when he went to Naucratis on business, and whom she accuses in her poetry of having robbed him of much. Herodotus calls her Rhodopis.’

BkXLII:Chap7:Sec1 See Athenaeus, The Deipnosophists Book XIII Concerning Women, and the lovely poem by Posidippus the Greek Hellenistic poet (c280-240).

Dorléans, Louis

1542-1629. A French poet and political pamphleteer, he wrote indifferent verses, but was a redoubtable pamphleteer. After the League had arrested the royalist members of parliament, he was appointed (1589) advocate-general. One of his pamphlets, Le Banquet du comte d’Arête, in which he accused Henry (IV) of insincerity in his return to the Roman Catholic faith, was so scurrilous as to be disapproved of by many members of the League. When Henry at length entered Paris, Dorléans was among the number of the proscribed. He took refuge in Antwerp, where he remained for nine years. At the expiration of that period he received a pardon, and returned to Paris, but was soon imprisoned for sedition. The king, however, released him after three months in the Conciergerie, and by this means attached him permanently to his cause. His last years were passed in obscurity.

BkIV:Chap12:Sec2 Quoted by Chateaubriand.

Dorogobouj (Dorogobuzh), Russia

The town straddles the Dnieper River in Smolensk Oblast, Russia, 125 km to the east of Smolensk and 71 km west of Vyazma. The town originated before the Mongol invasion of Russia as a fortress defending the eastern approaches to Smolensk.

BkXXI:Chap2:Sec1 Napoleon there in 1812.


English agent, involved with the Duc d’Enghien.

BkXVI:Chap2:Sec1 Mentioned.


Dresden is the capital of Saxony, east-central Germany, on the Elbe River. In August 1813, Napoleon defeated the coalition forces near the city in his last great victory before his defeat (October 1813) at Leipzig.

BkXX:Chap13:Sec1 Napoleon reviewed his troops there in May 1812, and from 17th to 28th May he held a congress of kings, and prepared for war. It was there that, under pretext of satisfying demands for gentler treatment of the pope, Napoleon decided to have Pius VII removed from Savona to Fontainebleau.

BkXXII:Chap3:Sec1 Occupied by the Prussians on March 27th 1813.

BkXXII:Chap4:Sec1 Napoleon entered Dresden on May 18th 1813 and made it his centre of military operations. The Battle of Dresden was fought on August 26-27, 1813, and resulted in a French victory against the forces of the Sixth Coalition of Austrians, Russians and Prussians under Field Marshal Schwartzenberg. However, Napoleon’s victory was not as complete as it could have been. Substantial pursuit was not undertaken after the battle, and the flanking corps was surrounded and forced to surrender a few days later at the Battle of Kulm.

BkXXIII:Chap11:Sec3 Dresden was ruled by a Russian Governor between 1813 and the Congress of Vienna in 1815, after which the monarchy was restored.

BkXXXV:Chap11:Sec1 The Dance of Death represented there, and variants later produced for example Christoph Walther’s sandstone relief of 1535.

BkXLI:Chap3:Sec1 Mentioned.

Drouet D’Erlon, Jean-Baptiste Drouet, Comte d’Erlon

1763-1844. He led a highly distinguished career under Napoleon in Europe, including Spain and Portugal. After Napoleon abdicated in 1814 d’Erlon transferred his allegiance to the House of Bourbon along with the rest of the army. However the following year he accepted command of the 16th Military Division under Napoleon. At the battle of Waterloo he commanded French 1st Corps. It was his column which attacked the Allied centre near La Haye Sainte at 13:30 and was stopped by Picton’s Peninsular War veterans, and then attacked in the flanks by the British heavy cavalry. After the surrender of Napoleon, he entered exile in Munich. In 1825 he was granted amnesty by Charles X. In the July Revolution in 1830 he supported the Juilletistes was given the Great Order of the Legion of Honour by Louis-Philippe in 1831 and in 1832 was given command of the 12th Division in Nantes. Later in the year his division suppressed a Vendean revolt and arrested the Duchess of Berry. In 1834 he was named governor-general of Algeria although after the defeat of the French army under General Trezelon on the banks of the Macta in 1835, D’Erlon was recalled to France and replaced. From 1837 he resumed his command of the 12th Division in Nantes a position he held until 1843 when he moved to Paris to retire and was granted the title marshal of France in 1843.

BkXXII:Chap 26:Sec1 Involved in pro-Bonaparte conspiracy in 1815.

Drouot, Antoine, General

1774-1847. One of Napoleon’s generals, he was the son of a baker, who trained as an artilleryman and took part in the battles of the French Revolution where he rose through the ranks. Later he had an illustrious military career notably at Wagram, Borodino, Lützen, Hanau and Waterloo. He became a major-general in 1805 and aide-de-camp to Napoleon in 1813. Napoleon called him le Sage de la Grande Armée (the Sage of the Grand Army). He was with Napoleon during his exile to the island of Elba, and during the Hundred Days.

BkXXII:Chap 20:Sec2 Part of Napoleon’s entourage travelling to Elba.

BkXXIII:Chap18:Sec2 His comments on Ney’s speech of 22nd June 1815..

Drovetti, Bernadino

1776-1852. He was French Consul-General at Alexandria in 1806.

BkXVIII:Chap2:Sec1 Chateaubriand left his servant Julien with him.


A small, distinct religious community based mostly in the Middle East, whose religion resembles Islam, but is influenced by Greek philosophy and other religions. The Druze reside primarily in Lebanon, Israel, Syria, and Jordan. They are not considered Muslim by most Muslims in the region

BkXIX:Chap16:Sec2 Mentioned.

Dryden, John

1631-1700. English writer and poet laureate (after 1668). The outstanding literary figure of the Restoration, he wrote critical essays, poems, such as Absalom and Achitophel (1681), and dramas, including All for Love (1678).

BkXII:Chap1:Sec1 The Elegant Extracts (1784) of Vicesimus Knox (1752-1821), headmaster of Tonbridge, was published in many editions from the 1780s. It includes poems by Milton, Dryden, Addison, Rowe, Pope and Thomson, and the compiler’s contemporaries such as Smollett, Smart, Goldsmith, Cowper and Burns, among others,

Du Bartas, Guillaume de Salluste

1544-1590. He was a French poet who served Henri IV. His work translated into many languages formed the basis for Milton’s Paradise Lost.

BkXL:Chap2:Sec3 See his La Semaine, ou la Création en sept journées, of 1578. Its sequel, unfinished at his death, was part-published in 1584.

Du Bellay, Jean, Cardinal

1492-1560. French cardinal and diplomat, younger brother of Guillaume du Bellay, and uncle of the poet, he was bishop of Bayonne in 1526, member of the Privy Council in 1530, and Bishop of Paris in 1532. He was a patron of Rabelais. He was Ambassador from Francis I to Henry VIII and Pope Paul III.

BkXXIX:Chap7:Sec1 BkXXX:Chap2:Sec2 BkXXX:Chap11:Sec1


Du Bourg (Dubourg)

He was Governor of the Bastille in 1591.

BkXXII:Chap18:Sec1 On November 15, 1591, during the troubles of the League, the castle was surrendered to the forces of the Duke of Mayenne. It was returned to Royal hands on March 22, 1594, when Du Bourg, who had been given command of the castle, capitulated to Marshal de Matignon. The black scarf was an emblem of the Catholic League (as that of the white was of the Protestants).

Du Chatelet, Diane Adélaïde de Rochechouart, Duchesse

d.1794. Executed during the Terror.

BkX:Chap8:Sec2 Her name appears on the death warrant exhibited, and she was executed with Chateaubriand’s brother.

Du Guesclin, Bertrand

c.1320-80, Constable of France (1370-80), greatest French soldier of his time. A Breton, he initially served Charles of Blois in the War of the Breton Succession. In 1356-57, Du Guesclin held Rennes against English attack. Entering the service of King Charles V of France on Charles's accession (1364), he won the brilliant victory of Cocherel over the forces of King Charles II of Navarre. The victory forced Charles II into a new peace with the French king. Du Guesclin was captured in the same year at Auray by English forces under Sir John Chandos. Ransomed by Charles V, who placed him at the head of the ‘free companies,’ the marauding soldiers who pillaged France after the Treaty of Brétigny between France and England, De Guesclin was sent to Spain to aid Henry of Trastamara (later Henry II of Castile) against Peter the Cruel. Du Guesclin, though successful in the campaign of 1366, was defeated and captured (1367) by Peter and Edward the Black Prince at Nájera. In 1369, however, he and Henry won the battle of Montiel, gaining for Henry the throne of Castile. Warfare with England was renewed in 1369, and Du Guesclin re-conquered Poitou and Saintonge and pursued (1370-74) the English into Brittany. He disapproved of the confiscation (1378) of Brittany by Charles V, and his campaign to make the duchy submit to the king was half-hearted. An able tactician and a loyal and disciplined warrior, Du Guesclin had re-conquered much of France from the English when he died while on a military expedition in Languedoc.

BkI:Chap1:Sec3 Chateaubriand mentions the variant spellings of the Du Guesclin name.

BkI:Chap1:Sec6 Made alliance with the Chateaubriands.

BkII:Chap10:Sec2 His heart buried at Dinan.

BkV:Chap2:Sec1 BkIX:Chap11:Sec1 BkXXXVI:Chap1:Sec1 A famous Breton, and his descendants.

BkXIV:Chap2:Sec1 He led the marauding Free Companies into Spain in 1365, to rid France of their predation, and stopped at Avignon on the way, to secure absolution and ransom money for them from the Pope.

BkXX:Chap2:Sec2 A Breton, as was Moreau.

Du Guesclin, Thiphaine

Great-niece of Bertrand.

Dubois, Guillaume, Cardinal

1656-1723. A French cardinal and statesman, he gained the favour of Louis XIV by bringing about the marriage of his pupil with Françoise-Marie de Bourbon, Mlle de Blois, a natural but legitimated daughter of the king and Mme de Montespan; and was rewarded with the abbey of St Just in Picardy. When the Duke of Orléans became Regent (1715) Dubois, who had for some years acted as his secretary, was made councillor of state. Innocent XIII (1721), whose election was largely due to the bribes of Dubois, made him a Cardinal. In 1722 he was named First Minister of France (August). He was soon after received at the Académie française; and, to the disgrace of the French clergy, was named president of their assembly. When Louis XV attained his majority Dubois remained chief minister. He had accumulated an immense private fortune, but his health was ruined by his debaucheries, and a surgical operation became necessary. This was almost immediately followed by his death, at Versailles, on August 10, 1723.

BkXLII:Chap10:Sec1 Mentioned.

Dubois, Paul-François

1793-1834. A Breton, co-founder of Le Globe in 1824, Deputy for the Lower Loire from 1832 (to 1848), he followed that post with a university career.

BkXXXV:Chap7:Sec1 He visits Chateaubriand under house arrest in 1832.

Dubourg-Butler, Frédéric, Comte

1778-1850. A General, he fought in the Vendée then followed Bernadotte to Sweden, before seeing service in Russia. Attached to Marshal Clarke he commanded in the north of France but was ousted for Ultra-Royalism. He was re-appointed as a General in 1848.

BkXXIII:Chap20:Sec2 BkXXXII:Chap9:Sec1 At Arnouville in 1815.

BkXXXII:Chap6:Sec1 BkXXXII:Chap9:Sec1 In Paris during the Three Days of 1830.

BkXXXII:Chap15:Sec1 At the Hôtel de Ville on the 31st of July 1830.

Duchesnois, Catherine Joséphine Rafin (or Ruffin), Mademoiselle

1777-1835 An actress at the Théâtre Français in 1802, she played the parts of Phédre in which she debuted in 1802, Semiramis, Dido, Hermione and Marie Stuart. She was noted for her daring performances, retiring in 1830. Her tomb is in Père Lachaise.

BkXIII:Chap9:Sec1 Played tragedy alongside Talma.

Ducis, Jean-François

1733-1816. A French dramatist who adapted Shakespeare’s tragedies for the French stage. Although he remodelled the tragedies to the French taste for witty, epigrammatic style and attempted to confine the plays within the ‘classical unities’ (of time, place, and action), Voltaire still raged against what he called Shakespeare's ‘barbarous histrionics.’ Ducis achieved great success with his adaptations — Hamlet (1769), Roméo et Juliette (1772), Le Roi Lear (1783), Macbeth (1784), and Othello (1792).

BkXXII:Chap15:Sec2 BkXXII:Chap15:Sec3 Used the common linguistic style of the age, as a defender of freedom.

BkXLII:Chap9:Sec1 The line appears in Oedipus at the House of Admetus (1778) and again in Oedipus at Colonus (1797).

Duclos, Charles Pinot

1704-1772. An author, he studied at Rennes College, then Paris. He wrote novels, and histories. His most celebrated work however was his Considerations sur les moeurs de ce siècle (1750). In the same year he succeeded Voltaire as historiographer of France.

BkII:Chap10:Sec2 Born in Dinan.

BkXIII:Chap10:Sec1 A major European name.

BkXXIX:Chap7:Sec3 His Considerations on Italy was published in 1791 and recorded his trip there in 1766.

Duclos, Monsieur

An aide-de-camp to Napoleon.

BkXIX:Chap4:Sec1 Removed Napoleon’s birth certificate from the official register, at Napoleon’s request.

Ducluzeau (for Desclozeaux), Pierre-Louis-Olivier

A Paris magistrate, he bought the site (June3 1802) of the Madeleine Cemetery after its disuse on 25th March 1794. He had noted the place where the Royal couple were interred, and planted a hedge and trees around it, and this allowed the recovery of their remains. On January 11, 1816, Desclozeaux sold his house and the old cemetery to Louis XVIII who met the 3 million livres expense of building the Chapelle Exapitoire with the Duchess of Angouleme.

BkXXII:Chap 25:Sec1 Mentioned.

Dufay, Major

d. 1830 A Major commanding a Swiss contingent during the July 1830 disturbances.

BkXXXII:Chap5:Sec1 He was killed on the 29th of July 1830.

Dufougerais (Desfougerais) Alfred-Xavier, Baron

1804-1874. A press baron, he ran La Quotidienne from 1828 and La Mode from 1831 which he turned into a Legitimist paper. Deputy for the Vendee 1849-1851.

BkXLI:Chap4:Sec1 In Prague in September 1833.

Dufraisse, General

He was a Revolutionary general.

BkXIX:Chap11:Sec1 Mentioned, regarding events of 1795.

Dugazon, (Jean-Henri Gourgaud)

1746-1809. Debuted in 1770, Dugazon was an ardent revolutionist, helped the schism which divided the Théâtre-Français, and went with Talma and the others to what became the Théâtre de la République. After the closing of this theatre and the dissolution of the Comédie Française, he took refuge at the Théâtre Feydeau until he returned to the restored Comédie in 1799. He retired in 1805, and died insane at Sandillon.

BkIV:Chap11:Sec1 Actor at the Théâtre-Français.

Dugazon, Louise-Rosalie Lefèvre, Madame

1755-1821. Actress at the Théâtre-Italien. Wife of Jean-Henri.

BkV:Chap14:Sec1 Mentioned.

Dugua, Charles-François-Joseph

1744-1802. Former soldier who returned to service in 1790, he was a general, Governor of Cairo during the Syrian campaign, Prefect of Calvados after Brumaire, and a member of the Legislative Corps. He died of yellow fever.

BkXIX:Chap18:Sec1 Napoleon writes to him.

Duguay-Trouin, René

June 10,1673 Saint-Malo - September 27, 1736 Paris. He was born to a family of Breton ship-owners. In 1689, he began his career as a corsair. His courage, the respect which he gained among his men and his victories over the English and the Netherlanders during wars initiated by Louis XIV advanced his career rapidly. In 1709, he captured 300 trading vessels and 20 men-of-war or privateers. To reward him for his services, Louis XIV ennobled him. In 1711, he captured Rio de Janeiro after a bombardment which lasted 11 day, and forced the city to pay a heavy ransom.

BkI:Chap4:Sec5 Born in Saint-Malo.

BkI:Chap4:Sec8 Mentioned.

BkV:Chap2:Sec1 A famous Breton, and his descendants.

Duhamel, Abbé

Master at Dinan College.

BkII:Chap10:Sec2 He was Chateaubriand’s tutor in 1783-4.

Duhamel-Dumonceau, Henri-Louis

1700-1782 A French naval architect, and agriculturalist, he was a member of the Academy of Sciences at the age of 28. He also researched the structure and physiology of plants, arboriculture and cereals. Several journeys, which he undertook for scientific research purposes, led him to the coastal areas of France and England, where he also studied economic conditions and trade.

BkV:Chap15:Sec3 His work consulted by Chateaubriand.

Dulau, Arnaud

1762-1813. A former Benedictine, and mathematics professor at the College de Sorrèze, he emigrated and became a London bookseller and publisher. His premises were at 37 Soho Square. Dulau and Co often employed Baylis as a printer.

BkXI:Chap5:Sec1 Dulau et Cie began publishing the first edition of Le Génie du Christianisme in 1799.

BkXII:Chap6:Sec1 They ceased printing in the spring of 1800 and handed the composed sheets to Chateaubriand to take to France.

Dumas (Dumas Davy de la Pailleterie), Alexandre

1802-1870. The French writer is best known for his numerous historical novels including the Three Musketeers (1844) and The Count of Monte Cristo (1845-46). He also wrote plays, magazine articles, and was a prolific correspondent. After being compromised by the riots of 5th and 6th of June 1832, he was advised by the authorities ‘to travel’ for a while.

BkXXXV:Chap17:Sec1 In Lucerne in August 1832 where he meets Chateaubriand again.

BkXXXVIII:Chap2:Sec1 His translation of Lobkowitz’s ode, first stanza.

Dumas, Mathieu, Comte

1753-1837. Aide-de-camp to Rochambeau and then to La Fayette, he was a member of the Legislative Council, then rejoined the army after 18th Brumaire. A general in 1805, he became Joseph’s Minister of War in Naples. His reminiscences were published in 1839.

BkXIX:Chap9:Sec2 A quotation from his reminiscences.


A Paris solicitor.

BkXIX:Chap6:Sec1 Mentioned.

Dumont, André

1765-1836. French revolutionary. President of the National Convention (September-October 1794). Member of the Committee of Public Safety (December 1794-April 1795).

BkXIX:Chap10:Sec1 Proposed that Robespierre’s heirs be hunted down.

Dumont, Jean

d. 1726. He was a French publicist whose travels in Europe were published in 1699. He also wrote history and lectured on law.

BkXXIX:Chap7:Sec1 Mentioned.

Dumoulin, Évariste

He was a journalist on the Constitutionnel. He also wrote for the Mercure and the Minerve.

BkXXXII:Chap9:Sec1 Mentioned in 1830.

Dumouriez, Charles-François, General

1739-1823. A French general in the French Revolutionary Wars, after fighting in the Seven Years War, he was employed by King Louis XV on several secret missions. His career was fading when the outbreak of the French Revolution opened new prospects for him. Although close to the Jacobins in 1790, he offered his services to King Louis XVI and became (March 1792) minister of foreign affairs in a ministry that included several Girondists and that sought war with Austria. Made minister of war (June, 1792), he resigned to take the Marquis de Lafayette’s place as an army commander when the latter was charged with treason (August 1792). Dumouriez helped defeat the Prussians at Valmy (September 1792), drove the Austrians from Belgium at Jemappes (November 1792), and invaded the Netherlands (February 1793). Defeated (March) at Neerwinden, he began negotiations with the Austrians, and after turning over to them the commissioners sent from Paris to investigate his defeat he finally (April 1793) deserted to the Austrian lines. After wandering over Europe, disavowed even by the French royalists, he settled (1800) in England.

BkIX:Chap6:Sec2 BkXVI:Chap2:Sec1 BkXIX:Chap8:Sec1 Mentioned.

BkXVI:Chap2:Sec3 Mentioned during the interrogation of the Duc d’Enghien.

BkXXIV:Chap7:Sec1 His victories paved the way for later achievements.


He was a literary man, no details known. Speculatively perhaps Balthasar Anton Dunker 1746-1807, a German artist, who later lived in Paris and Berne, where he died. He was a landscape draughtsman, book illustrator, and also left some limited literary work.

BkXXXVIII:Chap2:Sec1 If this is the individual, his name in the visitors book at Carlsbad.

Durkheim, (Dunkeim in the text, Bad Durkheim since 1853)

A spa town in the Rhineland-Palatinate of west-central Germany, it lies on the eastern slope of the Haardt Mountains at the entrance to the Isenach Valley, 13 miles west of Mannheim. The Heidenmauer is a long Celtic stone ring-wall (possibly c2500BC), enclosing a settlement from c.500BC. Limburg Abbey’s Benedictine ruins are near the town. Nearby also are the ruins of the massive Hardenberg Castle built in 1205 for the Counts of Leiningen, extended in the 15th and 16th centuries and destroyed by French Revolutionary troops, in 1794.

BkXXXVIII:Chap9:Sec1 Chateaubriand there in June 1833.

Dunmore, John Murray 4th Earl of

1730-1809. The British governor of the Province of New York from 1770 to 1771 and the Virginia Colony from September 25, 1771 until just before the American Revolutionary War began in June 1775. During his term as Virginia’s colonial governor, from 1771 to 1774, he directed a series of campaigns against the Indians known as Lord Dunmore's War. The Shawnee were the main target of these attacks, and his purpose was to strengthen Virginia’s claims in the west, particularly in the Ohio Country.

BkVIII:Chap5:Sec3 Chief Logan’s speech to him.

Dupanloup, Félix-Antoine-Philibert, Abbé

1802-1878. A writer, churchman and politician, he arranged Talleyrand’s last rites, and was later Bishop of Orléans.

BkXLII:Chap8:Sec1 Mentioned indirectly.


He was Procureur of the High Court of Rennes.

BkIV:Chap1:Sec3 Alluded to as the relation whom Chateaubriand visited in Rennes in 1786. He stayed for dinner (9th August 1786) and left the following day.

Dupaty, Charles-Marguerite-Jean-Baptiste-Mercier

1746-1788. Advocate-General then President of the Bordeaux Parliament, he also made a name as an author.

BkXXIX:Chap7:Sec3 His Travels through Italy 1785.

Dupaty, Louis-Charles-Marie-Henri–Mercier,

1771-1825. A French sculptor, he was the eldest son of the President.

BkXXIX:Chap7:Sec3 He lived for a time in Rome.

Du Paz, Father Augustin

A Genealogist, he was the author of Histoire généalogique de plusieurs maison illustres de Bretagne (1620).

BkI:Chap1:Sec3 A source of information regarding Chateaubriand’s family.

Duperey, for De Perray

He was secretary to Talleyrand at the Congress of Vienna.

BkXXIII:Chap19:Sec1 Sent to Naples in 1815 by Talleyrand to get cash.

Duperron, Jacques Davy, Cardinal

1556-1618. A Protestant convert to Catholicism, he was Bishop of Evreux, and made a Cardinal in 1604.

BkXXX:Chap2:Sec2 He obtained absolution for Henri IV from the Pope.

BkXXX:Chap11:Sec1 Mentioned.

Dupin, André Marie Jean-Jacques

1783-1865. Commonly called Dupin the Elder, he was an advocate, president of the Chamber of Deputies, and of the Legislative Assembly. At the election after the second Restoration Dupin was not re-elected. He defended with great intrepidity the principal political victims of the reaction, among others, in conjunction with Nicolas Berryer, Marshal Ney; and in October 1815 boldly published a tractate entitled Libre Defense des accusés. He had a long career. In 1857 he was offered his old office by the emperor, and accepted it, explaining his acceptance in a discourse, a sentence of which may be employed to describe his whole political career. ‘I have always,’ he said, ‘belonged to France and never to parties.’

BkXVI:Chap2:Sec3 BkXVI:Chap3:Sec1 BkXVI:Chap5:Sec1

BkXXIV:Chap4:Sec1 His brochure regarding the Duc d’Enghien published in 1823. (Pièces judiciaires et historiques relatives au procès du duc d’Enghien etc)

BkXXXII:Chap1:Sec1 A leading Liberal commentator in 1830.

Dupleix, Joseph-François

1697-1763. He was Governor General of the French establishment in India and the great rival of Robert Clive.

BkXLII:Chap10:Sec1 Mentioned.

Dupont, Fisher-girl

She was a fisher-girl of Saint-Pierre.

BkVI:Chap5:Sec3 According to the historian Borde de la Rougerie she was one of the daughters of Pierre-Jean Dupont, Geneviève, Adélaïde or Marie then aged 21, 19 and 17 years respectively.

BkXVIII:Chap3Sec4 Probably the same person referred to here.

Dupont de l’Étang, Pierre Antoine, General

1765-1840. A distinguished Revolutionary and Napoleonic general, who was forced to capitulate in Spain at Baylen, in 1808. After his return to France, Dupont was court-martialled, deprived of his rank and title, and imprisoned at Fort de Joux from 1812 to 1814. Released by the initial Restoration, he was employed by Louis XVIII in a military command, which he lost on the return of Napoleon during the Hundred Days. But the Second Restoration saw him reinstated to the army, and appointed a member of the conseil privé of king Louis. Between April and December 1814, he was Minister of War. From 1815 to 1830, Dupont was deputy for the Charente. He lived in retirement from 1832 until his death.

BkXXII:Chap 24:Sec1 Minister of War in 1814.

Dupont de Nemours, Pierre-Samuel

1739-1817. He was appointed as Secretary-General to the Provisional Government on 1st April 1814, and made a Councillor of State. During the Hundred Days he went to join his son in America.

BkXXII:Chap11:Sec1 Mentioned.

BkXXII:Chap17:Sec1 A Member of the Provisional Government in 1814.

Dupont de L’Eure, Jacques Charles

1767-1855. A French lawyer and statesman, and a respected Constitutional Liberal. In 1789 he was an advocate at the parlement of Normandy. In 1798 he was a member of the Council of Five Hundred. In 1813 he became a member of the Corps Legislatif. During the Hundred Days he was vice-president of the Chamber of Deputies. From 1817 till 1849 he was uninterruptedly a member of the Chamber of Deputies, and acted consistently with the liberal opposition, of which at more than one crisis he was the virtual leader. For a few months in 1830 he held office as minister of justice, but, finding himself out of harmony with his colleagues, he resigned before the close of the year and resumed his place in the opposition. At the revolution of 1848 Dupont de l'Eure was made president of the provisional assembly as being its oldest member. In the following year, having failed to secure his re-election to the chamber, he retired into private life.

BkXXXIII:Chap7:Sec2 Chateaubriand writes to him in August 1830.

Duport du Tertre, Marguerite Louis François

Executed November 1793, he was a Minister of Louis XVI.

BkIX:Chap6:Sec2 Mentioned.

Dupuis, Le Père

Former sub-principal of the Military College at Brienne, he was later Napoleon’s librarian at Malmaison where he died. He was a member of the Order of Minims.

BkXIX:Chap5:Sec2 His friendship with Napoleon.

Dupuis, Charles-François

1742-1809. At the age of twenty-four he was made professor of rhetoric at Lisieux.; but his inclination led him into the field of mathematics. In his work, Origine de tous les Cultus he attempted to explain not only all the mysteries of antiquity, but also the origin of all religious beliefs. In his Memoire explicatif du Zodiaque chronologique et mythologique (1806) he maintained a common origin for the astronomical and religious opinions of the Greeks, Egyptians, Chinese, Persians, and Arabians.

BkXIII:Chap10:Sec1 A major European name.

Duquesne, Marquis Abraham

1610-1688. Naval Commander. Born in Dieppe, he saw active service in the French Navy before becoming Vice-Admiral of the Swedish Navy, in 1643, fighting for them against the Danes. He returned to France in 1645, and rejoined the French Navy where he was active in the Mediterranean. He was later present as second in command when the French fleet under Comte and Vivonne attacked and partly destroyed the Spanish\Dutch fleet at Palermo, which secured French control of the Mediterranean. For this accomplishment he received a personal letter from Louis XIV and, in 1681, the title of Marquis along with the estate of Bouchet, even though he was a Protestant. In that same year, 1684, he retired from poor health. He may have foreseen the revocation of the Edict of Nantes in 1685, though he was exempted from the proscription. He died in Paris on February 2, 1688.

BkI:Chap6:Sec1 BkIX:Chap9:Sec1 Mentioned.

Duranton, Aniche, Madame

A woman of the Bordeaux Market in 1820, she was a picturesque figure in Bordeaux society and was made famous by an article of Jouy’s in the Mercure de France of 8th February 1817.

BkXXV:Chap12:Sec1 Mentioned.

Duras, Amédée-Bretagne-Malo de Durfort, Duc de

1771-1838. Son of Louise de Noailles, he was First Gentleman of the King’s Chamber. He was named a Peer in 1814.

BkXXIII:Chap4:Sec1 BkXXIII:Chap8:Sec1 With the king in Ghent in March 1815.

BkXXIII:Chap19:Sec1 At Mons in 1815.

BkXXXII:Chap4:Sec1 BkXXXII:Chap7:Sec1 At Saint-Cloud in July 1830.

Duras, Clair or Clara de Durfort de, see Rauzan.

1799-1863. She was the younger sister of Félicité.

BkXXII:Chap 24:Sec1 Mentioned.

Duras, Claire-Louise-Rose-Bonne de Coët-Nempren de Kersaint, Duchesse de

1777-1828. Wife of Amédée, she was a close friend of Chateaubriand. She left France in 1789 for London and returned in 1808 as the Duchess of Duras. She maintained a famous literary salon in post-Revolutionary Paris. She wrote a number of novels and novellas, and her works have recently received greater critical understanding, for their exploration of equality and identity.

BkXI:Chap2:Sec4 In London. Chateaubriand was to meet her ten years later.

BkXXII:Chap10:Sec1 Mentioned in Paris in 1814.

BkXXII:Chap 24:Sec1 Description of their friendship. Ourika was published in 1823. The fictional story of Ourika explores the interior conflicts that occur when a Senegalese child is rescued from slavery and raised in a white aristocratic society of pre-revolutionary France and then refused a place in that society.

BkXXIII:Chap4:Sec1 Her mother (not her niece as Chateaubriand states) died in Brussels in 1815.

BkXXIII:Chap5:Sec1 Her relationship with Chateaubriand in Ghent.

BkXXIII:Chap9:Sec1 Her nervous disposition.

BkXXVII:Chap8:Sec1 Chateaubriand seeks her help regarding the Congress of Verona.

BkXXVIII:Chap10:Sec1 A mention of her unpublished Memoirs.

BkXXIX:Chap1:Sec4 Madame de Staël and Chateaubriand at her house in Paris in 1817. Madame de Staël’s last note to her.

BkXXIX:Chap2:Sec1 Her death in Nice occurred on the 16th of January 18128.

Duras, Emmanuel-Félicité de Durfort, Duc de, Marshal of France

1715-1789. Aide de camp to Villars and the King, he took part in all the wars of Louis XV and was made a marshal of France in 1775. He was Governor of the Franche-Comté and Ambassador to Spain. A friend of Mademoiselle de Lespinasse and the philosophes, he was elected to the Academy in 1778. He married Louise in 1739. Had Combourg from his wife and sold it to Chateaubriand’s father. He presented Chateaubriand and his brother to Louis XVI in 1787.

BkI:Chap3:Sec1 Mentioned.

BkIV:Chap7:Sec1 Ready to act as Chateaubriand’s sponsor at his presentation to the King.

BkIV:Chap9:Sec1 As First Gentleman of the Chamber, he presented Chateaubriand to the king in 1787.

Duras, Claire-Louise-Augustine-Félicité-Maclovie de Durfort de

1798-1883. The eldest daughter of Amédée and Claire, she married Charles Prince de Talmont, in 1813: he died in 1815. In 1819 she then married Auguste de Vergier, Comte de La Rochejaquelein.

BkXXII:Chap 24:Sec1 Mentioned.

Duras, Louise-Françoise-Maclovie-Céleste de Coëtquen, Duchesse de

d. 1802. Daughter of the Marquis de Coëtquen and Marie Loquet, Dame de Grandville, she was the wife of Emmanuel. She married in 1736, bringing her husband Combourg, and sold Combourg to Chateaubriand’s father in 1761. She was widowed in 1789.

BkI:Chap3:Sec1 Mentioned.

Duras, Louise Henriette Charlotte Philippine (de Noailles) de Durfort de, Duchesse de

1745-1822. Daughter-in-law of Emmanuel, wife of his son Emmanuel Duc de Durfort de Duras (1741-1800), she was imprisoned under the Terror and released 9th Thermidor. Her prison journals were later published.

BkXXIII:Chap20:Sec3 In Paris in 1815.

Dureau de La Malle, Auguste

1777-1857. Geographer and archaeologist, he published a study on the Topography of Carthage in 1835. His father, an Academician, who died in 1807, is known for his Latin translations.

BkXVIII:Chap3Sec3 His letter to Chateaubriand.


In Hinduism, Durga is a form of Devi, the supreme goddess. The 4 day Durga Puja is the biggest annual festival in Bengal and other parts of Eastern India. But it is celebrated in various forms throughout the Hindu world.

BkXXXIX:Chap8:Sec1 Mentioned.

Duris-Dufresne, François

1769-1837. A former officer and a Member of the Legislative Corps, 1805-1809, he became a Deputy in 1827.

BkXXXIII:Chap6:Sec1 Mentioned.

Duroc, Gerard Christophe Michel, Marshal, Duc de Frioul

1772-1813. A French Napoleonic general, devoted to Napoleon, he fought in Italy, Egypt, and central Europe. He was employed by Napoleon in sensitive negotiations. He was in attendance on Napoleon at the battle of Bautzen (May 20-21, 1813) in Saxony, when he was mortally wounded, and died in a farmhouse near the battlefield on May 23. Napoleon bought the farm and erected a monument to his memory.

BkXX:Chap12:Sec1 His opposition to the Russian Campaign.

BkXXI:Chap8:Sec1 Accompanied Napoleon during the retreat.

BkXXII:Chap4:Sec1 Grand Marshal of the Palace, his death at Bautzen.


His daughters.

BkXIX:Chap11:Sec1 Mentioned, regarding events of 1795.

Durosnel, Antoine-Jean-Auguste, General

1771-1849. He was an aide-de-camp to Napoleon, a Major-General, and Peer of France. He became aide-de-camp to Louis-Philippe.

BkXXI:Chap4:Sec2 Appointed Commandant of Moscow in 1812.

Duschnik (Dušníky)

A Czech village, in the district of Litoměřice.

BkXXXVI:Chap12:Sec1 Chateaubriand there in May 1833.

Du Tillet, Jean, Sieur de La Bussière

Died 1570. Lawyer and French historian, he was a clerk of the Paris Parliament. He left a number of historical works which were printed after his death. His brother, also Jean, was Bishop of Saint-Brieuc, and then of Meaux.

BkXXVIII:Chap6:Sec1 Mentioned.

Du Touchet

Tutor of Louis XVII.

Duvergier de Hauranne, Prosper

1798-1881. A French journalist and politician, he collaborated on the Globe, the Revue Française and the Revue des deux mondes. He was a Deputy in 1831, and in the Legislature in 1850. He formed part of an extensive literary circle which included Stendhal and Hugo. He was exiled briefly in 1851, and subsequently dedicated himself to his political writings, including his monumental History of Parliamentary Government in France.

BkXXVIII:Chap7:Sec1 Rallied to Chateaubriand in 1825.