François de Chateaubriand
Mémoires d’Outre-Tombe: Index S
A town in the Saal Region of Germany, the Saalburg was a Roman fortification in the Taunus Mountains and was a stronghold in the Upper Germanic Limes. It was constructed about 90 AD, to protect the access to the Rhine-Main valley from the Germanic tribes in the North.
Saalfeld is a city in Thuringia, East central Germany, on the Thüringer Saale River. The Battle of Saafeld took place on October 10 1806, between 7,000 Prussians under Prince Louis Ferdinand of Prussia and a division of Lannes’ corps, led by the Marshal himself. The Prussian infantry was broken and driven under the walls of Saalfeld, whereupon the Prince put himself at the head of his cavalry and charged the advancing French. The charge was repulsed and the Prince, refusing to surrender, was cut down and killed. The Prussians lost in this action 400 killed and wounded, 1,000 prisoners and 20 guns.
The capital of the Saarland Bundesland in Germany its historic landmarks include the stone bridge across the Saar (1546), the Gothic church of St Arnual, the 18th century Saarbrücker Schloss (castle) and the old part of the town, the St. Johanner Markt. In 1815 Saarbrücken came under Prussian control, and for two periods in the 20th century (1919-1935 and 1945-1957) it became part of the Saar territory under French administration. For this reason, coupled with its proximity to the French border, it retains a certain French influence.
Saba, or Sabba
Most of the lauras (the semi-eremitical monasteries of Palestine) in the vicinity of Jerusalem owed their existence to a Cappadocian monk named Saba (439-532). In 485 he founded the great monastery which still bears his name, Mar Saba. It is built into the rock overlooking the Kidron Valley, and was once known as the Great Laura or Lavra.
Sabran, Comte de
Killed in a duel in 1735.
BkV:Chap2:Sec 2 Mentioned.
Sacchini, Antonio Maria Gasparo
1730-1786. Italian composer. Born in Florence, spent his last years in Paris. Renaud, Dardanus and Oedipe à Colone made his reputation, and he was called the ‘Racine of Music’.
Sacchetti, Guilio Cesare, Cardinal
1596-1663. Cardinal-Bishop of Sabina in 1655, he was Prefect of the Council of the Roman Curia from 1661.
BkXXX:Chap2:Sec2 He was excluded as a candidate for the Papacy by use of the veto (the right of exclusion wielded by the major Catholic powers) in 1644 and 1655.
Sacken, Fabian Wilhelm, Prince von der Osten-Sacken
1752-1837. A Russian Field-Marshal, born in Revel, he fought as a young man in the Russo-Turkish War, 1768-1774. He subsequently pursued a distinguished military career. During the Russian invasion of 1812, he crossed the border and took Warsaw. Later he successfully operated against Prince Poniatowski. His brilliant conquest of Poland won him the Order of Alexander Nevsky. For his valour in the Battle of Leipzig he received the Order of St. George of 2nd degree. He led the Russian Army in the Battle of Brienne. In several subsequent engagements he commanded the Silesian Army instead of Blücher. On 19 March 1814 he was appointed Governor-General of Paris. During the Hundred Days he fought under Barclay de Tolly. He had a subsequent military career in Russia, and when the November Uprising broke out, he became the war governor of Kiev, Podolia and Volynia. For his rapid and effective actions, the Emperor bestowed upon him the title of Prince. He finally retired in 1835.
She is the leading character in Kalidasa’s drama Sakuntala which concerns the love of King Dusyanta for this semi-divine nymph. The 5th Century ADIndian poet was the greatest writer of Classical Sanskrit. He is traditionally associated with the court of Chandra Gupta II. The drama was popularised in Europe at the end of the eighteenth century, in the translation by Sir William Jones (1746-1794), jurist, linguist and orientalist, a supreme-court judge in Calcutta (1783-1794), who was first to note the affinity between the Indo-European languages in 1786.
Mayor of Sainte-Foy.
BkXVII:Chap4:Sec1 Chateaubriand dined with him.
Saguntum (Sagunto), Spain
Saguntum is an ancient city in the modern fertile district of Camp de Morvedre in the province of Valencia in eastern Spain. It is located in a hilly site, twenty miles north of Valencia, close to the Costa del Azahar on the Mediterranean Sea. By 219 BC Saguntum was a large and commercially prosperous town, which sided with the local Greek colonists and Rome against Carthage, and Hannibal’s siege was the opening move in the Second Punic War. After a harsh resistance of several months, related by the Roman historian Livy, Saguntum was captured in 218 by the armies of Hannibal.
A farmhouse on the battlefield of Ligny, it was taken by the French.
BkXXIII:Chap17:Sec1 Taken by Napoleon’s troops on June 16th 1815.
Saint-Ange, Ange François Fariau, called
1747-1810. French poet and translator, he translated Ovid’s Metamorphoses. He died shortly after his election to the Academy.
BkIX:Chap2:Sec1 Chateaubriand met him in Paris in1792.
Saint-Aubin, Jeanne-Charlotte Schroeder, Madame
1764-1850. Actress at Théâtre-Italien.
The town in Brittany is south-east of Combourg, north-east of Rennes. The principal manor of the Chateauborg estate, Plessis-Pillet is near Dourdain, eight kilometres to the south. La Secardais or Lascardais is seven kilometres to the north-east. The battle in 1488 was between the last Duke of Brittany, François II, and troops under the Duke de La Trémoille, fighting for the King. The defeated François signed the treaty of Verger. The ruined fortress is extant.
Saint-Aulaire, Louis de Beaupoil, Comte de
1778-1854. Chamberlain to Napoleon 1809, he was Prefect of the Meuse in 1813, then the Haut-Garonne in 1814. A Liberal Deputy from 1815 he was Decazes’ brother-in-law, and inherited a peerage on the death of his father in 1829. He was Ambassador to Vienna in 1833, and Rome 1841-1847. He wrote a History of the Fronde (1827) which won him an Academy chair in 1841.
BkXXXIII:Chap5:Sec1 Chateaubriand meets him in 1830.
BkXL:Chap6:Sec1 He was French Ambassador to Vienna in 1833.
Saint-Balmon (Balmont, Baslemont) de Neuville, Alberte Barbe d’Ernecourt, Comtesse de
Called L’Amazone chrestienne, during the Thirty Year’s War, when the French and Austrians were laying waste Saint-Balmon’s native province of Lorraine, her husband was away fighting under the Duke of Lorraine. Saint-Balmon simply decided to replace him. On horseback and dressed in only slightly modified male costume, she organized the defence of her property and she was so successful in her efforts that her neighbours asked her to protect their land as well. She seems to have been constantly at war in the late 1630s and the early 1640s.
The famous college is where Saint Ignatius Loyola was educated, in Paris.
Saint Bartholomew’s Day, Massacre of
A massacre of French Protestants, or Huguenots, began in Paris on August 24, 1572. It was preceded, on Aug. 22, by an attempt, ordered by Catherine de’ Medici, on the life of the Huguenot leader Admiral Coligny. The failure of the attempt led to formulation of the plan for a general massacre. The opportunity was furnished by the presence in Paris of many of the Huguenot nobility for the wedding of Henry of Navarre (later King Henry IV) and Catherine’s daughter, Margaret of Valois. Massacres continued into October reaching the provinces of Rouen, Lyons, Bourges, Orleans, and Bourdeaux. An estimated 3,000 were killed in Paris, 70,000 in all of France. News of the massacres was welcomed by the Pope and the King of Spain. Protestants, however, were horrified, and the killings rekindled the hatred between Protestants and Catholics and resulted in the resumption of civil war
Saint Bernard, Passes
The Great St Bernard is the most ancient pass through the Western Alps, with evidence of use as far back as the Bronze Age, surviving traces of the Roman road and more recently the path of Napoleon’s army into Italy in 1800. A hospice for travellers founded in 1049, named after Saint Bernard of Menthon, later became famous for its St. Bernard dogs. The Little St Bernard Pass is located in Savoie, France, to the south of the Mont Blanc Massif, and close to the border with Italy.
A town in the Val d’Oise, it is located 30 kilometres north of Paris, in territory once belonging to the Montmorency’s. It has literary associations with Paul Eluard and the Surrealists and with the novelist Edith Wharton.
Saint-Brieuc is situated on a plateau between the Gouëdic River and the canalized Gouët River on the north coast of Brittany. It is located barely 2 miles from Saint-Brieuc Bay on the English Channel. It is 80 miles east of Brest, 48 miles southwest of Saint-Malo, 57 miles northwest of Rennes and 235 miles west of Paris. It is the capital of the Département of Côtes-d’Armor.
Saint-Cannat, located 16 km from Aix en Provence, was founded by a 5thcentury hermit, Canus Natus, Bishop of Marseille, who gave his name to the village.
BkXXII:Chap 20:Sec2 Napoleon passed through on his way to Elba in 1814.
The French coastal town in Brittany is near Cap Frehel, 25km from Saint-Malo. An English raid there by General Bligh in 1758 was driven off by General Morel d’Aubigny.
Saint-Chamans, Alfred, Comte de
1781-1848. A former officer in the Grand Army, and a Colonel of the Royal Dragoon Guards in 1815, he was made a Marshal. His Memoirs were published in 1896.
BkXXXII:Chap3:Sec1 Commanding a Guards column during the July revolution.
The town in France is now a western suburb of Paris, famous for the Sèvres porcelain factory. The town was named after Clodoald (or Cloud), grandson of Clovis I. The palace of Saint-Cloud (built 1572, destroyed during the Franco-Prussian War in 1870), of which the picturesque park remains, was a residence of many rulers of France. Napoleon I proclaimed the Empire at Saint-Cloud in 1804.
BkIV:Chap8:Sec2 The cabmen of Saint-Cloud.
BkXIX:Chap18:Sec2 Transfer of the government there in October 1799.
BkXX:Chap3:Sec1 Napoleon proclaimed Emperor there 18th May 1804.
Charles X there in July 1830.
The Palace was evacuated by Charles X and his entourage in the early morning of the 31st of July 1830.
BkXXXIX:Chap17:Sec1 Mentioned as the westerly direction from central Paris.
A French town it lies in the Yvelines department of north-central France.
BkIV:Chap1:Sec3 Chateaubriand passed through in 1786 on the way to Paris.
Saint-Cyr, College of
A school for the daughters of impoverished noblemen was founded at Saint-Cyr in 1685 by Louis XIV and Mme de Maintenon. The building later housed the famous military academy (the West Point of France) founded by Napoleon in 1808.
BkXXXII:Chap12:Sec1 Students from the military academy in July 1830.
A suburb now of Paris, on the Seine, its gothic abbey, the Basilica of Saint-Denis, contains the tombs of many French kings.
BkXVIII:Chap8:Sec2 BkXX:Chap5:Sec3 BkXXIII:Chap18:Sec2 The royal tombs were desecrated in 1793 and the remains interred in a pit. Napoleon re-opened the church in 1806, but it was not until the Bourbon restoration that the grave pit was opened in 1817, and the jumbled remains transferred to the crypt.
BkXVIII:Chap3Sec3 An antiquary of the neighbourhood.
BkXXIII:Chap20:Sec3 Chateaubriand there in 1815. He saw the King on the 7th of July.
The town, on the River Marne, is north-east of Troyes.
BkXXII:Chap9:Sec1 Napoleon fighting there in January 1814.
Saint-Fargeau, Suzanne-Louise Le Pelletier de, Madame de Mortfontaine
b1785? Daughter of Louis Michel Le Pelletier de Saint-Fargeau (1760-93), aristocrat turned revolutionary, and member of the Convention. He voted for the death of the king, and was assassinated on the eve of the king’s execution in 1793. Given a splendid state funeral, Le Pelletier was celebrated as a republican martyr and commemorated in a painting by David. This work has not survived as his daughter grew up to be an ardent royalist, bought the picture and had it burnt. Her own famous portrait by David (1804) survives. She was adopted by the State, and became known as ‘Mademoiselle Nation’.
BkXVII:Chap1:Sec1 Became owner of Verneuil.
The town is on a hill at the confluence of the Rhône and Saône, near Lyons (now a suburb).
Saint-Germain, Claude Louis, Comte de
1707-1778. Saint-Germain was appointed minister of war by Louis XVI on the 25th of October 1775. His efforts to introduce Prussian discipline in the French army brought such opposition that he resigned in September 1777.
BkXVII:Chap6:Sec1 Chateaubriand loans him to Lucile.
Wife of the above, she was a Spanish maid-servant to Madame de Beaumont.
BkXV:Chap4:Sec1 At Madame de Beaumont’s deathbed in 1803.
Saint-Gilles, Raymond de, see Raimond IV
Saint Gothard, Switzerland
A noted mountain in the Lepontine Alps, 9850 ft. high, crossed by a pass leading from Lake Lucerne to Lake Maggiore, and since 1882 traversed by a railway with a tunnel from Göschenen to Airolo,
BkXXXV:Chap12:Sec1 Chateaubriand there in August 1832.
BkXXXV:Chap13:Sec1 Schöllenen Gorge is a canyon around 5km long on the Reuss River in central Switzerland north of Andermatt. Enclosed by sheer granite walls its road and railway require several spectacular bridges and tunnels, of which the most famous is a stone bridge known as Devil’s Bridge. On its way through Switzerland the Reuss runs through Lake Lucerne and continues through the Schöllenen Gorge and under the Devil’s Bridge at St. Gotthard Pass before joining the Aar, which flows into the Rhine. The Furca Pass leads to the Rhône glaciers.
BkXXXV:Chap14:Sec1 The Unserloch tunnel was one of the first road tunnels built in 1708 by Pietro Moretti an apprentice of Vauban’s. Mount Adula is one of the highest peaks of the Saint-Gothard. The river Ticino (German: Tessin; Latin: Ticinus) is a tributary of the Po. It rises in the Saint Gotthard massif in Switzerland and flows through Lake Maggiore. The Ticino joins the Po a few kilometres downstream of Pavia.
A mountainous island in the South Atlantic Ocean claimed as English territory. Napoleon I was exiled there from 1815 to his death in 1821.
BkXXXII:Chap3:Sec1 Napoleon exiled there.
BkXXIV:Chap4:Sec1 The act confining Napoleon to the island in 1815.
BkXXIV:Chap11:Sec1 Diana’s Peak at 2685 feet is the highest point, Flagstaff Hill (2275 feet) is near Longwood, Ladder (not Leader) Hill above Jamestown, the capital, had a battery on the top, with Jacob’s Ladder’s 679 steps leading up to it.
BkXXIV:Chap15:Sec1 Plantation House is a Georgian residence built in 1792, occupied by the Governor.
BkXXIV:Chap16:Sec1 BkXXV:Chap1:Sec1 Napoleon’s tomb is in the Valley of the Tomb, otherwise Geranium or Sane Valley. His remains were exhumed in 1840 and shipped back to France for burial in the Invalides.
St Helier, Jersey
The capital of the island of Jersey.
BkX:Chap3:Sec1 The Bedées had emigrated there in July 1792, and lodged in the Rue des Trois-Pigeons (now Hill Street), the home of Thomas Anley, captain of the local militia. Chateaubriand lodged at Captain Renouf’s house on the Rue des Mielles (now Parade Place) bordering the dunes.
Saint-Huberty, Marie-Antoinette Clavel, Madame
1756-1812. A Singer, she played all the leading female roles in the operas presented at the Royal Academy of Music between 1782 and 1786. Gluck’s Armida was performed every year between 1784 and 1792, a role in which she triumphed. But she also sang Armida in Sacchini’s Le Renaud, created in 1783 and played every year except 1787 until 1793.
Saint-Hyacinthe, Hyacinthe Cordonnier, called
1684-1746. Author of the anonymous Masterpiece of an Unknown, an erudite satire.
A bonfire of Saint-Jean was (and still is in places) lit in France to celebrate the pagan festival of the summer solstice. It was part of the ritual to leap over the coals when the fire had subsided. Celebrated on the 23rd June it thereby became associated with John the Baptist.
Saint-Just, Louis Antoine Léon de,
1767-1794. A French revolutionary, he was a member of the Convention from 1792, he became a favourite of Robespierre and was (1793–94) a leading member of the Committee of Public Safety. As commissioner (1793) with the army of the Rhine, he contributed to the successful operations that drove the allies beyond the French border. On his return he served as President of the Convention. He supported Robespierre in the destruction of the Hébertists and Dantonists. During the coup of 9 Thermidor (1794), Saint-Just was prevented from delivering a speech in defence of Robespierre, his arrest was ordered, and he was guillotined with Robespierre.
Saint-Lambert, Jean-François de
1716-1803. Poet. When Stanislaus Leszczynski became Duke of Lorraine in 1737, Saint-Lambert joined his court at Lunéville. He left the army after the Hanoverian campaign of 1756-1757, and devoted himself to literature, producing a volume of descriptive verse, Les Saisons (1769), many articles for the Encyclopedie, and some miscellaneous works. He was admitted to the French Academy in 1770. His fame, however, arises chiefly from his love affairs. He was already high in the favour of the Marquise de Boufflers, Leszczynski’ mistress, whom he addressed in his verses as ‘Doris’ and ‘Thémire’, when Voltaire in 1748 came to Lunéville with Emilie de Breteuil, Marquise du Chatelet. Her infatuation for him terminated fatally for her in child-birth. His subsequent liaison with Madame d’Houdetot, Rousseau’s ‘Sophie’, continued throughout his life. Saint-Lambert’s later years were given to philosophy. He published in 1798 the Principe des mœurs chez toutes les nations ou catéchisme universel, and published his Œuvres philosophiques (1803), two years before his death.
BkXIV:Chap1:Sec2 Present at Le Marais. Chateaubriand quotes from Les Saisons Canto III.
Saint-Lary, Roger de, Duc de Bellegarde and Baron de Termes
c1562-1646. Grand Écuyer (Squire) to the King, 1595-1611 and 1621-1639. The title was usually referred to as Monsieur le Grand.
Saint-Laumer, Monsieur de
He was a traveller in the Middle East.
BkXVIII:Chap3Sec4 Mentioned as having met Chateaubriand.
Village in Brittany, in the Dinan Arrondissement.
Saint-Léon, Monsieur de
An agent of Fouché’s.
Saint-Leu, Duchesse de, see Bonaparte, Hortense
The capital of La Manche department in Normandy, it is an agricultural centre and has famous horse stables. An old Gallo-Roman town, Saint-Lô was a medieval fortress and was the scene of a massacre of Huguenots in the 16th cent.
Saint-Louis, see Louis Poullain
Valet to Jean-Baptiste-Auguste de Chateaubriand.
The coastal town is in North-Western Brittany.
BkI:Chap1:Sec11 His father established himself there, after his marriage.
BkI:Chap2:Sec1 His mother gave birth there. In fact the first child was a daughter, Bénigne born 2nd December 1754, neither she nor Geoffroy born 4th May 1758, survived. After Jean-Baptist, born 23rd June 1759, came Marie-Anne, 4th July 1760, Bénigne, 31st August 1761, Julie, 2nd September 1763, and Lucile, 7th August 1764. Auguste-Louis (28th May 1766, died 30th December 1767) and Calixte-Anne (3rd June 1767) died early.
BkI:Chap3:Sec4 Description of the town and landmarks.
BkI:Chap4:Sec3 Chateaubriand’s History of Saint-Malo.
BkI:Chap4:Sec4 In 1590, Saint Malo refused to sign up with the Ligue or Henry IV, Protestant King of France. They proclaimed their own ‘Republic’ which lasted four years. Their motto was ‘Ni Français, ni Breton, Malouin suis." (Neither from France, nor from Brittany, but from St Malo’.) Saint_malo provided funding for the French wars and was attacked by the English in 1693 and 1758.
BkI:Chap4:Sec5 Its maritime role.
BkI:Chap4:Sec6 On 1st September 1771, when he returned from the wet-nurse, Chateaubriand’s parents left the Rue des Juifs for the first floor of the Maison White, a hotel which still exists and was renovated after wartime damage, at 2 Place Chateaubriand (not the Place Saint-Vincent). Saint-Malo’s affinity with Cadiz.
BkI:Chap4:Sec7 The town’s innocence and strict moral standards.
BkI:Chap6:Sec1 BkI:Chap7:Sec1 The Chateaubriands’ hotel was damaged by fire during the night of 16th/17th February 1776. They returned to the Rue des Juifs for 15 months, and it was only in the latter half of May 1777 that they moved to Combourg.
BkII:Chap3:Sec2 A trip to the town with the Combourg steward in 1778, combined in Chateaubriand’s memory with one to the camp at Paramé in 1779.
BkII:Chap3:Sec3 BkIV:Chap8:Sec1 Chateaubriand visits the theatre there. This places the visit in 1779, since the theatre had been destroyed by fire on27th October 1778. A temporary wooden theatre took its place, which Chateaubriand visited.
BkIII:Chap13:Sec1 BkIII:Chap14:Sec1 Chateaubriand was sent there in the spring of 1786 to prepare to sail for India. The house he had lived in was sold in 1780 by Monsieur Magon de Boisgarein to Monsieur Dupuy-Fromy, then to a certain Chenu who turned it into an inn. His successor Jean Blandin bought adjoining houses to create the Hotel de France, seen in a lithograph of 1840, signed H. Lorette.
BkIII:Chap14:Sec3 Chateaubriand embarked there for America.
BkV:Chap5:Sec1 The countryside round about described.
Saint-Malo, Bishop of
It is a commune of the Val-de-Marne département, and of the Île-de-France région (in the eastern suburbs of Paris), France. It is located 3.3 miles from the centre of Paris. The old commune included Bel-Air and Picpus now part of the 12th Arondissement of Paris.
Saint-Marcellin, Jean Victor Fontanes
1791-1819. The son of Louis Fontanes, he fought in the Russian Campaign, then made a career as a journalist (collaborating on the Conservateur) and playwright. He was mortally wounded in a duel. He was the author of Relation d'un voyage de Paris à Gand en 1815 (1823).
BkXI:Chap3:Sec3 His death precipitated that of his father.
Saint-Marsault-Chatelaillon, Baron de
Saint-Marsault, Baron de
1791-1832. An Ultra journalist and Orientalist.
BkXXXI:Chap4:Sec1 He wrote against Chateaubriand in 1829.
Saint-Martin, Louis-Claude de
1743-1803. A Mystic, known as le philosophe inconnu, he was the first to translate the writings of Jacob Boehme from German into French. A nobleman, he was interned during the French Revolution, to be later freed by local officials who wanted him to become a school teacher. His published letters show that he was interested in spiritualism, magnetic treatments, magical evocation and the works of Emanuel Swedenborg. Admirers of his works formed groups of Friends of St Martin who later became known as Martinists. They were influential on the formation of the Society of the Golden Dawn. Saint-Martin was also published by Chateaubriand’s publisher Migneret.
A town in the Var in Provence, it has a 13th century Gothic cathedral.
Mont St. Michel is a small quasi-island, separated by approximately one kilometre of waves from the mainland at high tide. At low tide it is separated from the mainland by sand. Before a causeway was built in 1879, the only approach to the Mont was by foot over this land bridge. On 16th October 709 Bishop Aubert of Avranges, founded an oratory. In 966, a Benedictine monastery was established at the request of the Duke of Normandy. In 1020, Richard II began the Abbey Church, and supported Abbot Hildebert's construction efforts. Over time, the spiritual foundations of the abbey waned, and in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries it was used as a prison. In 1874, the French government assumed responsibility for the abbey's upkeep and restoration.
BkI:Chap3:Sec4 Created by a tidal influx in 709 according to Chateaubriand.
Saint-Michel de Maurienne, Savoy
A village in Savoy on the River Arc.
BkXIV:Chap6:Sec1 Chateaubriand was there in 1803.
The town in north-central France, on the Seine, is now an industrial suburb of northern Paris and a terminal point for river shipping. The city retains a villa from the Merovingian period.
BkXXII:Chap 21:Sec1 The Declaration of Saint-Ouen was signed in 1814, by which Louis XVIII became a Constitutional monarch.
BkXXXI:Chap8:Sec1 Chateaubriand wanted to see the Sistine Madonna, in the Rouen Museum sited there, a late copy wrongly attributed to Raphael as a copy of his original (1513-1514) in Dresden.
St Petersburg, Russia
The city located in north-western Russia on the delta of the river Neva at the east end of the Gulf of Finland and on the Baltic Sea. It is informally known as ‘Piter’ and was formerly known as Petrograd (1914–1924) and Leningrad (1924–1991). Founded by Peter the Great in 1703 as his ‘window on Europe,’ it served as the capital of the Russian Empire for more than two hundred years (the capital was moved to Moscow after the Russian Revolution of 1917).
BkXX:Chap5:Sec1 On April 11th 1805, Britain and Russia signed the Treaty of St. Petersburg, an offensive alliance directed against France. They were joined by Austria (on August 9th), and Sweden, while France was allied to Spain, and a number of satellite republics. Sweden only joined after Britain granted subsidies which virtually financed the entire Swedish war costs.
BkXX:Chap11:Sec1 Sweden declared neutrality in the British-French war and signed a secret Treaty of Petersburg with Russia against France and Denmark on April 5, 1812.
Saint-Phal, (Etienne Meynier)
1752-1835. An Actor.
BkIV:Chap11:Sec1 Acted at the Théâtre-Français.
An Island in Saint-Pierre-et-Miquelon archipelago, off the coast of Newfoundland, it became a French department, all that remained to France of its Canadian territories after 1763: the islands were traditional fishing and smuggling bases.
BkVI:Chap5:Sec2 Chateaubriand touched there 23rd May 1791. The natural tea referred to is Gaultheria recumbens, known as gaultheria, red tea, mountain tea or Canadian tea.
BkVI:Chap6:Sec1 Chateaubriand left the island around the 8th June 1791, having celebrated the Feast of the Ascension on Tuesday the 2nd.
Saint-Pol (Saint-Paul), Antoine Montbeton, Comte de
d.1594 A Marshal of the League.
BkVIII:Chap5:Sec1 Chateaubriand refers to Letters XXVI and XXVII of the second part of the work.
Saint-Priest, Emmanuel-Louis-Marie Guignard, Duke of Almazan, Vicomte de
1789-1881. He was the third son of François, and served in the Imperial Russian Guard, then after 1815 in France, He was Ambassador to Berlin in 1825, Madrid in 1827, and became involved in Marie de Berry’s uprising in 1832. He married the daughter of the Marquis de Caraman.
BkXL:Chap4:Sec1 In Ferrara in September 1833.
BkXL:Chap6:Sec1 In Padua, 20th September 1833.
Saint-Priest, François-Emmanuel Guignard, Comte de
1735-1821. He was a Minister of Louis XVI.
BkV:Chap8:Sec1 Dismissed by Louis in 1789.
Saint-Priest, Auguste Charlotte Louise de Riquet de Caraman, Madame de
1798-1849. She was the wife of the Vicomte (married 1817).
BkXL:Chap4:Sec1 In Ferrara in September 1833.
Saint-Rémy-de-Provence is situated about 20 km (12 miles) south of Avignon, just north of the Alpilles mountain range.
Saint-Riveul, André-François-Jean de Rocher de
1772-1789. A school-friend of Chateaubriand, he was killed at Rennes on the 27th of January 1789.
BkII:Chap7:Sec2 Chateaubriand and he fight at school.
BkII:Chap7:Sec3 Chateaubriand’s room mate.
BkV:Chap7:Sec1 His death at Rennes.
A parish near to Saint-Malo, at the mouth of the River Rance, between the dam and Saint-Malo, and incorporated into it in 1967.
BkI:Chap4:Sec3 Possible site of the Roman Aleth, from which the Saint-Malo peninsula Alet takes its name.
BkI:Chap4:Sec4 During the Seven Year’s War, on June 1–12 1758, an English expedition was mounted against Saint-Malo and the nearby town of Cancale and Saint-Servan was burnt.
Saint-Simon, Claude-Anne, Marquis then Duc de
1743-1819. He was deputy for the nobility of Angoumois in 1789. Emigrated to Spain during the Revolution, where he became a Marshal in 1793, then lieutenant-general and captain-general of Old Castile in 1796. He died in Madrid.
BkII:Chap3:Sec1 Colonel of the Touraine Regiment in 1778.
Saint-Simon, Claude-Henri de Rouvroy, Comte de
1760-1825. A French social philosopher, he was the grand nephew of Louis de Rouvroy, Duc de Saint-Simon. While still a young man, he served in the American Revolution as a volunteer on the side of the colonists. He took no part in the French Revolution, but used the opportunity to make a fortune through land speculation. He lavished his wealth on a salon for scientists and spent his later years in poverty, sustained by the faith that he had a message for humanity. Foreseeing the triumph of the industrial order, Saint-Simon called for the reorganization of society by scientists and industrialists on the basis of a scientific division of labour that would result in automatic and spontaneous social harmony. In Le Nouveau Christianisme (The New Christianity: 1825), he proclaimed that the concept of brotherhood must accompany scientific organization. His writings contain ideas foreshadowing the positivism of Auguste Comte (for a time his pupil), socialism, federation of the nations of Europe, and many other modern trends. Around him gathered a small group of brilliant young men. After his death, they modified and elucidated his principles into a system of thought known as Saint-Simonianism. Partly because of their eccentricities, the Saint-Simonians achieved brief fame. Led by Barthélemy Prosper Enfantin and Saint-Amand Bazard, they organized a series of lectures (published in 1828–30 as L'Exposition de la doctrine de Saint-Simon), calling for abolition of individual inheritance rights, public control of means of production, and gradual emancipation of women. Although the movement developed into a moral-religious cult and had split and was disintegrated by 1833, it exerted much influence, especially on later socialist thought.
BkXIII:Chap10:Sec2 Mentioned as an example of plagiaristic thought.
Saint-Simon, Louis de Rouvroy, Duc de
1675-1755. The French memoir writer, he lived at the court of Louis XIV, and exercised some influence during the Regency of Philippe, Duc d’Orléans (1715-1723) failing to realise his ambitions. His memoirs cover the years 1694-1723 and are sharply observed.
BkXX:Chap11:Sec1 His comment regarding Père Tellier.
BkXXXVI:Chap7:Sec1 See the Memoirs.
The Saint-Thomas Gate mentioned is at Saint-Malo.
The Cistercian Abbey of Saint-Urbain is near Langenthal, in the Canton of Berne.
Saint-Val, Madamoiselle, the younger (Marie-Blanche Alziari de Roquefort)
1752-1836. An actress and tragedienne, born in Provençe, her elder sister Marie-Pauline-Christine (1747-1830) was also an actress. She played the Comtesse in Beaumarchais’ Figaro in 1784. She retired to Provence (to an old abandoned monastery on the island of Saint-Honorat which she bought, and where she was visited by Fragonard) during the Revolution. She died as Madame de Saint-Freyx at Draguignan.
BkIV:Chap11:Sec1 Actress at the Théâtre-Français.
Sainte-Aulaire (or Saint-Aulaire), Louis Clair de Beaupoil, Comte de
1778-1854. Napoleon’s Chamberlain in 1811, Prefect for the Meuse in 1813 and Haut-Garonne in 1814, refused to serve during the Hundred Days, Deputy in 1815, Peer of France, Ambassador to Rome for Louis-Philippe (1831), Vienna (1833), and England (1841), he wrote a Histoire de la Fronde. He was the father of Egidie de Saint-Aulaire who through her mother, née Soyecourt, was descended from the last reigning prince of Nassau-Saarbruck, allied to the Danish royal family.
1804-1869. French literary historian and critic. The first major professional literary critic. He studied medicine but abandoned it for literature, and began contributing reviews to the Globe in 1824. After attempts at writing poetry, Vie, poésies, et pensées de Joseph Delorme (1829), and a semiautobiographical psychological novel, Volupté (1834), which was inspired by his love for Mme Victor Hugo, he turned to criticism. His weekly articles in reviews were collected as the Causeries du lundi (15 vol., 1851–62, tr. Monday Chats, 1877). He considered his great work to be Port-Royal (1840–59), taken in part from his lectures in 1837 at Lausanne. This work, comprised of six books, is a history not only of Jansenism but of a whole section of 17th-century French society. Made a member of the French Academy in 1844, Sainte-Beuve taught (1848–49) at Liège, and in 1857 he became a professor at the École normale supérieure. He was appointed senator in 1865. His vast literary output reveals a critic of great taste, vast memory and learning, and a passion for truth in judgment.
The small gothic chapel, on the Ile de la Cité, built by Louis IX in the 1240’s to house relics from the Holy Land, believed to be the Crown of Thorns and part of the True Cross. Its restored stained glass windows, and interior, are of great beauty.
BkX:Chap8:Sec2 Damaged in the Revolution: under the Empire it was further damaged by being used as a repository for the Archives.
A town and commune of the Haut-Rhin département, Saint-Louis is located on the borders with Germany and Switzerland.
BkXXXVI:Chap4:Sec1 Chateaubriand there in May 1833.
Saintré, Jehan de
L'Hystoire et plaisanle cronicque du petit Jehan de Saintre et de la jeune dame des Belles-Cousines Sans autre nom nommer (1456) was written by Antoine de la Sale or de la Salle (c1388-c1462) a soldier of fortune. The book is an account of the education of an ‘ideal knight’. When Petit Jehan, aged thirteen, is persuaded by the Dame des Belles-Cousines to accept her as his lady, she gives him systematic instruction in religion, courtesy, chivalry and the arts of success. She materially advances his career until Saintre becomes an accomplished knight, the fame of whose prowess spreads throughout Europe.
BkXXXVII:Chap4:Sec1 Chateaubriand compares Henri V to the hero.
A Swiss from Lugano, he was a Captain of the Guards, 6th Infantry, in July 1830. He published an account, Dix Jours en 1830, and later was a founder of the society which was formed in 1836 to handle Chateaubriand’s Memoirs. He later transferred his rights to Emile de Girardin in 1844. His daughter Jeanne married Alexandre Colonna-Walewski grandson of Napoleon and son of the tragédienne Rachel.
BkXXXII:Chap3:Sec1 Mentioned in July 1830.
BkXL:Chap4:Sec1 In Ferrara in September 1833.
1138-1193. Revered as a hero of Islam, Saladin united Arab forces and recaptured Jerusalem from Christian Crusaders in the 12th century. Of Kurdish origin, Saladin became the vizier of Egypt in 1169 and then took full control of the country in 1171; he later built the famed Citadel in Cairo. His conquest of Jerusalem in 1188 prompted the Third Crusade, led by Richard I of England; Richard’s forces defeated Saladin in several battles, but could not retake Jerusalem. Saladin and Richard signed an armistice in 1192, and the two are often linked in histories of the era.
BkXIX:Chap14:Sec3 Saladin’s truce with Richard guaranteed free access of Christians to the holy sites.
Saladin, Jean-Baptiste Michel
1752-1812. A Montagnard who voted for the king’s death, he represented the Somme. He was granted an amnesty after 18th Brumaire and ended his career practising law.
The Greek island in the Aegean, off which the Greek navy defeated the Persians in 480BC.
1757-1809. Lawyer and representative of the third estate of Corsica in the States General, he was elected to the National Convention, he was sent on mission to besieged Toulon in 1793 and helped set up the administration after its fall. He was a friend and protector of the young Bonaparte, but was later mistrusted. He ended his life as chief of police in Naples (1806-9).
BkXIX:Chap9:Sec2 After 9th Thermidor (27th July 1794) he sat in the Thermidorean Convention. After the Consulate, and before ending as police chief in Naples he served in Lucca and Genoa.
BkXIX:Chap10:Sec1 He remained a supporter of Bonaparte after the fall of Robespierre.
The port in Campania, on the Gulf of Salerno, was founded by the Romans in 197BC.
A town of eastern France, in the Jura département, part of the Franche-Comté, Salins owes its name to its saline waters, used for bathing and drinking. There are also salt works and gypsum deposits. It is situated in the narrow valley of the Furieuse,
BkXXXIX:Chap3:Sec1 In 1825 the town was almost destroyed by fire. Chateaubriand was there in September 1833.
Salisbury, Alys Grandisson (alias Alice, Catherine, Katherine), Countess of
fl.1328. Ward of Edward III, and daughter of the 5th Earl of Salisbury.
BkX:Chap5:Sec2 Mentioned. Chateaubriand has picked up on the legend of this Alys being the favourite of Edward III. She was not buried in Westminster Abbey.
Sallust, Gaius Sallustius Crispus
c86-c34BC. A Roman politican and historian, and supporter of Julius Caesar he was accused of corruption and retired from politics in 41BC. He wrote the Bellum Catilinae and the Bellum Jugurthinum.
Died c930 BC. King of the ancient Hebrews (c.970–c.930 BC), son and successor of David, his mother was Bathsheba. His accession has been dated to c.970. According to the Bible, his reign was marked by foreign alliances (notably with Egypt and Phoenicia) and the greatest extension of Israel's territory in biblical times. He built numerous cities, constructed copper smelting furnaces in the Negev, and had the first temple built at Jerusalem. However, his despotism resulted in the alienation of N Israel and the revolt of Jeroboam I. The biblical account of Solomon derives from the ‘Succession Narrative’ in Second Samuel and First and Second Kings; Temple archives; and various folk-tales, but what the Bible says about the glory of his reign is impossible to confirm from the archaeological record.
BkXXXVI:Chap1:Sec1 See the Wisdom of Solomon: V:9. Wisdom or the Wisdom of Solomon is one of the deuterocanonical books of the Bible and there are no surviving copies of the text in Hebrew. Although the author claims to be Solomon, many scholars believe that its language and ideas are of Greek origin and the author likely to have been an Alexandrian Jew of the 1st or 2nd century BC.
14-to between 62/71 AD. The daughter of Herodias, Salome was the step-daughter of Herod Antipas, and danced before Herod and her mother Herodias on Herod’s birthday, and by doing so caused the death of John the Baptist. The New Testament suggests that Salome caused John to be executed because of his complaints that Herod’s marriage to Herodias was adulterous.
BkXXXIII:Chap7:Sec2 See Matthew XIV:3-12 and Mark VI:17-29.
Salona (Split), Croatia
The Italian Spalato, it is a port in north-east Croatia on the Adriatic. The city centre lies within the vast palace of Diocletian, including the cathedral which was Diocletian’s mausoleum.
Salvage de Faverolles, née Louise Dumorey, Madame
1785-1854. A friend of Madame Récamier’s she settled in Rome.
Salvandy, Narcisse- Achille, Comte de
1795-1856. He joined the army in 1813, and in the following year joined the household troops of Louis XVIII. His patriotic pamphlet on La Coalition et la France (1816) attracted the attention of Decazes who employed him to disseminate his views in the press, and he waged war against the Villèle ministry of 1822-1828. Under the July monarchy he sat almost continuously in the Chamber of Deputies from 1830 till 1848, giving his support to the Conservative party. Minister of education in Mathieu Molé’s cabinet of 1837-1839, and again in 1845, he superintended the reconstitution of the Council of Education, the foundation of the French School at Athens and the restoration of the École des Chartes. For short periods in 1841 and 1843 he was ambassador at Madrid and at Turin, and became a member of the Académie Française in 1835. Under the First French Empire he took no part in public affairs, and died at Graveron (Eure).
BkXXVIII:Chap7:Sec1 Rallied to Chateaubriand in 1825.
Salverte, Anne-Joseph-Eusèbe de la Baconnerie de
1771-1839. An economist, and Paris Deputy in 1830.
BkXXXII:Chap4:Sec1 His arrest ordered but not carried out on 28th July 1830
Salvien de Marseille, Salvianus
5th century AD. A Historian, born at Trèves, he was the author of Ad Ecclesiam and De Gubernateione Dei.
BkIX:Chap9:Sec1 A reference to De Gubernatione Dei, VI.
BkXX:Chap12:Sec1 A reference to De Gubernatione Dei VII, concerning the barbarian incursions.
A city of west-central Austria near the German border southwest of Linz, it was originally a Celtic settlement and later a Roman colony, and long the residence of powerful archbishops. Mozart was born there in 1756. Secularized in 1802, it became an Austrian possession in 1805, and was transferred to Bavaria by the Peace of Schönbrunn (1809). The Congress of Vienna (1814–15) returned it to Austria.
BkXX:Chap5:Sec1 Napoleon took the city in 1805.
BkXLI:Chap1:Sec1 Chateaubriand there in September 1833.
The Sambre is a river rising in northern France and flowing into southern Belgium. The cities of Maubeuge (France) and Charleroi (Belgium) lie along the Sambre which flows through the French départements Aisne and Nord and the Belgian provinces Hainaut and Namur.
Samoilova, nee Von der Palèn, Countess Yulia
1803-1875. A Russian countess, she was mistress of and painted by Karl Briulov (Brullo, Bruloff, Bryloff) (1799-1852) whom she met in Rome. After her first marriage to Count Nikolai Samoilov (d. 1842), which ended with a permanent separation, she travelled Europe, living mostly in Italy and Paris.
A Greek island in the Eastern Aegean Sea, located between the island of Chios to the North and the Dodecanese islands to the South, in particular the island of Patmos, and off the coast of Turkey formerly known as Ionia. During the Greek War of Independence, Samos bore a conspicuous part, setting up a revolutionary government. It was in the strait between the island and Mount Mycale that Canaris set fire to and blew up a Turkish frigate, a success that led to the abandonment of the enterprise, and Samos held its own to the very end of the war. On the conclusion of peace, the island was handed over to the Turks, but after successful rebellions achieved a measure of independence before becoming part of Greece after the Balkan Wars.
Sampietro Bastelica, known as Sampieru Corsu
1498-1567. Corsican in the service of France killed fighting the Genoese. He became Seigneur d’Ornano after his marriage to Vannina d’Ornano. He was a mercenary in the ‘Bande Nere’ of Giovanni di Lorenzo de’ Medici, 1517-1528, then served the Pope, and later France. In 1553 he entered the war against Genoa, in charge of a French expedition to Corsica. He executed his wife for treachery.
BkXIX:Chap5:Sec1 BkXIX:Chap5:Sec2 Napoleon was influenced by his tragic domestic history. Sampieru Corsu became governor of Aix-en-Provence in 1560, then was appointed French envoy to the Porte. While in Istanbul, he left his wife and children in the mansion he owned in Marseille; the young woman was corrupted by a Genoese spy who had become tutor to their children, Michelangelo Ombrone, and sold off Sampieru’s assets before embarking for Genoa. Sampieru was warned, and had the vessel intercepted. He judged his wife on the spot, found her guilty, and decided that she was to be strangled by him rather than fall victim to an executioner. A modern legend holds this to have been partial inspiration for Shakespeare ‘s Othello.
11th century BC. A Hebrew judge and prophet: see 1st and 2nd Samuel.
San Giovanni in Laterano
The Basilica of San Giovanni in Laterano, Rome, known in English as Saint John Lateran Basilica, is one of the five great ancient basilicas of Rome. Originally called Basilica Salvatoris (Archbasilica of the Holy Savior), it is the oldest and ranks first among the great basilicas and is the cathedral church of the Popes by nature of their office of Bishop of Rome.
BkI:Chap6:Sec2 Mentioned as surrounded by spring flowers.
Sancho Panza acts as Don Quixote’s squire in Cervantes’s novel Don Quixote.
BkXXXVIII:Chap6:Sec1 Micomicom is a fictitious kingdom in the novel (see Book IV)
Sand, Karl Ludwig
1795-1820. A German university student and member of a liberal Burschenschaft or student association was executed in May, 1820, for his murder of the conservative dramatist August von Kotzebue (1761-1819) the previous March in Mannheim. As a result of his execution, Sand became a martyr in the eyes of many German nationalists seeking the creation of a united German national state.
BkXXVI:Chap6:Sec1 His name carved on benches in Berlin.
BkXXVI:Chap8:Sec1 His effect on Europe.
1804-1876. The pen-name of Amandine-Lucile-Aurore Dupin, later Baroness Dudevant. She was raised by her grandmother at the family estate, Nohant, in the French region of Berry, a setting later used in many of her novels.
BkXXXI:Chap1:Sec2 Her second novel Valentine dates from November 1832.
BkXLII:Chap7:Sec1 Chateabriand on her life and works which include Indiana (1831), Lélia (1833), and Jacques (1833).
1458-1530. A humanist and poet at the Court of Naples, called the Christian Virgil, he is known for his Latin Elegies.
BkXXXIX:Chap4:Sec1 See Elegies III:1 and II:1 for the respective lines.
A town in the Val d’Oise, where Cyrano de Bergerac died, and Renoir and Utrillo painted.
Literally without-breeches, silk breeches being a form of dress associated with aristocrats. It became a political label identifying a revolutionary, rather than a member of a specific social class.
Sanson, Charles Henri
1739-1806? The State executioner, he guillotined Louis XVI. He handed over his office to his son, who assisted him, in 1795.
BkXIX:Chap10:Sec1 He and his father pardoned.
Sansovino, Jacopo d’Antonio
1486-1570. An Italian sculptor and architect, he studied with Andrea Sansovino whose name he subsequently adopted, changing his name from Jacopo Tatti. In 1529 Sansovino became chief architect to the Procurators of San Marco. His buildings in Venice, include those around Piazza San Marco, specifically the Zecca (the Public Mint), the Libreria Sansoviniana, the Loggetta adjoining the Campanile, and various statues and reliefs for the Basilica of San Marco. His most famous work is the building housing the Library of Saint Mark’s, the Biblioteca Marciana.
BkXL:Chap5:Sec1 His work in Padua.
Sansovino, Francesco Tatti da
1521-1586. Son of Jacopo, he was a versatile Italian scholar and man of letters, also known as a publisher. He was born in Rome, but moved to Venice and studied law at Padua and Bologna. He is known for his 1581 work Venetia citta nobilissima et singolare, Descritta in XIIII Libri, known briefly as Venezia Descritta. He was also a literary critic, writing in particular on Dante and Boccaccio, and a historian.
Sans-Souci, Palace of, Potsdam
The palace in Potsdam built (1745-1747) by Frederick II who lived there for forty years. It is believed to have been conceived by Frederick himself and executed by Knobelsdorff. The library and the magnificent park, the audience chamber with its fine paintings, the orangery, the statue of Frederick, and the great fountain are noted.
BkIV:Chap1:Sec1 Visited by Chateaubriand in 1821.
Santa Croce in Gerusalemme
The Basilica of the Holy Cross, Rome. This church was one of the seven holy places pilgrims needed to visit to obtain indulgences. The name derives from the sacred relics of the True Cross brought to Rome by Saint Helen, mother of the Emperor Constantine. The original structure goes back to St. Helen who decided to transform an atrium of her residence into a church. Her home was an Imperial residence, the Sessorium, built between the end of the 2nd and the beginning of the 3rd centuries AD by Septimius Severus and Helagabalus. It included a circus and a small amphitheatre whose ruins can still be seen today, now incorporated into the Aurelian walls, just past the Church.
BkI:Chap6:Sec2 Mentioned as surrounded by spring flowers.
BkVI:Chap4:Sec1 Chateaubriand visited the town on his voyage to America in 1791.
1630-1697. Canon of St Victor, he was an author of Latin poetry, in particular epitaphs and hymns.
19th century. He was a Venetian architect.
BkXXXIX:Chap19:Sec1 His Café or neo-classical Pavilion (1815-1817) beside the Royal Gardens in Venice on the waterfront. It was originally a coffee-house and is now an information centre.
The capital of the Dominican Republic is a port on the south coast, founded by Bartolomeo Columbus in 1496. It was the capital of the first Spanish colony in the Americas. It was under French rule (1795-1809) and then that of Haiti, becoming capital of the new Dominican Republic in 1844.
BkXXVIII:Chap12:Sec1 Villèle carried out secret negotiations with Haiti in 1825 by which France accepted the independence of its former colonies in return for cash and trade. Chateaubriand objected to the by-passing of the Chambers in an illegal manner.
Born 630-612, died c570 BC. An Ancient Greek lyric poetess, born on the island of Lesbos, her verse survives in fragments. Sometimes associated with the city of Mytilene, she was also said to have been born in Eresos, another city on Lesbos.
BkXLII:Chap6:Sec1 The promontory of Gnidus (Cape Crio) in Caria (lying between Cos and Rhodes) was a cult sanctuary of Aphrodite, whom Sappho celebrated.
BkXLII:Chap7:Sec1 See Fragment 2 (Lobel and Page: Oxford 1955) taken from a third century BC potsherd. Chateaubriand gives a flavour of the original.
Iranian tribesmen noted for their horsemanship, and their warrior princesses. In the 5th century BC Herodotus placed them beyond the Don on the eastern borders of Scythia. By the 3rd century BC they occupied most of the southern Ukraine. Sarmatism (Polish: sarmatyzm) was the name of the lifestyle of the gentry in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth from at least the 16th century to the end of 18th century. The gentry wore long coats trimmed with fur, carried sabres, and wore thigh-high boots, the ‘Sarmatian’ costume they liked to be painted in, proclaiming their link to their presumed legendary ancestors, the real Sarmatians, and the cultural ideology that sustained their connections with a nobility on horseback
BkV:Chap2:Sec1 Chateaubriand contrasts the Sarmatian horsemen with the horseless Scythians, and links them to the Polish nobility. An artificial distinction, since the Scythians generally were noted horsemen.
1770-1840. Confirmed in the rank of Général de Brigade by the First Consul in 1800, he served in Italy in 1799, Santo Domingo 1802-03, and was a brigade commander in the Grande Armée in 1805-06. Accused of misconduct toward the civilian population as a garrison commander in Flanders, he commandeered a boat and deserted to England in June 1810. He returned with the Bourbons in 1815 but was arrested by Napoleon during the Hundred Days, and later in 1819 he was accused of bigamy and sought refuge in Holland, England, Turkey and Germany.
BkXX:Chap1:Sec1 His Histoire de la guerre de Russie…. (1815).
Son of Earth and Heaven (Uranus) ruler of the universe in the Golden Age. Saturn was deposed by his three sons Jupiter, Neptune and Pluto who ruled Heaven, Ocean and the Underworld respectively. He was banished to Tarturus. He was the father also of Juno, Ceres and Vesta by Ops. In astrology Saturn is the planet of grief and the gloomy, melancholy temperament, hence the adjective saturnine.
BkXVII:Chap3:Sec2 Chateaubriand refers to his own temperament.
fl.11th century BC. First king of the ancient Hebrews, he was a Benjamite whose territory was probably limited to the hill country of Judah and the region to the north, and whose proximity to the Philistines brought him into constant conflict with them.
Saumaise, Claude de, Claudius Salmasius
1588-1653. A French humanist and philologist, after studying Latin and Greek with his father, he began a law career at Dijon in 1610. He turned to the study of theology, Hebrew, Arabic, and Persian when his Protestantism impeded his advancement in law. In 1631 he was called to the University of Leiden to succeed Joseph Scaliger. There he produced 80 books and became widely known as a scholar of the first rank. Supporting the Stuarts, he wrote Defensio regia pro Carlo I (1649), upholding the divine right of monarchy, which brought a celebrated dissenting reply from John Milton. Salmasius’ major works include an important commentary on Pliny (1629), and Observationes in jus Atticum et Romanum (1645).
A Republican exiled to the Seychelles in 1801.
Royal Paymaster-General in 1785.
Sauret de la Borie, Pierre-François, General
1742-1818. Napoleonic general, campaigned in Italy.
Saute des poissonniers
This was a Maundy Thursday custom whereby all the men who had sold fish during Lent had to leap into the pond.
1800-1830. A lawyer turned editor, and member of Delécluze’s circle.
1772-1859. Director of the Moniteur.
The city is on the Savannah River in Georgia. Established by James Oglethorpe in 1733, it was an important colonial port. The first Atlantic steam ship crossing to Liverpool took place from here in 1819.
Savary, Anne Jean-Marie, Duc de Rovigo
1774-1833. As a young officer he announced the death of Desaix to Napoleon on the field of Marengo. He became an aide-de-camp, then colonel in the gendarmerie, then a general (1803). Created Duc de Rovigo in 1808 he was Minister of Police from 1801 to 1812.
BkXVI:Chap4:Sec1 See Extraits des Mémoires du duc de Rovigo etc (1823). Full text 1828.
BkXVI:Chap5:Sec1 BkXVI:Chap6:Sec1 His reminiscences regarding the execution of the Duc d’Enghien. Savary, who commanded the Gendarmerie d'Elite, had been sent to Biville on the coast of Normandy to await the arrival of a Bourbon Prince aboard a British naval cutter. The landing didn’t take place; either because of the weather or because the proper signals for a landing were not sent. After two fruitless months, Savary arrived back in Paris and went to Malmaison to report his failure, on the eve of the Duc d’Enghien’s execution.
BkXVI:Chap7:Sec1 Chateaubriand considers him responsible for carrying out the execution on secret orders from Napoleon.
BkXXII:Chap7:Sec1 Minister of Police in 1813.
Savignano sul Rubicone, Italy
The town is now a suburb, 22 kilometres south of Paris (Essone).
BkXIII:Chap8:Sec1 There, Madame de Beaumont rented La Maison de Courterente (or Courterenche) belonging to Marie Nicolas Pigeon, Advocate to the Parlement of Paris, in the summer of 1801, and Chateaubriand joined her. He stayed from the 19th May to the end of November, with visits to Paris. Joubert stayed there in May and then again in August, when Molé joined them.
A city of northwest Italy on an arm of the Ligurian Sea west-southwest of Genoa, it was known from early Roman times, and was an important commercial centre in the Middle Ages. On the Rocca di San Giorgio stands the fortress named Priamar (‘rock by the sea’) built by the Genoese in 1542, on the area of the old cathedral and later used as a prison and military prison (Italian patriot Giuseppe Mazzini was imprisoned there).
Saxe, Maurice de, Marshal of France (Moritz Graf von Sachsen)
1696-1750. A Marshal of France, he was the natural son of Augustus II of Poland. A brilliant soldier he fought in the the Wars of Polish Succession (1733-1735) and Austrian Succession and famously took Prague in 1741 He then fought in the Netherlands, and was naturalised as a French subject in 1746 and granted the Château of Chambord for life. He was an ancestor of George Sand ( the pen name of Amantine-Lucile-Aurore Dupin, later Baroness Dudevant, 1804-1876)
BkXIX:Chap5:Sec1 His inability to spell French words.
c1150-c1220. The first important Danish historian, he was in the service of Absalon, archbishop of Lund, at whose suggestion he wrote the Gesta Danorum (or Historia Danica). The first nine books are mostly composed of oral tradition and legends concerning the early Danes, including the story of Hamlet. The remaining seven books, dealing more with contemporary events, are an extremely valuable source for Danish history. The cognomen grammaticus (learned) was probably bestowed on Saxo after his death.
1787-1834. An American naturalist, born in Philadelphia, he went on collecting expeditions to Georgia and Florida and, with Stephen H. Long, to the Rocky Mountains and up the Mississippi and Minnesota rivers. He was professor of natural history at the University of Pennsylvania from 1822 to 1828 and spent the rest of his life at Robert Owen’s colony in New Harmony, Indiana. Called the father of American descriptive entomology, he wrote on paleontology and conchology as well.
BkVIII:Chap5:Sec3 His travels.
Scaliger, Joseph Justus
1540-1609. The great French classical scholar. He was the son of Julius Caesar Scaliger, from whom he acquired his early mastery of Latin. He adopted Protestantism in 1562, served as companion of a Poitevin noble (1563–70), studied under Cujas at Valence (1570–72), and was professor of philosophy at Geneva (1572–74). After 1593 he held a research professorship at Leiden. Renowned in his own day for his erudition, he was learned in mathematics, philosophy, and many languages, and he was a promoter of scientific methods for textual criticism and the study of the classics. His De emendatione temporum (on the correction of chronology:1583) surveyed all the ways then known of measuring time, and placed the study of ancient calendars and dates on a scientific basis. He discovered and restored the content of the lost original of the second book of Eusebius’ chronicle. The chronological foundation for the modern study of ancient history was summed up in his Thesaurus temporum (Repertory of dates:1606)
The noble family of Scaliger (the Scaligeri) were lords of Verona. They were ousted by the Visconti in 1387. Cangrande I had inherited the position of podestà in 1308, and made a name as warrior, prince and patron of Dante, Petrarch and Giotto. By war or treaty he brought under his control the cities of Padua (1328), Treviso (1329), and Vicenza.
Scamozzi, Ottavio Bernotti-Scamozzi
1719-1790. An architect active in Vicenza where he designed the Palazzo Francschini Folco (1770) among other buildings. He wrote a work on Palladio. (Note also Vincenzo Scamozzi 1548-1616. An Italian architect and a writer on architecture, he was active mainly in the Vicenza and Venice area in the second half of the 16th century.)
Scévola, Publius Mucius Scaevola
c115BC. A prominent Roman politician and jurist. He was tribune in 141 BC, and praetor in 136. He is best known for being involved with the downfall of Tiberius Gracchus, the plebeian revolutionary Tribune.
A town near Châtenay, about ten kilometres south of Paris.
BkI:Chap1:Sec1 Mentioned by Chateaubriand.
The canton of Schaffhausen is the northernmost canton of Switzerland, located to the north of Zurich. It lies west of the Lake Constance and is almost entirely surrounded by Germany. The canton of Schaffhausen is even divided by parts of Germany. There are three parts to the canton. The largest part includes the capital Schaffhausen. The Rhine Falls are the largest water falls in Europe and lie on the border of the canton of Schaffhausen, the canton of Zurich and Germany.
BkXXXVI:Chap5:Sec1 Chateaubriand there on the 18th of May 1833.
1795-1858. A French painter of Dutch extraction he was noted for his paintings on the Faust theme, his religious works, and his portraits.
A Persian Queen, the fictional storyteller of The Thousand Nights and One Night, the nucleus of which is an ancient Persian manuscript Hezar-afsana (the Thousand Myths)
1759-1805. A German poet, he was also philosopher, historian, and dramatist.
BkXXII:Chap5:Sec1 Thekla, Wallenstein’s daughter, is a character in his play Wallenstein (1799).
BkXXVI:Chap4:Sec1 BkXXVIII:Chap5:Sec1 His drama Die Jungfrau von Orleans (1801), which Chateaubriand calls Jeanne d’Arc, was played in Berlin on the 9th of April 1821 with Madame Stick in the title role. Décor was by Schinkel.
BkXXIX:Chap7:Sec3 Chateaubriand’s appreciation of him.
BkXXXV:Chap11:Sec2 His Wilhelm Tell of 1804.
BkXXXVIII:Chap2:Sec1 Chateaubriand’s preference for him.
BkXXXVIII:Chap5:Sec1 See Schiller’s play The Death of Wallenstein, Act IV. The play is the third of the trilogy.
1787-1870. In Italy from 1817, he was a painter of popular Italian scenes with brigands and their wives figuring in them.
Schonen, Auguste-Jean-Marie, Baron de
1782-1849. He was a magistrate and Deputy for the Seine from 1827.
BkXXXII:Chap2:Sec1 Mentioned in 1830.
BkXXXII:Chap6:Sec1 Appointed a member of the Municipal Commission on the 29th July 1830.
Shuvalov (Schouwaloff), Pavel Andreevitch
1773-1823. He was aide-de-camp to Alexander I in 1814, and Russian Allied Commissioner for Elba (3 May 1814 - 26 Feb 1815, not resident).
BkXXII:Chap 20:Sec2 Escorted Napoleon on his journey to Elba.
Bad Schwalbach is a spa town approximately 20 km northwest of Wiesbaden. It lies at 289 to 465 meters elevation in the Taunus mountains, along the small river Aar (a tributary of the Lahn).
A native of Basel, he was hired by Chateaubriand as an interpreter during his visit to Bohemia.
Schwarzenberg, Charles Philip, Prince of
1771-1820. The Austrian field marshal and diplomat who in 1810 was made ambassador to France, and led the Austrian forces sent to aid Napoleon I in the Russian campaign of 1812. When Austria joined (1813) the allies against Napoleon, Schwarzenberg was the senior general of the victorious coalition. He commanded at Leipzig (1813) and entered Paris in 1814.
BkXXI:Chap7:Sec1 His departure from the French army signalled the defection of Napoleon’s former allies.
BkXXII:Chap12:Sec1 Senior General in Paris in April 1814.
Schwed or Schwedt, Frederick William, Margrave of Brandenberg
1700-1771. The son of Philip-William (1669-1711).
The ‘King of the Campagna’, he was a bandit leader in the neighbourhood of Rome at the end of the 16th century.
Scipio Aemelianus Africanus the Younger, Publius Cornelius
Scipio, Publius Cornelius, Africanus Major
237-183 BC. The Roman Consul and General, after defeating the Carthaginians in Spain won permission to invade Africa. He defeated Hannibal at Zama (south-west of Carthage) in 202 and became a national hero, receiving the title Africanus. He subsequently retired from public life after resistance to his pro-Greek policies.
BkXXI:Chap1:Sec1 Scipio supposedly stumbled on reaching African soil but quickly clasped it and said :You cannot escape me Africa.’
BkXXXVIII:Chap5:Sec1 The hypogeia, a subterranean crypt of the Scipio family tomb on the Via San Sebastiano in Rome, was discovered in the eighteenth century.
1771-1832. The Scottish novelist, and poet, is famous for his series of historical novels, including Waverley (1814). He was bankrupted in 1826 and spent the remaining years of his life writing frantically to pay his creditors.
Preface:Sect3. Mentioned by Chateaubriand as having recently died.
BkIII:Chap4:Sec1 His mystic female characters, blessed with second sight.
BkXII:Chap1:Sec1 His lameness in the right leg from an early childhood injury. His debt to Shakespeare.
BkXII:Chap2:Sec1 The leading novelist.
BkXXIV:Chap9:Sec1 A reference to his Life of Napoleon (1827). Chateaubriand in an extensive note not translated here defends Scott as an impartial biographer.
Is an alternative name for Shköder in north-west Albania near the outlet to Lake Scutari. An ancient Illyrian capital, Shkodër became (168BC) a Roman colony, passed to Byzantium, and was conquered by the Serbs in the 7th century. Until the fall of Serbia in the late 14th century, Shkodër was the seat of the princes of Zeta (i.e., Montenegro), who pledged it to Venice in return for a subsidy in the war against Turkey. However, it was captured by Sultan Muhammad II in 1479. Known under Turkish rule as Iskenderiye, it was the seat of a pashalik. The pashas, often chosen from among Montenegrin renegades, fought for centuries against their Albanian neighbors.
The daughter of Phorcys and the nymph Crataeis, remarkable for her beauty. Circe or Amphitrite, jealous of Neptune’s love for her changed her into a dog-like sea monster, ‘the Render’, with six heads and twelve feet. Each head had three rows of close-set teeth. Her cry was a muted yelping. She seized sailors and cracked their bones before slowly swallowing them. Finally she was turned into a rock. See Ovid’s Metamorphoses Bk XIV:75-100. (The rock projects from the Calabrian coast near the village of Scilla, opposite Cape Peloro on Sicily. See Ernle Bradford ‘Ulysses Found’ Ch.20)
Sébastiani, Horace François Bastien, Baron
1772-1851. A French marshal and diplomatist, of Corsican birth, he became chef de brigade in 1799. Attached by birth and service to the future Emperor Napoleon, he took part in 18th Brumaire. Promoted general of brigade in 1803, he served in 1805 in the first of the great campaigns of the Empire. His conduct at Austerlitz where he was wounded, won him promotion to the rank of general of division. He was appointed to Constantinople as French Ambassador inducing the Porte to declare war on Russia, and as a soldier directed the defence of Constantinople against the British. But the deposition of the Sultan Selim III caused his recall in April 1807. He was at this time made Count of the Empire. At Smolensk, Borodino and Leipzig he did brilliant service. He accepted the Restoration government in 1814, but rejoined his old leader on his return from Elba. After Waterloo he retired to England for a time. From 1819 he was a member of the Chamber of Deputies. He held the posts of Minister of Marine, and, later, of Foreign Affairs. In this latter capacity he was the author of the historic saying ‘Order reigns at Warsaw’. In 1832 he was a Minister of State without portfolio, next year ambassador at Naples, and from 1835 to 1840 was ambassador to Great Britain. On his retirement from this post he was made Marshal of France. He was a brilliant social figure in Paris. His last years were clouded by the death of his daughter at the hands of her husband, the Duc de Praslin. BkXIX:Chap16:Sec2 BkXX:Chap11:Sec1 Chateaubriand quotes him.
BkXXIII:Chap18:Sec2 Accused by Napoleon of conspiring against him in 1815.
BkXXVIII:Chap9:Sec1 A member of the Greek committee in 1825.
BkXXVIII:Chap13:Sec1 He writes to Chateaubriand, in support.
BkXXXI:Chap7:Sec1 A potential Minister still in 1830.
BkXXXII:Chap4:Sec1 Involved in discussions on the 28th July 1830.
BkXXXII:Chap10:Sec1 In the Chamber of Peers on 30th July 1830.
Ségalas, Anaïs, née Menard,
1814-1895. A poetess and critic she became a member of the Société de la Voix des Femmes in Paris in 1848 and of other Parisian feminist organizations in that year.
BkIV:Chap13:Sec1 Examples of parliamentary magistrates.
Ségur, Louis-Philippe, Comte de
1753-1830. Son of the Marshal, he was a diplomat and historian. He served in the American War of Independence in 1781 as a colonel under Rochambeau. In 1784 he was sent as minister plenipotentiary to Saint Petersburg, He took up a sympathetic attitude towards the Revolution at its outset and in 1791 was sent on a mission to Berlin, where he was badly received. After fighting a duel he was forced to leave Berlin, and went into retirement until 1801 when, at Bonaparte’s command, he was nominated by the senate to the Corps Législatif. In 1814 Ségur voted for the deposition of Napoleon and entered Louis XVIII’s Chamber of Peers. Deprived of his offices and functions in 1815 for joining Napoleon during the Hundred Days, he was reinstated in 1819, supported the Revolution of 1830, but died shortly afterwards in Paris.
BkXX:Chap12:Sec1 His opposition to the Russian Campaign.
Ségur, Philippe-Paul, Comte de
1780-1873. Son of Louis-Philippe, and a distinguished soldier, he was a brigadier-general in the Russian campaign of 1812, and in the campaigns of 1813 and 1814 repeatedly distinguished himself, notably at Hanau (October 1813), and in a brilliant affair at Reims (March 1814). He remained in the army at the Restoration, but, having accepted a command from Napoleon during the Hundred Days was retired until 1818, and took no further active part in affairs until the July Revolution of 1830. During his retirement he wrote his Histoire de Napoléon et de la grande armée pendant l’année 1812 (1824), which ran through numerous editions, and was translated into several languages. The unfavourable portrait of Napoleon given in this book provoked representations from General Gourgaud, and eventually a duel, in which Ségur was wounded. On the establishment of the July monarchy he received, in 1831, the grade of lieutenant-general and a peerage. In 1830 he was admitted to the Académie Française, and he became grand cross of the Legion of Honour in 1847. After the Revolution of 1848 he lived in retirement.
Ségur, Philippe-Henri, Marquis, Marshal of France
1724-1801. A veteran soldier he became Minister of War under Necker. In 1783 he became a marshal of France. He resigned from the ministry of war in 1787. During the Terror he was imprisoned in La Force, and after his release was reduced to considerable straits until in 1800 he received a pension from Napoleon. He died in Paris the following year.
c358-281BC Seleucus I (surnamed Nicator) was a Macedonian officer of Alexander the Great. In the wars of the Diadochi that took place after Alexander’s death, Seleucus established the Seleucid dynasty and the Seleucid Empire.
1470-1520. The Ottoman sultan (1512–20) who extended the empire to Syria, the Hejaz, and Egypt and raised the Ottomans to leadership of the Muslim world.
Selim III, Ottoman Sultan
1761-1808. The nephew and successor of Abd al-Hamid I to the throne of the Ottoman Empire (1789-1808). He suffered severe defeats in the second of the Russo-Turkish Wars with Catherine II, but suffered no major territorial losses when peace was made at Jassy in 1792. An ardent reformer, Selim set out to rebuild the Turkish navy on European lines, to reform the army, and to curb the Janissaries. In 1798 Selim joined the second coalition against France in the French Revolutionary Wars. Turkish forces lost Jaffa to Napoleon Bonaparte, who had invaded (1799) Syria after taking Egypt, but they held out at Acre and forced Napoleon to retreat. In 1801 the French left Egypt, which was restored to the Sultan. In 1804 the Serbs under Karageorge revolted. In 1806 war with Russia broke out again. A revolt of the Janissaries and conservatives who opposed his reforms led to Selim's deposition and imprisonment in 1807. Mustafa IV was placed on the throne. A loyal army marched on Constantinople to restore Selim. It entered the city in 1808, just after Selim had been strangled on Mustafa’s orders. Mustafa was executed and another of Selim’s cousins, Mahmud II, was put on the throne. During Selim’s reign Egypt became virtually independent under Mehmet Ali, as did Albania under Ali Pasha. Selim’s well-intentioned and efficient reforms came too late to arrest the decay of the Ottoman Empire.
BkXIX:Chap9:Sec3 Napoleon offered him his services in 1795. Selim sought expert help from the Republic to reorganise the defences of Constantinople, but the mission was not ready to leave until the end of 1796.
BkXX:Chap11:Sec1 Napoleon maintained relations with him.
Selkirk, Thomas Douglas, 5th Earl of
1771–1820, A Scottish philanthropist, he was founder of the Red River Settlement. Emigration to America seemed to him the best solution for the poverty of his countrymen, especially the Highlanders who had been evicted from their small holdings. He obtained land on Prince Edward Island and supervised (1803) the founding of a successful settlement there. In 1811 he acquired a large tract in Rupert's Land from the Hudson's Bay Company, in which he had bought a controlling interest, and established the Red River Settlement in what is now Manitoba. The creation (1812–16) of this colony led to bloodshed between the settlers and the North West Company, a rival of the Hudson’s Bay Company. The colony was destroyed in 1815 but later reinstated. After Selkirk's return to Upper Canada, lawsuits were brought against him by the North West Company, and he was forced to pay damages. Having sacrificed his health and most of his fortune to his philanthropic enterprises he returned home in 1818 and died in France two years later. He wrote Observations on the Present State of the Highlands of Scotland (1805) and A Sketch of the British Fur Trade in North America (1816).
Seltz in Alsace (Bas-Rhin) distributed carbonated water.
BkXXXVI:Chap1:Sec1 Chateaubriand uses the French term eau de Seltz for soda-water.
The Seminole are a Native American Indian people of The Floridas. The nation came into existence in the 1700s, and was composed of Indians from Georgia, Mississippi, Alabama, and Florida including the Creek Nation. While roughly 3000 Seminoles were forced west of the Mississippi River, including the Seminole Nation of Oklahoma who picked up new members including run-away slaves along their way, approximately 300-500 Seminoles stayed and fought in and around the Everglades of Florida. In a series of wars, about 1,500 American soldiers died, but no formal peace treaty was ever imposed, and the Seminoles never surrendered to the U. S. government, hence they call themselves the ‘Unconquered People.’
Sémonville, Charles-Louis Huguet, Marquis de
1759-1839. A French diplomat, the son of one of the royal secretaries, he was Minister and envoy extraordinary from France to Genoa in 1790-1791, In 1799 Bonaparte sent him to the Hague to consolidate the alliance between France and the Batavian Republic. In this mission he was entirely successful, and he is credited with another diplomatic success in the inception of the Austrian marriage. He accepted the Bourbon Restoration and sat on the commission which drew up the charter. Sémonville, who enjoyed a great measure of Louis XVIII’s confidence, took no part in the Hundred Days. A frank opponent of the extremist policy of Charles X, he tried to save him in 1830; in company with Antoine d’Argout he visited the Tuileries and persuaded the king to withdraw the ordinances and to summon the Council. He was made a count of the Empire in 1808, and marquis in 1819.
BkXXVIII:Chap6:Sec1 The Grand Referendary (an officer of state traditionally charged with the duty of procuring and dispatching diplomas and decrees, and endorsing official acts) of the Chamber of Peers in 1825.
BkXXVIII:Chap15:Sec1 Quoted, from a speech in 1827.
BkXXXII:Chap6:Sec1 At Saint-Cloud on the 29th of July 1830.
BkXXXII:Chap7:Sec1 Rebuffed in Paris on the 29th.
BkXXXII:Chap8:Sec1 Active in Paris on the 30th.
BkXXXII:Chap9:Sec1 His note to Chateaubriand on the 30th.
BkXXXIII:Chap7:Sec2 Chateaubriand writes to him in August 1830.
A small town in the Swiss canton of Lucerne, built above the eastern shore of Lake Sempach.
BkXXXV:Chap20:Sec1 On the 9th of July 1386 the Swiss Confederation defeated the Austrians of Duke Leopold there, the Duke losing his life. The Cistercian Abbey of Saint-Urbain is near Langenthal
Senancour, Étienne Pivert de
1770-1846. A French writer, his novella Obermann (1804), partially inspired by Rousseau, was edited and praised successively by Sainte-Beuve and by George Sand, and had a considerable influence both in France and England. It is a series of letters supposedly written by a solitary in a lonely valley of the Jura. It belongs to the large class of Wertherian-Byronic literature. BkXLII:Chap7:Sec1 Mentioned.
One of the means Napoleon had used to tame his senators was to endow each of them with a ‘Sénatorerie’, a substantial property taken from the ‘biens nationaux’ (lands taken from the nobles who had emigrated or been declared enemies of the state, from the Church, or from the Crown).
‘On the advice of the Senate’, was a formula used in ancient Rome when the Senate gave its advice on a point of law. Under the Consulate and the First and Second Empire it was an act voted on by the French Senate having the force of law.
c2-66AD. The Roman Stoic philosopher, writer, and tutor of Nero, his works include treatises on rhetoric and governance and numerous plays that influenced Renaissance and Elizabethan drama. He was forced by Nero to commit suicide.
BkXL:Chap2:Sec3 See Seneca’s The Trojan Women:575.
Seneff, Battle of
The Gallo-Roman town in the south of Picardy (Oise), 50km north of Paris, situated on the Nonette a tributary of the Oise.
BkXXIII:Chap20:Sec2 Chateaubriand there with the King in 1815.
Senozan, Marquise de
1718-1794. Sister of Malesherbes. Guillotined 10th May 1794.
Sérilly, Anne-Marie-Louise Thomas de Domangeville, Madame de
1762-1799. Cousin of Pauline de Beaumont. In 1779 married her cousin Antoine Mégret de Sérilly, Treasurer General in the War Ministry. Lady in waiting to Marie-Antoinette. Note her bust by Houdon, 1782. Her husband was executed in 1794. She married again twice, and died of smallpox.
A village in the Alpes-de-Haute-Provence in the south of France, it is near Barrême.
The Little Green Frog is a French literary fairy tale, from the Cabinet des Fées (1731, Amsterdam: a compendium of salon tales). Serpentine is a Princess, raised by the fairies, who appears in frog-shape.
BkXXXVIII:Chap7:Sec1 Chateaubriand’s affectionate name for the hunchbacked girl
Serre, Pierre François Hercule, Comte de
1776-1824. A moderate Royalist émigré, who served the exiled Court, he became a member of the Chamber of Peers in 1815. Minister of Justice 1819-1821, he was noted for his oratorical skills, and repealed the censure of the Press. He became Ambassador to Naples in 1822, though already ill, dying at Castellmare.
BkXXVIII:Chap3:Sec1 Chateaubriand writes to him in Naples in June 1824.
Sérurier (Serrurier), Jean Mathieu Philibert, Marshal of France, Comte
1742-1819. Fought in the Seven Years War. Re-enlisted as a soldier and rose to the rank of general by 1795. Fought successfully in the Italian Campaign and became Governor of Venice in 1798 where he was noted for his probity. Governor of the Invalides, 1808, and Commander of the National Guard, 1809, he rallied to the Bourbons in 1814 but served Napoleon during the Hundred Days.
Servan de Gerbey, Joseph
1741-1808. Minister of War during parts of 1792.
Sesmaisons, Marie Charles Donatien Yves, Vicomte de
1805-1867. He was the grandson of the Chancellor Dambray via his mother Anne Charlotte Françoise Dambray.
Sesostris III (Senusret III)
1878-1839BC. An Egyptian Pharaoh, he was the fifth monarch of the Twelfth Dynasty of the Middle Kingdom. Senusret III continued his Kingdom’s expansion deep into Nubia (from 1866 to 1863 BC) where he erected massive River Forts. One stela mentions his military activities against both Nubia and Palestine. Morgan, in 1894, reported rock inscriptions near Sehel documenting his digging of a canal, possibly an early east-west Suez. He erected a temple and town at Abydos,
BkXIX:Chap14:Sec3 His work on an early Suez canal.
BkXIX:Chap16:Sec2 His campaign in southern Palestine.
BkXLII:Chap9:Sec1 The obelisk on the Place de Concorde where Louis XVI was executed, was offered to France in 1832 by Mehmet Ali, arrived in Paris 21st December 1833, and was erected on the 25th of October 1836.
A town located in the province of Varese, in the Lombardy region of northern Italy, it is about twenty-five miles north-west of Milan.
BkXXXIX:Chap3:Sec1 Chateaubriand there in September 1833.
146-211. Roman Emperor, 193-211, born at Leptus Magna south-east of Carthage, he was the first ‘African Caesar’.
Severoli, Antonio Gabriele, Cardinal
1757-1824. Bishop of Fano, then nominal Archbishop of Petra, he was Papal Nuncio in Vienna from 1801 to 1817 where he strongly opposed Chancellor Cobenzl. He was made a Cardinal in 1816 and Bishop of Viterbo on his return to Italy. A zelante party candidate for the Papacy in 1823, the Austrians vetoed his appointment, and he himself suggested Della Genga.
BkXXX:Chap1:Sec2 Vetoed by Austria using her right of exclusion in 1823.
Sévigné, Marie de Rabutin-Chantal, Marquise de
1626-1696. The famous letter-writer, who in over 1500 letters, mostly written to her two children after the death of her husband in 1651, described Parisian society’s intellectual and other diversions, and her life at her country house in Brittany, in a style that was much imitated.
BkIV:Chap3:Sec2 See the letters of December 1675 where she speaks of a Pommereuil or Pommereu, Baron de Riceys, future intendant of Brittany.
BkV:Chap2:Sec 2 Chateaubriand quotes her letter of 5th August 1671, to her daughter. The States met at Vitré that year, near her château at Rochers. Her letters of the 16th October and 24th November speak excessively lightly of the measures taken to repress the peasants’ uprising. After breaking on the wheel, hanging seems a refreshing change!
BkXVII:Chap3:Sec1 Chateaubriand refers to her letter to her daughter 16th September 1677. The three gentlemen took the waters devant et après her, each taking his half-hour.
BkXVIII:Chap5:Sec2 Her rural solitude.
BkXXII:Chap 20:Sec3 In a letter of 24th April 1671, she speaks of going en Bavardin, that is to seek gossip in the village, modifying the name of a chatterbox friend the Marquise de Lavardin.
BkXXVI:Chap6:Sec1 The reference is to her letter of 29th April 1671.
BkXXIX:Chap7:Sec1 The reference is to her letter of 8th January 1690.
A town in Burgundy.
Sévigné, Charles de
Son of Marie.
Sévin, Abbé René-Malo
d. 1817. Rector of Combourg from 1776. He took refuge in Jersey in 1792, but returned as curé in 1803 and held the position till his death.
The Republic of Seychelles is an archipelago nation of 115 islands in the Indian Ocean, some 1,600 km east of mainland Africa, northeast of the island of Madagascar. Other nearby island countries and territories include Mauritius and Réunion to the south, Comoros and Mayotte to the southwest, and the Suvadives of the Maldives to the northeast.
BkXXIV:Chap10:Sec1 Exiled Republicans sent there in 1801.
Sèze, Raymond Romain, Comte de
1750-1828. A French advocate, together with François Tronchet and Malesherbes, he defended Louis XVI, when the king was brought before the Convention for trial. He himself was also imprisoned during the revolution, but he managed to elude the scaffold. After release on the fall of Robespierre, he disappeared from public life, refusing to serve the Directory and the Napoleonic government, both of which he saw as illegitimate. Upon the return of the Bourbons he was made a peer, as well as a judge and a member of the French Academy.
BkXXII:Chap7:Sec1 Suspected by Napoleon of being an intermediary with England.
BkXXIII:Chap9:Sec1 In Ghent in 1815.
BkXXV:Chap12:Sec1 He was from Bordeaux. His brush with Chateaubriand did not stop the latter representing the Peers at his funeral, and giving the funeral elegy, at the family’s request on the 18th May of 1828.
Sforza, Duchess Caterina
1563-1509. Duchess of Forlì and Imola, she was an illegitimate daughter of Galeazzo Maria Sforza. She defended Forlì against Cesare Borgia in 1500, eventually surrendering.
1564-1616. The English playwright, born and died in Stratford.
BkX:Chap1:Sec1 Rosalind and the exiled Duke appear in As You Like It which is set in the Forest of Arden.
BkX:Chap5:Sec2 Chateaubriand translates from lines 9-13 of Richard III, Act IV, Scene 3.
BkXI:Chap2:Sec1 A slight misquote from As you Like It,V.2.
BkXII:Chap1:Sec1 His place in English literature discussed. Falstaff appears in The Merry Wives of Windsor and Henry V. Chateaubriand quotes from Sonnet XXXVII, verse 3, and from sonnet LXXI. Chateaubriand’s very individualistic assessment of the poet.
BkXII:Chap5:Sec2 Chateaubriand quotes from Cymbeline III.4 line 139.
BkXIV:Chap2:Sec3 Hamlet Act III is perhaps referred to, and the play within a play that reveals past crime.
BkXXVII:Chap11:Sec1 As a famous Englishman.
BkXXXVII:Chap10:Sec1 Chateaubriand quotes from The Winter’s Tale Act 3, Scene 3 line 1, where the stage direction reads: ‘Bohemia. The sea-coast.’
BkXXXIX:Chap3:Sec1 See Romeo and Juliet III:5, line 6.
BkXXXIX:Chap13:Sec1 See Othello I:3:164-165. Chateaubriand adapts the lines.
BkXLII:Chap4:Sec2 See Hamlet: III:1:64-65.
Sheridan, Richard Brinsley
1751-1816. The Anglo-Irish dramatist wrote witty comedies of manners including The Rivals (1775) and School for Scandal (1777). He was an MP from 1780-1812 and recognised as one of the great parliamentary orators.
Preface:Sect1 Chateaubriand mentions meeting him.
BkXII:Chap5:Sec3 Chateaubriand heard him speak.
BkXXII:Chap15:Sec3 One of his speeches quoted.
Material decorated with flowers from which its colours derived, like satin or damask. The text has ‘siamoise flambée’.
Siam, Rue de, Brest
Its name derives from the visit to Brest of three ambassadors sent by the King of Siam on the 29th of June 1686. They crossed the harbour, landed in Lanvéoc and travelled to the Château of Versailles to be presented to Louis XIV. At that period Siam Street came down to the banks of the River Penfeld and went up towards the Landernau Door.
BkII:Chap8:Sec1 Chateaubriand lodged there.
Sicard, Roch-Amboise Cucurron, Abbé
1742-1822. Honorary canon for Nôtre-Dame at Paris and a member of the Institut de France from 1795, he served as principal of an academy for deaf-mutes at Bordeaux from 1786 to 1789, at which point he was called to Paris to replace the Abbé de l'Epée, founder of the French institute for deaf-mutes, as the school’s director. Sicard was imprisoned as a royalist sympathizer during the late 1790’s, but was able to avoid execution through the petitions of his staff and students at the institute. Among his written works are two influential books, Mémoire sur l'art d'instruction les sourds-muets denaissance (1789) and Théorie des signers pour l'instruction des sourds-muets (1808-14), which influenced later pioneers in the field, including Thomas Hopkins Gallaudet, who along with Laurent Clerc started the American School for the Deaf.
Siddons, Sarah Kemble, Mrs
1755-1831. The best-known English actress of her generation, she had early theatrical experience in her father’s travelling company. At 18 she married William Siddons, an actor. Brought to the attention of David Garrick, she was engaged by him for a Drury Lane performance in 1775–76, which failed. In 1782, after appearances in the provinces, she played Isabella in Southerne’s Fatal Marriage at Drury Lane. Her success was instantaneous and indisputable, and her fame grew in such roles as Queen Katharine, Desdemona, and Volumnia to the Coriolanus of John Philip Kemble, her brother, with whom she often starred. In the role of Lady Macbeth, which she first played in 1785, and which was her role at her farewell performance in 1812, she was unequalled. Her portrait was painted by Gainsborough and Reynolds, the latter representing her as The Tragic Muse. Her statue, by Chantrey, is in Westminster Abbey.
BkXXVII:Chap5:Sec1 Chateaubriand met her in 1822 when she was sixty-six (she was born on the 5th of July). He had seen her on the stage earlier.
Sidoine Apollinaire, Gaius Sollius Modestus Sidonius Apollinaris
c430-after489. A Poet and diplomat, he was Bishop of Auvergne (472). Born in Lyons, he was treated with respect by the Emperor Majorianus for his learning. He became Urban Prefect of Rome, a patrician and senator. Imprisoned but released by the Goths after their capture of Lyons (474). He was the author of the Panegyrics on the Roman Emperors.
BkXI:Chap2:Sec2 A native of the Auvergne.
A Canon of Sainte-Chapelle in Boileau’s Lutrin (Canto I, lines 147-148).
Sieyès, Emmanual Joseph, Abbé
1748-1836. A clergyman before the Revolution, known as the Abbé Sieyès, His pamphlet Qu’est-ce que le tiers état? (What is the third estate?,1789), attacking noble and clerical privileges, was popular throughout France, and he was elected deputy from the third estate to the States-General of 1789. He advocated the formation of the national assembly, and participated in the writing of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen and the constitution of 1791. As a member of the Convention he voted for the execution of King Louis XVI. His prudent silence enabled him to live through the Reign of Terror. In 1799 he entered the Directory. Later that year he conspired with Napoleon in the overthrow of the Directory, in the coup of 18th Brumaire, and became, with Bonaparte and Roger Ducos, one of the three provisional consuls. His sketch for the constitution of the Year VIII was, however, changed in decisive points by Bonaparte, and Sieyès and Ducos were replaced as consuls. He became senator and senator of the empire and, after the Bourbon restoration, lived in exile (1816–30) in Brussels.
BkXIX:Chap18:Sec2 Apparently opposed to Napoleon on the latter’s return to France from Egypt.
Sigourney, Lydia Huntley
1791-1865. American verse writer: an extraordinarily copious writer of smooth, sentimental verse, which had great popularity in its day. Her most ambitious effort was a blank verse poem, Traits of the Aborigines of America (1822). Other books were Connecticut Forty Years Since, Pocahontas, etc.
BkVIII:Chap5:Sec3 Title of a poem by her.
The city in Tuscany is the provincial capital of Siena province.
Silenus and his sons the Satyrs were originally primitive mountaineers of northern Greece who became stock comic characters in Attic drama. He was called an autochthon or son of Pan by one of the nymphs. He was Bacchus’s tutor, portrayed usually as a drunken old man with an old pack-ass, who is unable to tell truth from lies. (See the copy of the sculpture attributed to Lysippus, ‘Silenus holding the infant Bacchus’ in the Vatican)
A region of east central Europe, extending along both banks of the Oder River and bounded in the south by the mountain ranges of the Sudetes. Politically, almost all of Silesia is now divided between Poland and the Czech Republic. The Polish portion comprises most of the former Prussian provinces of Upper Silesia and Lower Silesia, both of which were transferred to Polish administration at the Potsdam Conference of 1945.
BkXX:Chap6:Sec2 Invaded by Frederick the Great in 1740. The Silesian Wars (1740–42 and 1744–45) were part of the general War of the Austrian Succession. By the Treaty of Berlin (1742), Maria Theresa ceded all of Silesia except Teschen and present Czech Silesia to Prussia; this cession was ratified by the Treaty of Dresden (1745). In the Seven Years War, Prussia retained Silesia.
Silistria (Silistra), Bulgaria
The chief town of a department in Bulgaria, situated on a low-lying peninsula projecting into the Danube, below Rustchuk and close to the frontier of the Rumanian Dobrudja. In 1828-1829 it offered serious resistance to the Russians under Diebich, who captured the town with the loss of 3000 men. The town was held in pledge by the Russians for the payment of a war indemnity (1829-1836).
Strand linking Saint-Malo to the mainland.
An Amerindian chief, the father of Atala.
Simiane, Diana-Adelaïde de Damas d’Antigny, Comtesse de
Paris hostess. Wife of Charles de Damas. Painted by Madame Le Brun in 1783 and 1789.
BkV:Chap14:Sec1 Her fashionable soirees.
A cobbler. Appointed tutor to Louis XVII. Guillotined 1794.
Simon, le Père Richard
1638-1712. A French Biblical Critic and Orientalist, and native of Dieppe, he was the author of a Histoire critique du Vieux Testament (1678) which was condemned for its audacity. It dealt with the books of the Old Testament as if they were ordinary writings, and by this means aroused the enmity of Bossuet and the Port Royalists, through whose influence the whole edition of 1,300 copies was seized and destroyed.
1767-1831. Born in Lyons he emigrated before the Revolution to the United States where he became a successful New York merchant. In 1810-11 he made a tour of Great Britain where he met De Quincey, who characterized him as a ‘thorough, knowing man of the world, keen, sharp as a razor, and valuing nothing but the tangible and the ponderable.’ (See Society of the Lakes: I) His Journal of a Tour and Residence in Great Britain was published anonymously in 1815. He toured Switzerland in 1817-19 and took Swiss Nationality in 1822. He toured Italy in 1828, and in his Voyage en Italie et Sicilie published in 1828, he pokes fun at established reputations.
c556-c468 Greek lyric poet, Born at Ioulis, the ancient capital of the island of Ceos (Zea, now Kea), Greece, the most westerly of the larger Cyclades islands, south-east of Cape Sounion. At Athens for a time under the patronage of Hipparchus, he seems then to have gone to Thessaly, returning to Athens at the time of the Persian Wars. He was a friend of most prominent Athenians. After the wars he went (with his nephew Bacchylides) to the court of Hiero I of Syracuse, where he was a rival of Pindar. There are only fragments left of his work. Two of his finest epitaphs are on the fallen at Marathon and Thermopylae.
BkXXX:Chap11:Sec2 Mentioned as an elegist.
d.483. Pope 468-483. He defended the Council of Chalcedon against the Monophysites heresy of the Eastern empire, and worked for the Italian people against barbarian invaders.
The Simplon is a mountain pass at 6,589 ft in the Lepontine Alps between Switzerland and Italy. It connects Brig in Valais with Domodossola in Piedmont.
BkXX:Chap2:Sec1 Napoleon’s army crossed in 1800.
BkXXXIX:Chap3:Sec1 Chateaubriand on his way there in September 1833.
Sinigaglia or Senigallia
A comune, Episcopal See, and port town on Italy’s Adriatic coast, 25 km north of Ancona, in the Marche region, province of Ancona.
BkXXIX:Chap2:Sec3 Chateaubriand there in 1828.
The desert peninsula between the Gulf of Aquaba and the Gulf of Suez, its highest mountain is Mount Sinai where according to the Old Testament Moses received the Ten Commandments. (Exodus 24)
The 2,000-year-old town is the capital of Valais, or Wallis, a canton that is roughly 3/4 French-speaking and lies along the Rhône River between Lake Geneva and the Furka Pass. Although Valais has been part of the Swiss Confederation only since 1815, Sion has had a Catholic bishop since the 4th Century and enjoyed near-sovereign status during the Middle Ages.
BkXVI:Chap1:Sec1 A letter to Chateaubriand from the Town Council.
BkXXXIX:Chap3:Sec1 Chateaubriand recalls his appointment to the Valais.
The daughters of Acheloüs, the Acheloïdes, companions of Proserpina, turned to woman-headed birds, or women with the legs of birds, and luring the sailors of passing ships with their sweet song. They searched for Proserpine on land, and were turned to birds so that they could search for her by sea. (There are various lists of their names, but Ernle Bradford suggests two triplets: Thelxinoë, the Enchantress; Aglaope, She of the Beautiful Face, and Peisinoë, the Seductress: and his preferred triplet Parthenope, the Virgin Face; Ligeia, the Bright Voice; and Leucosia, the White One – see ‘Ulysses Found’ Ch.17. Robert Graves in the index to the ‘The Greek Myths’ adds Aglaophonos, Molpe, Raidne, Teles, and Thelxepeia.) (See Draper’s painting – Ulysses and the Sirens – Ferens Art Gallery, Hull, England, and Gustave Moreau’s watercolour in the Fogg Art Museum, Harvard)
He was a Colonel of Gendarmerie in Rome in 1809.
Sismondi, Jean Charles Léonard Simonde de
1773-1842. A Swiss historian, economist, and critic, he was a member of the circle of Mme de Staël, and a moderate liberal. His History of the Italian Republics in the Middle Ages (16 vol., 1809–18) made him well-known. He popularized the laissez-faire economics of Adam Smith in his De la richesse commerciale (1802). However, the social effects of the Industrial Revolution in England led him to become a critic of capitalism and a precursor of socialism in Nouveaux Principes d’économie politique (1819). In literary history, his De la littérature du Midi de l'Europe (1813) helped found the romantic school of criticism.
BkXXIII:Chap12:Sec1 In Paris during the Hundred Days he published articles in the Moniteur in favour of the ‘Supplementary Act’, later published as Examen de la Constitution française.
BkXXXIV:Chap6:Sec1 Mentioned in Geneva in June 1831.
The town in southeastern France, in the Alpes-de-Haute-Provence département is situated on the banks of the River Durance just below the confluences of the rivers Buëch and Sasse. It is sometimes called the ‘Porte de la Provence’ (The Gateway to Provence) because it is in a narrow gap between two long mountain ridges (Baume/Gache and Montagnes de Lure/Moulard).
Sivry or Sévery, Monsieur de Charrière de
A resident of Lausanne in 1826, possibly this was Sigismond, Deputy for Lausanne to the Grand Council, or his father Guillaume-Benjamin Samuel.
Sixte-Quint, Sixtus V
1521-1590. Pope (1585–90), an Italian (b. near Montalto) named Felice Peretti; successor of Gregory XIII. He entered the Franciscan order in early youth. After ordination (1547) he became a famous preacher and was patronized by zealous leaders of the Counter Reformation. As Pope, Sixtus V set about bringing order to the Papal States, which were at the mercy of brigands, and his methods, if violent, were successful. He spent a vast amount of money on the city of Rome, rebuilding countless churches, beautifying streets, and erecting new buildings and monuments. Sixtus left a tremendous surplus in the treasury by collecting new taxes, selling offices, and making loans. He reorganized the pontifical administration, and the Sacred College, which he set at the number of 70. He gave his sanction to Philip II of Spain’s attempt to invade and restore Catholicism to England, an endeavour that ended in the defeat of the Spanish Armada.
A term used for a medieval Scandinavian poet, especially one writing in the Viking age. (Old Norse skāld)
Skrzynecki (Czernicky), Jan Zygmunt
1787-1860. A Polish general, he was Commander-in-Chief of the November Uprising (1830-1831 also known as the Cadet Revolution, a failed rebellion against Russia’s rule in Poland). A career soldier born in Galicia, he had joined the Polish Legion, and at the Battle of Leipzig greatly distinguished himself, while at Arcis-sur-Aube, in 1814, he saved Napoleon from the enemy by sheltering him in the midst of his battalion. During the Uprising, in the battle of Ostrolenka (26th of May 1831), he showed his usual valour and considerable ability, but after a bloody contest the Russians prevailed. After the Uprising he resided at Prague, but migrated to Brussels where he was made commander in chief of the Belgian army, an appointment he was forced to resign by the combined - and emphatic protest of Russia, Austria and Prussia, in 1839. With the permission of the Austrian government he finally settled at Cracow, where he died.
BkXXXVII:Chap7:Sec1 Chateaubriand meets him in Prague in May 1833.
Slavkovo (Slawkowo), Russia
The town is in Minsk, Belarus.
BkXXI:Chap5:Sec2 Napoleon there during the retreat in 1812.
The town in south-east England, west of London, was famous for its brickfields in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries.
1723-1790. The Scottish political economist and philosopher, whose Wealth of Nations (1776) laid the foundations of classical free-market economic theory.
Mayor of Southampton in 1792-93.
BkVI:Chap1:Sec1 Issued Chateaubriand with a travel permit to London.
Smith, William Sidney
1764-1840. Smith (1764-1840) was an individualist with a flair for guerrilla warfare. He was frigate captain at the start of the French Revolutionary War and in 1795 was captured on the coast of France and imprisoned in Paris until early 1798. He was then sent to the Mediterranean where he clashed with both Nelson and Lord Keith. He none the less won fame in supporting a Turkish force that repulsed Napoleon's siege of Acre in 1799, ending his march north from Egypt on Syria. However, after Napoleon’ escape to France, a subsequent convention he made with the French at El Arish in 1800 to evacuate Egypt was repudiated by the British government. They were subsequently defeated in 1801 at Aboukir by Abercromby, an action in which Smith assisted in the British landings. He continued to be employed in unusual tasks until 1814. These included blockade of the Dutch coast in 1803-04 and an early but unsuccessful use of rockets against Boulogne. Having originally been knighted by the Swedes in the 1792 for (unauthorised) service against the Russians, he was eventually made a British KCB in 1815, and rose to full admiral in 1821 during his long retirement - in Paris, where he is buried in the Pere Lachaise cemetery.
BkXIX:Chap16:Sec2 His action at Acre in 1799.
A city of western Russia on the Dnieper River west-southwest of Moscow, it was first mentioned in the ninth century, and became an important port situated on various medieval trade routes. It was sacked by Mongols in the 13th century and captured by Lithuania, Russia, Poland, and Russia again, in turn, before being seized by Napoleon’s troops in 1812. The First Battle of Smolensk took place on August 17, 1812, between 175,000 French and 130,000 Russians under Prince Bagration, of whom about 50,000 and 60,000 respectively were actually engaged. Bagration’s corps occupied the town, which Napoleon attacked, carrying two of the suburbs. During the night the Russians set fire to the place and evacuated it, having lost in the action about 11,000 killed and wounded. The French lost 9,000.
BkXXI:Chap6:Sec1 Napoleon reaches the city on November 9th 1812, in retreat.
1721-1771. A Scottish novelist, Smollett achieved his greatest success with Humphry Clinker (1771), a comical but sympathetic story of a family's adventures through England and Scotland written in the form of letters. His other works included a popular History of England (1757), an entertaining but splenetic Travels through France and Italy (1766), and a brutal satire on public affairs, The History and Adventures of an Atom (1769).
BkXII:Chap1:Sec1 His History of England.
Modern Smarhon in the Minsk province of western Belarus.
BkXXI:Chap7:Sec1 Napoleon left Smorgoni, then in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, on the 5th of December 1812.
Modern Izmir, the port in western Turkey on the Aegean.
BkVIII:Chap4:Sec2 Its climate.
BkXVIII:Chap3Sec2 A letter dated from there.
470-399BC. The Athenian philosopher, whose school led on to those of Plato and the Dialectic system, Euclid and the Megaric, Aristippus and the Cyrenaic, Antisthenes and the Cynic. He was condemned to death on charges of impiety.
BkXXII:Chap 22:Sec1 A famous Athenian, charged with public affairs.
BkXLII:Chap4:Sec2 For his imprisonment, trial, and death see Plato’s Euthypro, Apology, Crito and Phaedo.
BkXLII:Chap6:Sec1 The fragment quoted is cited by Atheneus.
Saemund (Soemund) Sigfusson
The Eddas (lit. grandmother), is the name given to two collections of legends illustrative of the Scandinavian mythology: the Elder, or Poetic, Edda, was collected in the 11th century by Sæmund Sigfusson, an early Christian priest.
6th century BC. An Athenian statesman, he laid the foundations of the Athenian democracy. As archon (c594/593) he cancelled debts secured on land, and introduced a new coinage and weights and measures. He also instituted a new constitution, divided the citizens into four classes, and introduced a more lenient legal code.
Sombreuil, Charles-Eugene-Gabriel Virot, Vicomte de
1769-1795. Imprisoned in 1792, he emigrated, and then served on the Rhine and in Holland (1794), before crossing to England. He was responsible for the command of the second division in the expedition to Quiberon. He landed there at the time when Hoche was attacking Penthièvre. Forced to surrender, he was condemned to died and shot at Vannes on July 28, at 26 years of age, with the last bishop of Fraud, Mgr. de Hercé, eleven priests and three nobles. He was the son of Charles-François Virot, Marquis de Sombreuil (1727-1794). Maréchal-de-camp and governor of the Invalides (built as a home for old and wounded soldiers but also used as a barracks and arsenal). He refused to hand over his store of muskets and cannon on July 13, but they were seized by force early on July 14. His younger son died with him by guillotine; his daughter once saved him from the Tribunal as related by Carlyle; but he was rearrested and executed.
Somerset, Edward Adolphus St Maur (Seymour), 11th Duke of
1775-1855. A noted mathematician, he legally adopted the St. Maur variant of the name.
BkX:Chap4:Sec1 Present at the Literary Fund annual meeting in 1822.
BkXXVII:Chap3:Sec2 Seen in London society.
The town is 45km east of Pergamum (Bergama).
1804-1882. Born at Baton-Rouge in Lousiana, she died in Paris.
Sophie, see Monnier
Sophia-Wilhelmina of Prussia, Margrave of Bayreuth
1709-1758. She was the sister of Frederick II.
BkXXVI:Chap2:Sec1 Her Memoirs of the Berlin Court were published in 1810 and translated into French in 1820.
c496-406BC. Athenian tragedian and friend of Pericles, he developed the more static drama of Aeschylus by introducing a third actor and reducing the role of the chorus. Of his 123 plays 7 survive, including the Theban Trilogy.
BkII:Chap3:Sec3 Mentioned as an exemplar of theatre.
BkXIV:Chap2:Sec4 Aristoxenus claimed that Sophocles’ father was Sophilus a blacksmith.
235-203BC. She was a Carthaginian noblewoman who lived during the Second Punic War, the daughter of Hasdrubal Gisgonis (son of Gisco). A celebrated beauty, she married Syphax, a prince of Numidia, who allied himself with Carthage against Rome after the marriage. She committed suicide to escape Roman slavery. The tragedy of the same name by Jean Mairet (1634) is one of the first monuments of French ‘Classicism’, and was followed by a version from Pierre Corneille (1663).
Soracte is a mountain in the province of Rome. It is a narrow, isolated limestone ridge, some 5 miles south east of Civita Castellana, and 31 miles in length. Mentioned by Horace and Virgil, Soracte is a conspicuous object in the landscape, being visible from Rome itself.
Sorbier, Jean-Barthélémot, Comte de
1762-1827. A Napoleonic artillery General he fought with the Army of the Rhine, and the Army of Italy. Commander in chief of the Guards artillery division in 1811-12, he was Artillery Commander of the Grand Army in 1813-4.
Soult, Nicolas Jean de Dieu, Duc de Dalmatie, Marshal of France
1769-1851. Marshal of France, he won distinction in the Napoleonic Wars, especially at the battle of Austerlitz, where he was created (1808) duke of Dalmatia and was given command during the Peninsular War. After the restoration (1814) of the monarchy, King Louis XVIII made him minister of war, but he rejoined Napoleon I in the Hundred Days (1815). Exiled after the second restoration, he returned to France in 1819, was restored to his rank, and was made (1827) a peer by King Charles X. Under King Louis Philippe, Soult held several ministerial posts, including that of premier (1832–34, 1839–40, 1840–47). His last premiership was only nominal, since his cabinet was really dominated by François Guizot, who succeeded him.
BkXX:Chap7:Sec1 In Portugal in 1808, having been promised a kingship by Napoleon if he was successful.
BkXXII:Chap9:Sec1 Defending the routes from the south in February 1814.
BkXXVII:Chap3:Sec2 Chosen by Louis-Philippe to represent France at the coronation of Queen Victoria, 20th June 1838, he was a social success. He had made the first great French collection of Spanish paintings from his Peninsular War plunder.
BkXXXV:Chap24:Sec1 President of the Council (Prime Minister) of France October 1832-July 1834.
The city and major port in Hampshire, England, lies on Southampton Water, an inlet of the English Channel.
BkX:Chap4:Sec1 He arrived in London from Southampton on Tuesday the 21st May 1793.
The small constellation of Crux, in the form of a cross has a long axis pointing to the south celestial pole. It was visible from the Mediterranean in ancient times but precession has since carried it below the northern horizon.
1774-1843. An English author, he was primarily a poet, he was numbered among the so-called Lake poets. While at Oxford he formed (1794) a friendship with Coleridge and joined with him in a plan for an American utopia along the Susquehanna River that was never actualized. Southey married in 1795, made several trips to Portugal, and in 1803 settled with his wife and the Coleridges near Keswick in the Lake District. A prolific writer, he enjoyed great popularity and renown in his day and was made poet laureate in 1813. Byron notably savaged him in various works for his conventional politics and weak verse.
BkXII:Chap3:Sec1 Mentioned as a recognised living poet in 1822.
A district of Berlin, Germany, at the confluence of the Havel and Spree rivers, Spandau received its town charter in 1232, and during the period 1560 to 1594 the electors of Brandenburg built a major fortress there on the Havel River. The fortress was occupied in the Thirty Years War by the Swedes (1631–34) and in the French Revolutionary Wars by the French (1806–13).
Sparrow, Reverend Bence
1747-1824. Rector of Beccles from 1774.
BkX:Chap7:Sec1 Chateaubriand meets him in 1793. His brother Robert owned Worlingham Hall which Chateaubriand frequented. Both brothers had good libraries.
The ancient Greek capital of Laconia on the River Eurotas, it became an austere militaristic state ruled by two hereditary kings. Its victory over Athens in 404BC in the Peloponnesian War, and subsequent defeat by the Thebans at Leuctra in 371 marked the decline of Sparta and ultimately of Greece, The ancient city was destroyed by the Visigoths in 396AD: the modern town nearby dates from 1834.
BkVII:Chap1:Sec1 The famous monument to the Spartans who died attempting to foil the Persian invasion in 480BC, was at Thermopylae in east-central Greece not at Sparta itself, as Chateaubriand later realised. The main Greek force retreated leaving a Spartan and Thespian force under Leonidas to defend the narrow pass. They fought to the death. The inscription on their monument read ‘Go, tell the Spartans, thou that passest by, that here, obedient to their laws, we lie.’
BkXXXVI:Chap4:Sec1 Chateaubriand recalls his presence there on 19th August 1806.
BkVIII:Chap5:Sec2 Sparta, New Jersey.
BkIX:Chap3:Sec2 The Spartan reputation for austerity.
BkXVIII:Chap3Sec2 In Medieval times the Byzantine city of Mistra developed on a hill three miles from ancient Sparta.
BkXXXII:Chap12:Sec1 The Helots were a class of serf in ancient Sparta, the name perhaps deriving from Helos, a Laconian town.
1552-1599. A Renaissance English poet, he wrote ‘The Faerie Queene’.
Spielburg is sited on a hilltop in Brno, Southern Moravia. (Czech Republic) From a royal castle, the seat of the Moravian Margraves in the mid-14th century, it was turned into a huge baroque fortress, the strongest prison in the Austro-Hungarian Empire. Several French revolutionaries captured during the coalition wars with France, were held there, the best known being Jean Baptiste Drouet, famous as the former postmaster of Saint-Menehould who arrested King Louis XVI. From 1822, specially constructed cells for state prisoners were filled with Italian patriots (Carbonari) who had fought for the independence of their country. The poet Silvio Pellico, who served eight years there, made the prison famous with his book ‘Le miei prigioni - My prison’. During the Nazi occupation it was a holding prison for the German concentration camps. The Czechoslovak army left Špilberk in 1959, and the following year, it became the seat of the Brno City Museum.
Spinoza, Baruch or Benedict
1632-1677. Dutch Jewish philosopher and theologian, born in Amsterdam, his controversial pantheistic doctrine advocated an intellectual love of God. His best-known work is Ethics (1677).
BkXIII:Chap10:Sec2 His pantheism.
It is an ancient city in the Italian province of Perugia in east central Umbria on a foothill of the Apennines, 78 miles north of Rome.
BkXXIX:Chap2:Sec3 Chateaubriand there in October 1828. Monteluco is 8 kilometres east. Near the top of the mountain is a monastery of St. Francis, founded by the Saint. Somma is a small town marking the highest elevation along the ancient Via Flaminia in the area
1647-1685. A French physician and antiquarian, he was the inventor of archaeology as a discipline, and travelled widely in the Classical world. In 1678 he published his Voyage to Greece and the Levant, utilised by Chateaubriand.
Spontini, Gaspare Luigi Pacifico, Comte de San Andrea
1774-1851. An Italian operatic composer and conductor, La Vestale (1807) is his best-known work, and was a great success. He was Court-Composer in Paris from 1803, but left Paris to become Kappelmeister and conductor at the Berlin Opera (Hopofer).
BkXXVI:Chap4:Sec1 In Berlin in 1821.
Spontini, Marie-Catherine-Céleste Érard, Madame
1790-1878. The wife of Gaspare, the daughter of Jean-Baptiste Érard (1750-1826), and niece of Sébastien Érard (1752-1831), the celebrated Parisian piano and harp makers who developed the modern piano. Their instruments were owned by many famous musicians including Beethoven, Chopin, and Liszt.
BkXXVI:Chap4:Sec1 In Berlin in 1821.
About 250 miles long, rising in the Lausitz Mountians of East Central Germany, near the Czech Republic border, it flows north past Cottbus, then North-west through the Spree Forest, and from there it meanders east, north, and west before passing through Berlin to join the Havel River at Spandau. The Havel joins the Elbe. Navigable for about 110 miles the Spree is connected with the Oder River by the Oder-Spree Canal and with the Havel River by the Teltow Canal, which bypasses Berlin.
BkXXVI:Chap1:Sec1 Chateaubriand crossed it in 1821.
BkXXVI:Chap4:Sec1 The Royal Palace on the river.
BkXXVI:Chap9:Sec1 The Havel joins the Elbe at Rühstädt-Gnevsdorf, near Havelberg.
BkXXVIII:Chap5:Sec1 A river of Berlin.
A village in Bohemia.
BkXXXVI:Chap12:Sec1 Chateaubriand there in May 1833.
c. AD45–c.96, Latin poet. A favourite of Emperor Domitian, he won the poetry prize at an annual festival under Domitian’s auspices but later was an unsuccessful competitor at the Capitoline contest in Rome. His surviving works include two epics in the manner of Vergil—the Thebaid, on the Seven against Thebes, and the Achilleid (incomplete), on the early life of Achilles—and the Silvae, a collection of poems, some displaying careful craftsmanship, others apparently hastily composed improvisations. Statius was much esteemed in his own time and through the middle Ages.
BkII:Chap4:Sec2 Chateaubriand perhaps misquotes or mingles two quotations. ‘Macte nova virtute puer, sic itur ad astra’: Blessings on your fresh courage boy, such is the path to the stars’ is from Aeneid IX 640-641. ‘Macte animo, iuvenis!’ appears in Statius, Silvae V.
Staël, Albertine de, see Broglie, Duchesse de
Staël, Anne-Louise-Germaine Necker, Baronne de
1766-1817. Essayist and novelist, she was the daughter of the financier Jacques Necker, and her Paris salon became a centre of intellectual opposition to Napoleon. After 1803 she was forced into exile, mostly at her château on Lake Geneva. She travelled widely, meeting Goethe and Schiller in Weimar, returning to Paris in 1814. Her most important work was De l’Allemagne (1810) which introduced German literature to France. She also wrote two novels featuring unconventional young heroines, Delphine (1802) and Corinne (1807)
BkV:Chap15:Sec1 The reference is to her Considèrations Part II, Ch. 16.
BkXI:Chap2:Sec1 Chateaubriand quotes from Corinne XIV:Chapter 1.
BkXII:Chap4:Sec2 Chateaubriand was hardly known, despite the Essai, when De la littèrature was published in spring 1800.
BkXIII:Chap6:Sec1 BkXXIX:Chap1:Sec1 Chateaubriand’s ‘Lettre au Citoyen Fontanes sur la seconde édition de l’ouvrage de Mme de Staël’ published in Le Mercure on 22nd December 1800. This led to various criticisms and replies concerning her De la littérature which had appeared in April 1800.
BkXIII:Chap11:Sec2 An exemplar of the new nineteenth century literary style.
BkXV:Chap6:Sec1 Her friendship for and letter regarding Pauline de Beaumont. Ordered from Paris, she left on the 25th October 1803 with Benjamin Constant, staying at Metz with Charles de Villers, arriving on the 13th November in Frankfurt.
BkXXI:Chap2:Sec1 See Dix années d’exil, Part II, chapter 13.
BkXXI:Chap4:Sec1 See Dix années d’exil, Part II, chapter 14.
BkXXII:Chap13:Sec1 See Dix années d’exil, Part II, chapter 17.
BkXXVIII:Chap10:Sec1 She rented a house in Ouchy in August 1807.
BkXXVIII:Chap18:Sec1 Chateaubriand returns to 1800 to pick up her story. See Chapters 11 and 12 of Ten Years of Exile for her first trip to Germany.
BkXXVIII:Chap19:Sec1 Her letter to Madame Récamier is dated 17th November 1806.
BkXXVIII:Chap20:Sec1 Her second trip to Germany lasted from December 1807 to July 1808. Her letters to Madame Récamier. Her letter to Bonaparte. She had been exiled from Paris in December 1802 after the publication of Delphine, and the ban was set at a distant of forty leagues from Paris on the 15th October 1803. Chaumont is 115 miles or so from Paris. She had last seen Napoleon some time in 1799-early 1800, after first meeting him in December 1797.
BkXXVIII:Chap21:Sec1 Madame Récamier joined her in exile at Coppet in August 1811, and was herself exiled in the September.
BkXXIX:Chap1:Sec3 Chateaubriand identifies her with her character Corinne.
BkXXIX:Chap1:Sec4 BkXXXIV:Chap6:Sec1 Her death occurred on the 14th of July 1817. She lived at 8 Rue Royale, before being moved from there in the summer of 1817 to die in the Rue Neuve des Mathurins (Rue des Mathurins).
BkXXIX:Chap1:Sec5 Her portrait in Madame Récamier’s apartment at the Abbaye-aux-Bois.
BkXXXIX:Chap3:Sec1 See Ten Years of Exile.
BkXXXIX:Chap13:Sec1 See Corinne XV:7-9 and XVI:1-3.
BkXXXIX:Chap18:Sec1 Chateaubriand dined with her in 1802 on the Quai de la Râpée in Paris.
BkXLII:Chap8:Sec1 She assisted Talleyrand by having his proscription lifted so that Barras named him Minister for Foreign Relations in July 1797.
Staël-Holstein, Auguste-Louis de
1790-1827. Son of Madame de Staël, his ‘posthumous’ son in turn died in 1829.
Stanislas I (Stanislaw) Lesczinski (Lesczyński), King of Poland
1677-1766. King 1704-1736. He was supported in his claim to the Polish Throne (after the death of Augustus the Strong) by France, Spain and Sardinia. His rival was Augustus’ son, Frederick Augustus III (1696-1763), supported by Russian and Austria. After the Fall of Danzig in 1734, Stanislaw fled and the Treaty of Vienna in 1735 recognized Frederick as King.
BkI:Chap1:Sec9 France sent aid to help him at the siege of Danzig.
A village in Bohemia.
BkXXXVI:Chap12:Sec1 Chateaubriand there in May 1833.
Stauffacher, Werner von
A character (possibly the name of a historical person) in the reconstructed and therefore mythical Swiss legend of William Tell, according to which Albert of Austria, with the view of depriving the Forest lands of their ancient freedom, sent bailiffs (among them Gessler) to Uri and Schwyz, who committed many tyrannical acts, so that finally on 8th November 1307, at the Rutli, Werner von Stauffacher of Schwytz, Walter Fürst of Uri, and Arnold von Melchthal in Unter-walden, each with ten companions, among whom was William Tell, resolved on a rising to expel the oppressors, which was fixed in literature at New Year’s Day 1308. The underlying reference is to a legend of the Swiss Confederation the origin of which dates back to the agreement between the three mountain cantons of Uri, Schwytz and Unterwalden in 1291. Supposedly representatives of the three cantons met in the Grutli (or Rutli) meadow in 1307, and took an oath of loyalty in the joint struggle against Austrian rule.
1765-1823. A German composer and pianist, he played in Paris, London, and throughout Germany and Austria. In Vienna he was supposedly humbled by Beethoven in a contest of musical improvisation. In 1808 he was invited by Tsar Alexander to St Petersburg, succeeding Boïeldieu as director of the Royal Opera in 1811.
BkXXIX:Chap1:Sec5 His dramatic opera entitled Romeo et Juliette, which was later highly regarded by Berlioz, was first produced at the Théâtre Feydeau in 1793.
BkXXIX:Chap16:Sec1 An extract from his Rome and Juliet is probably intended.
In the Ardennes near Sedan, it was a fortified (1609-1611) town given by Louis XIV to the Prince of Condé in 1646.
Stengel or Stengal, Henri-Christian-Marie de, General
1744-1796. Colonel of Hussars then General of Brigade, and General of Division, June 1795. Wounded Battle of Mondovi 21st April 1796, died of wounds 28th April 1796. Of Napoleon Stengel stated ‘that wretched Corsican wanted to finish me off and now he’s done it.’
BkXIX:Chap12:Sec1 His death.
1713-1768. A British writer, his masterpiece Tristram Shandy (1761–1767) was a precursor to modern stream-of-consciousness novels. He wrote Sentimental Journey (1768), much prized by the French Romantics.
BkXXVII:Chap6:Sec1 See Letters to Eliza: III, March 1767.
A city of northwest Poland near the mouth of the Oder River, it was ruled by Sweden from 1648 to 1720, when it was ceded to Prussia. After World War II the city became part of Poland
BkXX:Chap6:Sec1 Captured October 29th 1806 by General Lasalle, who bluffed the superior Prussian garrison into surrendering.
Steyr (Steyer), Austria
An armistice between Moreau and the Austrians was signed at Steyr (at the confluence of the Rivers Enns and Steyr), 25 miles from Linz, on the 25th of December 1800.
The capital and largest city of Sweden, in the eastern part of the country on the Baltic Sea, it was founded in the mid-13th century, and grew as a trade centre allied with the Hanseatic League. It became the official capital of Sweden in 1634.
Stolberg-Goedern, Princess Caroline of
1753-1824. She married the Young Pretender in 1772, but separated from him in 1780. She later secretly married Alfieri in Florence. After his death in 1803, she shared her life with the painter Fabre (1766-1837).
Mistress of the Margrave of Schwedt.
1763-1796. English musical composer born in London. His father, Stefano Storace, an Italian contrabassist, taught him the violin so well that at ten he played the most difficult music of the day. After completing his education at the Conservatorio di Sant Onofrio, in Naples, he produced his first opera, Gli Sposi malcontenti, at Vienna, in 1785. Here he made the acquaintance of Mozart, in whose Nozze di Figaro his sister, Anna Selina Storace, first sang the part of Susanna. His greatest triumphs were achieved in England, where he returned in 1787. The music of The Pirates, produced in 1792, was partly adapted from Gli Equivoci, and is remarkable as affording one of the earliest instances of the introduction of a grand finale to an English opera.
BkVI:Chap2:Sec1 Chateaubriand quotes from The Pirates, libretto by James Cobb. The cradle song became a popular air.
Formerly the last relay post on the road from Florence to Rome.
The gardens and parkland at Stowe near Buckingham were one of the first of a new style of landscaped parkland that evolved into what we now call the English landscape garden. The gardens at Stowe were begun in the early 18th century by Sir Richard Temple, Viscount Cobham, with the aid of Charles Bridgeman, William Kent, and later, Capability Brown.
BkXII:Chap5:Sec1 The gardens are famous for their ornamental constructions, temples, pyramids, statues etc. The Temple of Concord & Victory is one of the most important and impressive of Stowe’s three dozen garden buildings. It was the first building in England designed specifically to imitate Greek architecture, and was originally known as the Grecian Temple, despite its several Roman features. The Temple was started in 1747 when the Grecian Valley in front was laid out by ‘Capability’ Brown and may itself be one of his designs. It was based in part on the Graeco-Roman temple at Balbec or Heliopolis in Syria, as described by Pococke in his account published in 1745. The Stowe House contents including its fine art works were auctioned in 1848 in one of the great sales of all time, and the works dispersed across the world.
c64BC-21AD. The Greek geographer was born at Amaseia (Amasya, Turkey). His Geography in 17 books is an invaluable source of information about the ancient world.
BkI:Chap4:Sec5 His reference to the war-dogs, fighting mastiffs, of the Celts. (See Geographia IV.5.2)
BkXIX:Chap14:Sec3 See Geographia XVII.43
BkXXXIX:Chap11:Sec1 For the Veneti, and Strabo’s comment about Italy, see Geographia IV:4:1
A city of northeast France near the German border east of Nancy, it was strategically important from ancient times. It became a free imperial city in 1262, was occupied by France in 1681, and passed to Germany in 1871. The city was recovered by France in 1919.
BkXXIX:Chap13:Sec3 The French border partially established ultimately as Chateaubriand hoped.
BkXXXV:Chap11:Sec1 The Dance of Death painting there, and later variants e.g. Heinrich Knoblochter’s printed woodcuts of the Dance of Death designed by an unknown artist c 1486.
Members of the ill-disciplined Household Guard, the Strelitz, were involved in a conspiracy in 1698 against Peter the Great of Russia. The Czarina Eudoxia, who was suspected of complicity in the conspiracy, which had been the work of the old Russian or anti-reform party, was divorced and shut up in a convent; the Czar's own sister, Martha, was likewise compelled to take the veil.
BkXXI:Chap4:Sec3 A number of guards were slaughtered on the stairs of the Kremlin and in Red Square.
1471-1508. An Italian poet at the Este court, he was the son of Tito.
BkXL:Chap1:Sec1 He was born in Ferrara.
Strozzi, Pierre, Marshal of France
1500-1558. He was created Marshal by Henri II in 1554.
1442-1501. He was an Italian poet at the Este court.
BkXL:Chap1:Sec1 He was born in Ferrara.
Strymon was a river-god of Edonia in Thrace. The Strymon River, separating Macedonia from Thrace in ancient times, flows into the Aegean Sea between the Khalkidike peninsular and the island of Thasos.
Stuart, Charles Edward, the Young Pretender
1720-1788. The son of James Edward, and known as Bonnie Prince Charlie, he landed in Scotland in 1745, and after an incursion into England withdrew and was defeated at Culloden in 1746. He escaped to exile in Europe.
Stuart, Henry Benedict, Cardinal Duke of York
1725-1807. He was the second son of James III, Bishop of Frascati, and a Cardinal, who from 1788 was the last surviving Stuart, and was known in Rome as Henry IX.
BkXXIX:Chap7:Sec3 Chateaubriand saw him in Rome in 1803.
Stuart, James Edward, the Old Pretender
1688-1766. Son of James II, he spent most of his life in Rome, where he was treated well by the Papacy. He was regarded as James III on the Continent.
Stuart, Mary, Queen of Scots
1542-1587. The only child of James V of Scotland and Mary of Guise. Through her grandmother Margaret Tudor, Mary had the strongest claim to the throne of England after the children of Henry VIII. This claim (and her Roman Catholicism) made Mary a threat to Elizabeth I of England, who finally had her executed. However, Mary's son, James VI of Scotland, succeeded Elizabeth to the English throne as James I.
Stuart, Sir Charles
1779-1845. British Ambassador in Paris 1815-1824, then 1828-1830. Elevated to the peerage in 1828 he took the title Lord Stuart of Rothesay.
BkXXVII:Chap10:Sec1 Ambassador in Paris in 1822.
BkXXXIII:Chap1:Sec1 Ambassador in Paris at the time of the July revolution.
BkXXI:Chap7:Sec1 Napoleon’s engineers built two bridges there in late November 1812.
A river of the underworld, with its lakes and pools, used to mean the underworld or the state of death itself. There is an Arcadian river Styx near Nonacris. It forms the falls of Mavroneri, plunging six hundred feet down the cliffs of the Chelmos ridge. Pausanias says, VIII xvii, that Hesiod (Theogony 383) makes Styx the daughter of Ocean and the wife of the Titan Pallas. Their children were Victory and Strength. Epimenedes makes her the mother of Echidna. Pausanias says the waters of the river dissolve glass and stone etc.
1732-1817. Writer, critic, editor; under the Directory he wrote for the royalist Nouvelles Politiques. He was editor of Le Publiciste under the Empire until 1810, and Perpetual Secretary of the Academy from 1803.
BkXVIII:Chap8:Sec2 His comment on Chateaubriand’s speech.
Suard, Amélie Panckouke, Madame
1750-1830. The sister of the publisher Charles-Joseph Panckouke (1736-1798) and daughter of the writer and publisher André-Joseph Panckouke, she was married to the Director of Le Publiciste, who was elected as Secretary in perpetuity of the new Academy, on its reorganisation in 1803. She ran a literary salon.
A city in the Province of Rome, twenty-five miles from Tivoli, received its name from the artificial lakes of the Villa of Nero.
Suetonius, Gaius Suetonius Tranquillus
c69-c140AD. The Roman historian and biographer, was a friend of Pliny the Younger and secretary to the Emperor Hadrian. Only his Lives of the Caesars, and fragments of his Lives of Famous Men survive.
BkII:Chap4:Sec3 Chateaubriand quotes a phrase from Suetonius’ Life of Caesar (XXXIX), desultorios equos: mounts used for trick riding in the Circus.
BkXXIX:Chap2:Sec2 As a famous Roman historian.
The Suez Canal west of the Sinai Peninsula, is a 118 miles long maritime canal in Egypt, between Port Said on the Mediterranean Sea, and Suez (al-Suways) on the Red Sea. Napoleon, while in Egypt, contemplated the construction of a canal to join the Mediterranean and Red Seas. His project was abandoned, however, after a French survey erroneously concluded that the waters of the Red Sea were higher than those of the Mediterranean, making a lockless canal impossible.
BkXIX:Chap14:Sec3 Napoleon there in 1798. Darius I, the Persian King, completed a canal in 500 BC, leaving the Darius inscriptions behind to testify to having sailed through it from the Nile to the Sea.
Suffren-Saint-Tropez, Pierre-André, Bailli de
1726-1788. French admiral. He participated in naval warfare in the War of the Austrian Succession and in the Seven Years War. In 1779 he was sent with the Comte d'Estaing to aid the American Revolutionaries, and two years later began his famous cruise to the East Indies. He attacked the English at the Cape Verde Islands, saved the Dutch colony at Cape Town from English capture, and then began his campaign against the British navy in India under Sir Edward Hughes. He seriously impeded British operations, fighting five major battles in 1782–83. Each ended in a virtual draw, a considerable achievement for the French against the British fleet of that day.
Preface:Sect1 Chateaubriand mentions meeting him.
A mufti or imam present when Napoleon visited the Great Pyramid in 1798.
Suleiman I, the Magnificent
1494-1566. He was the tenth Osmanli Sultan of the Ottoman Empire, and its longest-serving, reigning from 1520 to 1566. Under his leadership, the Ottoman Empire reached its zenith and became a world power, and Suleiman was considered one of the pre-eminent rulers of 16th-century Europe
Sulla, Lucius Cornelius
c138-78BC. A Roman dictator, he was associated with the aristocratic party, and an opponent of Marius and Cinna. He stormed Rome in 87 forcing them to flee. Outlawed, he concluded a campaign against Mithridates and in 83 invaded Italy and again took Rome. Elected dictator he butchered his political opponents He retired in 79 after restoring the Senate’s constitutional powers.
BkXXV:Chap8:Sec1 His conflict with Marius.
Sully, Maximilien de Béthune, Duc de, also called Marquis de Rosny
1560-1641. French statesman who, as the trusted minister of King Henry IV, substantially contributed to the rehabilitation of France after the Wars of Religion (1562-98).
BkXXX:Chap11:Sec1 His Memoirs, the Économies royales, were published in 1638.
Sunium (Sounion), Cape
The headland is 65km south-east of Athens. The famous temple of Poseidon on Cape Sunium was formerly attributed to Athene-Minerva, her temple is actually a quarter of a mile away to the north-east.
A city in India, in Gujarat on the River Tapti, it was the Mogul Empire’s chief port in the 16th and 17th centuries.
1773-1827. Descended from Duguay-Trouin through his mother. French privateer. He captured 47 ships mostly British during his legendary career and was called the King of the Privateers, Roi des Corsaires, and was notorious on both sides of the Channel. He later became a rich ship-owner and a Baron.
Survilliers, Comtesse de, see Bonaparte, Madame Joseph
Sussy, Jean-Baptiste Henry Collin, Comte de
1750-1826. Minister of Manufactures and Commerce under Napoleon (1812-1814).
Sutton, Charlotte Ives, Lady
1780-1852. She married Captain, later Admiral Samuel Sutton in 1806. In the census of 30th March 1851, and following the death of her husband in 1832, Charlotte was residing with Diana Gorham, widow of Captain Gorham at Hill House, Aldeburgh, Suffolk. Her will gives a previous residence in Woodbridge, Suffolk, and her executors were her two surviving sons William and John. She died there the following year.
BkX:Chap10:Sec1 His remorse at the misunderstanding.
BkX:Chap11:Sec1 BkXXVII:Chap11:Sec1 His encounter with her again in 1822. Her sons, given their ages, would have been Samuel and William. Their relationship was intermittent and terminated with a letter from her of 14th June 1825 when she wrote a last farewell.
BkXXXVIII:Chap7:Sec1 Mentioned in a fanciful passage.
Sutton, Admiral Samuel
1760-1832. Born in Scarborough, he was a career sailor who rose through the ranks to become Flag-Captain to Nelson for a time on the Victory. Sailing with him in the Mediterranean and commanding Amphion, he assisted at the capture of a Spanish squadron. He retired to a desk job in 1805, but was advanced to Rear-Admiral in 1821 and appointed a Flag Officer of the Fleet. He married Charlotte Ives and they lived at Ditchingham, Norfolk.
BkX:Chap11:Sec1 They married in April 1806.
Sutton, Captain Samuel Ives
1807-1850. Elder son of the Admiral he was a Captain in the Army, then joined the Portuguese and Spanish service, becoming Major in 1846. He died of dysentery at Kenilworth.
BkXXVII:Chap11:Sec1 He visited Chateaubriand in Paris, around 1839.
Suvorov, Alexander Vasilyevitch
1729-1800. The Russian field marshal fought in the Russo-Turkish War of 1768–74, helped suppress the peasant rebellion led by Pugachev in 1775, and was created count for his victories in the Russo-Turkish War of 1787–92, notably at Focsani, Rimnik, and at Izmayil in Bessarabia. In 1794, he commanded the Russian army that suppressed the Polish revolt. His reputation reached its peak in the French Revolutionary Wars of 1798–99, in which he commanded Austro-Russian forces against the armies of the French Republic. Sent to oust the French from Italy, he defeated them at Cassano, took Milan and Turin, and routed the French on the Trebbia and at Novi. For his exploits in Italy he was created Prince Italiski. One of the great generals of modern times, Suvorov claimed never to have been defeated in battle, though Masséna drove his forces off at Zurich in 1799; he ascribed his successes to the principle of ‘intuition, speed, impact.’
BkXX:Chap1:Sec1 His victory at Cassano on April 27th 1799.
BkXXXV:Chap13:Sec1 His encounter with Masséna at Zurich, 26th of September 1799.
1688-1772. A Swedish scientist, philosopher and mystic, he was an official of the Swedish Board of Mines who did pioneering work in magnetic theory and crystallography, but later tried to show by scientific and logical analysis that the universe was of spiritual origin. After 1743 his works became more mystical. They include Arcana Coelestia (1756), The New Jerusalem and its Heavenly Doctrine (1758), and Divine Love and Wisdom (1763). The sect of Swedenborgians was founded in London by his followers in 1787.
BkXIV:Chap1:Sec2 Chateaubriand treats all the mysticisms of the period as Swedenborgian.
A fur-trader at Albany.
BkVII:Chap2:Sec1 Chateaubriand met him in 1791.
Aswan is a southern city, and ancient frontier town, on the east bank of the Nile, located about 81 miles south of Luxor. Its ancient Egyptian name was Syene. Elephantine Island nearby has artefacts dating from pre-Dynastic times onward.
Symmachus, Quintus Aurelius
c340-c402. He was Proconsul of Africa in 373, urban Prefect of Rome in 384 and 385, and Consul in 391. A pagan who had received his education in Gaul, Symmachus was an opponent of Ambrose, Archbishop of Milan, and a defender of polytheism and the old gods.
The seaport in south-east Sicily was founded by Greeks from Corinth in 734BC. Theocritus and Archimedes were born there. It fell to the Romans in 212BC after a three year siege.
BkXIX:Chap1:Sec1 After the defeat of the Athenian expedition against Sicily in 413BC, the prisoners were incarcerated in the stone quarries of Syracuse for a ten week period and the survivors sold into slavery. See Thucydides The Peloponnesian War VII:87
A dangerous series of sandbanks, they are located on the north coast of Africa between Tunis and Cyrene.