François de Chateaubriand
Mémoires d’Outre-Tombe: Index T
Tabor, Czech Republic
Tábor is a city of the Czech Republic, in the South Bohemian Region. It is named after Mount Tabor. In the centre of the city is the Žižka Square with its statue of Jan Žižka, a Hussite leader.
BkXLI:Chap3:Sec1 Chateaubriand there 26th of September 1833.
Taboureau des Réaux, Louis-Gabriel
1718-1782. French Finance Minister, October1776 to June 1777.
c55-c120AD. The Roman Historian, born in Gaul, made his reputation as an orator and a Senator under Domitian, and became a substitute Consul in 97 under Nerva. He was Governor of Asia (Western Anatolia) in 112-113. In 98 he wrote two monologues, Germania and Agricola. His major works the Histories and Annals cover 69-96, and 14-68 respectively.
BkXIV:Chap2:Sec3 His Life of Agricola:3 mentioned.
BkXXII:Chap5:Sec1 Quotations from Germania: XXVII and IX respectively, and from Annals, Book II, LXXXVIII:3).
BkXXIV:Chap8:Sec1 The quotation is from Germania: XLV.
BkXXXVI:Chap7:Sec1 See Germania I:3.
BkXXXVI:Chap11:Sec2 See Germania XI:2
BkXXXVIII:Chap9:Sec1 See Germania CLXII, Tacitus quotes Caesar, Bell. Gall. iv 3:
BkXLI:Chap2:Sec1 The Germans celebrated in the Germania.
BkXLI:Chap6:Sec1 See Germania XXVI:4
Taddei, Madame Rosa
1801-? A poetess and extempore performer, she was the daughter of the proprietor of the Teatro della Valle at Rome (See Major Frye’s contemporary travels, 1815-1819, ‘After Waterloo’). She was alive in 1837. She improvised rhyming verse to music.
BkXXX:Chap7:Sec1 She improvised in 1829 on a double theme, that of Regulus proposed by Grand-Duchess Helen and that of the life of travel proposed by Chateaubriand.
Tagliamento River, Italy
A river of north-east Italy, it flows from sources in the Dolomites to the Adriatic Sea at a point mid-way between Venice and Trieste.
The largest river on the Iberian Peninsula, it measures 1,038 kilometers in length, 716 km of which are in Spain, 47 km as border between Portugal and Spain and the remaining 275 km in Portugal.
The largest of the Society Islands in the south central Pacific, it is in French Polynesia. Settled by Polynesians in the 14th century it was visited by Europeans in 1767, and Christianised by the London Missionary Society who helped the Pomare family to power. It became French in 1842.
BkXVII:Chap5:Sec1 Sugar cane was cultivated there before 1800 (Captain Bligh carried sugar cane from Tahiti to Jamaica in 1791.)
Tain L’Hermitage, France
A town on the Rhône near Tournon. Noted for its vineyards and chocolate making.
BkXIV:Chap2:Sec1 Chateaubriand left Paris on the 18th October 1802 and was in Tain on the 27th.
Talaru, Louis-Justin-Marie, Marquis de
1773-1850. A Peer of France from 1815, he was appointed Ambassador to Madrid in 1823. He was the last Marquis de Talaru. His country-house was Chamarande, near Arpajon, south of Paris.
BkXXVIII:Chap3:Sec1 Chateaubriand writes to him in Madrid in 1824.
Tallart, Camille Marquis de la Baume-d’Hostun, Baron d’Arlanc, Marshal de
1652-1728. A French diplomat, and Marshal of France, he negotiated the partition treaties of 1698 and 1700 that preceded the War of the Spanish Succession. Although victorious at Speyer (1703), he was defeated and taken prisoner at Blenheim (1704). He served as minister of state in 1726.
BkXXXVI:Chap7:Sec1 The defeated Tallart was a captive in London.
Tallemant des Réaux, Gédéon
1619-1692. A French author, his one great work is a series of brief anecdotal portraits of persons prominent in the Paris of his day, written after 1657 but not published until 1834. They present a vivid, faithful, and acute picture of the society of the period. The Historiettes have appeared in English as Miniature Portraits (1926).
BkXXVI:Chap5:Sec1 His Historiettes mentioned.
Talleyrand-Périgord, Charles-Maurice de, Prince of Benevento, sometime Bishop of Autun
1754-1838. A French politician and diplomat, as Bishop of Autun 1789–91 he supported moderate reform during the French Revolution, was excommunicated by the pope, and fled to England then the USA in 1792 during the Reign of Terror. He returned in September 1796 and became foreign minister under the Directory 1797–99 and under Napoleon 1799–1807. He represented France at the Congress of Vienna 1814–15.
BkV:Chap15:Sec1 BkXIX:Chap13:Sec1 BkXXIII:Chap5:Sec1 He said Mass at the Festival of the Federation, 14th July 1790. The audience granted to the Ambassador of the Ottaman Sultan of Istanbul by Talleyrand as the new Minister for External Relations, on 29 July 1797, at which Talleyrand wore an extravagant costume, provoked much ridicule.
BkXIV:Chap5:Sec1 Foreign Minister in 1803, he confirmed Chateaubriand’s nomination as First Secretary to the Rome Embassy (4th May 1803.)
BkXVI:Chap1:Sec1 He held back Chateaubriand’s letter of resignation for a few days. He wrote reproaching him graciously on 2nd April 1804.
BkXVI:Chap7:Sec1 Accused by Chateaubriand of inspiring the murder.
BkXX:Chap5:Sec3 Negotiating with the English in 1806 in Paris.
BkXXII:Chap17:Sec1 Alexander stayed with him in Paris in 1814 at what is now the Hôtel Talleyrand, 2 Rue Saint-Florentin, constructed between 1767 and 1769, by Jean-François Chalgrin, for the Comte de Saint-Florentin, Talleyrand bought the Hôtel from the Marquis de Hervas en 1813. Its last occupant before the Revolution was the Duchess of Infantado (Spanish).
BkXXII:Chap 23:Sec1 His involvement in the Restoration.
BkXXIII:Chap11:Sec1 His manipulation of the list of proscribed individuals.
BkXXIII:Chap18:Sec1 Napoleon’s regret he had not had him shot.
BkXXIII:Ch20:Sec3 Chateaubriand sees him with Fouché at Saint-Denis.
BkXXV:Chap2:Sec1 A member of the government of the Second Restoration in 1815.
BkXXXVI:Chap4:Sec1 His calash acquired by Chateaubriand.
BkXXXIX:Chap2:Sec1 He was Ambassador to London 1833-35.
BkXLII:Chap8:Sec1 BkXLII:Chap9:Sec1 He had died on the 17th of May 1838, in his house on the Rue Saint-Florentin aged 84, having been born on 2nd of February 1754. Talleyrand sold the letters mentioned to the Austrians in 1817 for half a million francs. Talleyrand’s Memoirs published in 1891 are of dubious authenticity.
Talleyrand, Noëlle-Catherine Werlée (or Worlée), Madame de
1762-1835. Of Danish origins, she was born in Coromandel. She married a Monsieur Grand in 1777. She later married Talleyrand.
BkXXII:Chap 23:Sec1 Mentioned in 1814.
Tallien, Jean Lambert
1767-1820. A French revolutionary, he was a lawyer’s clerk and later a printer, he became known through his Jacobin journal, Ami des citoyens. A leader in the attack (August 1792) on the Tuileries, he became secretary of the Commune of Paris and sent circulars to the departments, urging severe punishments for counter-revolutionaries. In the Convention and the Committee of General Security he aided in overthrowing the Girondists; sent to Bordeaux in September 1793, he used extreme methods to spread the Reign of Terror. Recalled to Paris in May, 1794, he was given the charge of many important prisoners, and fell in love with one of them, Theresa Cabarrus, divorced wife of the Marquis de Fontenay, whom he married. Denounced (June 12) by Maximilien Robespierre, Tallien began the attack on Robespierre in the coup of 9th Thermidor. A leader of the Thermidorian reaction, he thereafter lost importance. He accompanied Napoleon Bonaparte to Egypt in 1798, was captured by the English, and lived briefly in England, before returning in 1802 to France and comparative obscurity.
Tallien, Jeanne-Théresia de Cabarrus, Madame
1773-1835. Nicknamed ‘Notre-Dame de Thermidor’ she had divorced in order to marry Tallien in 1794. She was later the mistress of Barras, Ouvrard etc. A second divorce in 1802 enabled her to become the Comtesse de Caraman in 1805, then the Princesse de Chimay.
BkXIX:Chap15:Sec1 Tallien’s letter to her of 4th August 1798.
1763-1826. French actor, the greatest tragedian of his time, he broke with tradition and foreshadowed the romanticists. He continued Lekain’s reforms, paying close attention to costume, and employing gestures and a more emotive and less declamatory style of acting. In 1787 he made his debut at the Comédie Française in Voltaire’s Mahomet and in 1789 gained fame in Marie-Joseph Chenier’s Revolutionary play, Charles IX. Avoiding controversy during the Revolution, Talma left the Comédie Française and set up his own Théâtre de la République, which was eventually united (1799) with the Comédie Française. He was the leading actor during the Empire, and a favourite of Napoleon.
BkIV:Chap11:Sec1 Acted at the Théâtre-Français.
BkIX:Chap2:Sec1 His debut in Charles IX, and its success in 1792.
BkXIII:Chap9:Sec1 Playing tragedy at the Français in 1802. A description of the actor.
BkXX:Chap7:Sec2 He played Voltaire’s Death of Caesar (1735) to the assembled monarchs at Erfurt in September 1808, and Oedipus (1718) on the 4th of October. Chateaubriand quotes from Act I Scene I of the latter.
Talma, Julie (Careau)
Tamerlane or Tamburlaine (Timur-I Lang, Timur the Lame)
1336-1405. A Mongol warlord he was the founder of the Timurid Empire (1370–1405) in Central Asia, and the Timurid dynasty, which survived in some form until 1857.
BkXXIV:Chap4:Sec1 Timur defeated the Ottoman Sultan Bajazet, great-grandson of Osman I at the Battle of Ankara in 1402, and supposedly kept him in a cage until he died. (Gibbon considered this a myth)
1078-1112? A Norman soldier, he was the leader in the First Crusade (1096–1099), he served as regent of the principality of Antioch (1101–1112).
BkXIII:Chap9:Sec1 Mentioned as an example of knightly chivalry.
BkXIX:Chap16:Sec2 His achievements in the Holy Land.
BkXL:Chap4:Sec1 A nickname for Count Lucchesi-Palli.
It was the name of a forest at Combourg on the Chateaubriand estate.
BkX:Chap3:Sec2 The Duc de Berry compares himself to Tantalus.
Tantura (Tentoura), Israel
BkXIX:Chap16:Sec3 Napoleon was there on the 20th of May 1799.
The capital of the Hautes-Pyrénées, it is near Lourdes.
BkXVIII:Chap3Sec1 Chateaubriand there in 1807.
BkXXXI:Chap1:Sec2 Chateaubriand there in July 1829.
d. 1591 A counsellor executed with President Brisson by the Seize in 1591.
The Greek underworld. The infernal regions ruled by Dis.
BkVI:Chap1:Sec1 Smoky London compared to it.
BkXLII:Chap4:Sec2 See Virgil’s Aeneid VI:706-721.
Tascher, see Joséphine Beauharnais
1544-1595. The greatest Italian poet of the late Renaissance, best remembered for his masterpiece La Gerusalemme Liberata (Jerusalem Delivered, 1575). Its hero is the leader of the first Crusade, Godfrey of Bouillon; its climax the capture of the holy city. In the 1570’s Tasso developed a persecution mania which led to legends about the restless, half-mad, and misunderstood author. He died a few days before he was due to be crowned as the king of poets by the Pope. He remained one of the most widely read poets by educated Europeans until the beginning of the 19th century.
Preface:Sect4 An example of a poet who lived a stormy and difficult life.
BkVIII:Chap5:Sec1 A reference to Canto XVI:20 of Jerusalem Delivered.
BkX:Chap9:Sec1 The Gerusalemme mentioned.
BkXII:Chap1:Sec1 Celebrated Camoëns in a sonnet ‘Loda il signor Luigi Camoens…’ (1598)
BkXL:Chap2:Sec4 He died and was buried in the monastery of Sant’Onofrio in Rome. His familiarity with the Vatican buildings is mentioned. Regarding the second reference ‘Tasso’s oak’ was in the garden, the orange-trees in the cloister.
BkXVIII:Chap6:Sec1 BkXL:Chap2:Sec4 Fontanes’ lines for Monsieur Chateaubriand after writing Les Martyrs, which appeared in the journal de Paris of25th January 1810, and then in the Gazette and the Mercury.
BkXXIX:Chap14:Sec1 BkXXX:Chap5:Sec1 BkXL:Chap2:Sec4 The subscription towards the monument of 1000 francs was addressed to Count Lozzano Argo on the 22nd of December 1828. The tomb was erected under Pius IX, the statue of the poet by Fabris dates to 1857.
BkXXX:Chap14:Sec1 See Jerusalem Delivered XII:29
BkXXXI:Chap1:Sec2 Tasso was born in Sorrento, near Naples where he attended a Jesuit school.
BkXXXIX:Chap3:Sec1 Mentioned in Voltaire’s Candide.
BkXL:Chap1:Sec1 He was born in Sorrento, on the 11th of March 1544, but his father was a nobleman of Bergamo.
BkXL:Chap2:Sec1 A chapter on Tasso. For ‘My troubles..’ see Canzone al Metauro:21-26 and 31-42. For ‘I saw…’ see Aminta I:1 lines 625-628 and 633-638. The letter referred to of 1572 is to Count Ercole de’ Contrari. For ‘The Laurels…’ see a letter to Orazio Ariosto, of 16th January 1577. Erminia is a character in Jerusalem Delivered. For ‘Slight, but glorious child…’ see Canzone al Metauro:1-6.
BkXL:Chap2:Sec2 The Father of the Family, written in 1580, was published in 1583. For ‘Beneath this weight of misfortune…’ see the letter to Scipio Gonzaga of May 1579. The letter to Bergamo dates from 1585. The sonnet mentioned is A le gatto dello spedale di S. Anna, from the Rime. Egro io languiva… is from a sonnet of 1585, slightly adapted.
BkXL:Chap2:Sec3 For ‘ed irrigò…’ see Sette Giornate VII:1026-1027.
BkXL:Chap2:Sec4 Clorinda, like Armida and Erminia, is a character in Jerusalem Delivered. The names carved round Tasso’s cell included those of Byron, and Lamartine.
1493-1569. The father of Torquato, born in Bergamo, he was secretary to the Prince of Salerno, then to the Duke of Mantua, and a poet of some reputation. He died at Ostiglia, in the Province of Mantua, of which he was Governor.
1798-1885. A Romantic poetess and muse she was a friend of Madame Récamier, and assisted in the 1834 readings of the Memoirs.
The Hohe Tauern range lies to the north of the valley of the Drave which flows west to east through Carinthia.
BkXLI:Chap1:Sec1 Chateaubriand there in September 1833. St Michael im Lungau is a village in the Tauern Pass.
Tavannes (or Tavanes), Gaspard de Saulx, de
BkXX:Chap2:Sec2 His Memoirs quoted. They were written by his second or third son Jean, and were printed (1625), with those of his eldest son William (1553-1633) which cover the period after Gaspard’s death until 1596.
1605–89. A French traveller in Asia, he undertook six voyages, which took him as far as the East Indies and Java, and he acquired a fortune in the trade of precious stones. Ennobled (1669) by Louis XIV, he took the title Baron d’ Aubonne after an estate he bought near Geneva. A Protestant, he left France after the Revocation (1685) of the Edict of Nantes and died on a seventh journey, which was to take him to Asia by way of Russia. His Six Voyages en Turquie, en Perse et aux Indes (1676–77) contains a wealth of information and has been frequently reprinted.
A mountain range of the Peloponnesus, S Greece, extending 100 km north from the southern end of Cape Matapan. It rises to c. 2410 m at Mt. Hagios Ilias (Mt. St. Elias) south-west of Sparta.
English agent, involved with the Duc d’Enghien.
Tchaplitz (Chaplits, Czaplic), Yefim Ignatievich, General
1768-1825. A Russian General of Polish extraction, promoted to lieutenant general in 1812, he led the advance-guard of Admiral Pavel Chichagov’s army to the Berezina River, and fought the French at Borisov on 26 November 1812, where he was lightly wounded in the head. He captured Vilna on 28 November 1812.
Tchitchakoff (Chichagov), Pavel, Admiral
1767-1849. A Russian Admiral, in 1807, he was promoted Admiral and appointed Minister of the Navy. He resigned and travelled in Europe in 1809-1811. In 1812, Alexander recalled him and appointed him Commander in Chief of the Army of the Danube and governor general of Moldavia and Wallachia. However, the 1812 Treaty of Bucharest ended the Russo-Turkish War by the time he took command of the army. He participated in the 1812 campaign against Napoleon and was accused of letting Napoleon escape at the Berezina River in November 1812. In 1813, he was dismissed and went to France. He never returned to Russia. He became a citizen of Britain and spent the rest of his life in France and Italy. He died in Paris.
A village in Bohemia.
BkXXXVI:Chap12:Sec1 Chateaubriand there in May 1833.
BkII:Chap3:Sec4 Chateaubriand refers to Fénelon’s prose-poem or poetic novel, printed in Paris in 1699, which is a continuation of the Odyssey, being the story of Telemachus son of Odysseus, and includes an episode where he falls in love with Eucharis, one of Calypso’s nymphs.
BkIV:Chap4:Sec1 Chateaubriand re-read the work by Fénelon’s tomb in 1786.
BkIX:Chap14:Sec1 Chateaubriand misquotes Odyssey IV:601-609. (Rather he quotes Mme. Dacier’s inaccurate translation.) Telemachus is speaking about Ithaca, the island unfit for horses, to Menelaus who is described there as α̉γαθος Μενέλαος, Menelaus of the loud war-cry (not candide).
BkXVIII:Chap3Sec5 Fénelon’s work mentioned.
The former Italian village of Tenda, Tende in the French Alpes-Maritimes is the main village of the upper valley of the river Roya. It changed hands on occasions between France and Italy until 1947.
BkXIX:Chap12:Sec1 Ceded to Napoleon in 1796.
The valley in Thessaly between Ossa and Olympus through which the River Peneus flows, was celebrated in antiquity for its abundance of water and luxurious vegetation, and as the place where Apollo came to purify himself after killing Python. It was the principal route into Greece from the north.
A Prussian artillery officer and military historian he wrote a History of the Seven Years’ War.
A Paris Liberal newspaper, it was founded in 1829 by Jean-Jacques Baude and Jacques Coste who ran it till 1842. It had a direct circulation of five thousand or so, and helped prepare the way for the July Revolution.
A city of the Czech Republic, in the Ústí nad Labem Region, Teplice is situated in the plain of the Bílina river, which separates the Ore Mountains (Czech: Krušné Hory) from the Czech Central Mountains (Czech: České středohoří), and is a famous spa town.
BkXXXVIII:Chap2:Sec1 A legend of how the waters were discovered.
Terence, Publius Terentius Afer
c190-158BC. A writer of Latin comedies, of his six extant plays three, The Brothers, The Girl of Andros, and The Eunuch, are each made from two Greek plays. Of the remaining three, the Phormio is based on a play by the Greek Apollodorus, and the other two are derived from Menander.
BkXXXVIII:Chap7:Sec1 See Terence’s Andria: the Girl from Andros: 71-73 (c170BC)
The legendary King of Thrace married Procne daughter of Pandion of Athens. Tereus raped and mutilated her sister Philomela. All three were ultimately transformed into birds in Ovid’s account (Metamorphoses VI), Tereus becoming the hoopoe, Procne the nightingale, and Philomela the swallow.
Termes, Marquis de
Alive in 1677, he was the nephew of Madame de Montespan.
Ternaux, Louis-Guillaume, sometime Baron
1763-1833. A French industrialist, he was a woollen-textiles manufacturer, who was a Paris Deputy 1818-1822 and 1827-1831. In 1821 he abandoned the title granted him in 1819, because of his lack of acceptance by the nobility. He bought the Château of Saint-Ouen in 1802 and set up a cashmere shawl factory, naturalising the production of Indian cashmere, and introducing a flock of Tibetan goats into France.
BkXXVIII:Chap9:Sec1 His house was used for meetings of the Greek philanthropic committee. The Greek uprising against the Turks supported by Russia, in March 1821 prompted the Turkish re-conquest of the Morea by Ibrahim Pasha in the spring of 1825.
The town in Italy, in Umbria, on the River Nera, is the reputed birthplace of Tacitus.
BkXV:Chap2:Sec1 BkXXIX:Chap2:Sec3 The spectacular Marmore Falls, 7km from Terni, are artificial falls built by the Romans in 290BC. The Consul Curio Dentato ordered a canal dug to add the waters of the Velino River to the River Nera, creating the falls. The falls are probably those referred to by Virgil and Byron.
Tertullian, Quintus Septimius Florens Tertullianus
c160-225AD. An African father of the Church born in Carthage, he was educated in law and converted to Christianity in 197. He joined the Montanists (a sect adhering to asceticism and prophecy). His writings were the first major Christian works, and include the Apologeticum.
BkXXXIX:Chap7:Sec1 See De Pallio:III, for his description of the chameleon.
d. 1848 A Radical writer, bookseller and founder member of the Société des Amis du Peuple.
BkXXXII:Chap11:Sec1 A member of the Republican Municipal Commission in July 1830.
The Benedictines’ gardens at Rennes, the name derived from Mount Thabor (Tabor) near Nazareth. Mount Thabor is distinguished among the mountains of Palestine for its picturesque site, its graceful outline, the remarkable vegetation which covers its sides of calcareous rock, and the splendour of the view from its summit. Nearly isolated on all sides and almost hemispherical in shape it rises in a peak 1650 feet above the Plain of Esdraelon, which it bounds on the north and east, about five miles south-east of Nazareth.
BkII:Chap7:Sec2 The children would fight there.
BkXVII:Chap3:Sec1 Mount Thabor mentioned.
One of the Muses, generally regarded as the Muse of Comedy. She was represented holding a comic mask, and shepherd’s crook indicating her role also in husbandry and planting.
Tharin, Claude-Marie, Mgr
1787-1843. Former Superior of the Saint-Sulpice Seminary, he was Bishop of Strasbourg from 1823. Designated as tutor to the Duke of Bordeaux in 1828, it was seen as a coup for the Jesuits.
BkXXVIII:Chap16:Sec1 Appointed as tutor to the Duke of Bordeaux.
Located in the Place du Théâtre-Français, the Comédie Français forms the southwest wing of the Palais Royal. Victor Louis built the original structure between 1786-1790, and Pierre Prosper Chabrol later rebuilt the façades between 1860-64. The company that performs here and is now known as the Comedie-Français is the longest running national theatre company in the world. It was founded in 1600 and was later supervised by Molière from 1658 to his death in 1673. The actors from his troop later merged with those from the Hôtel de Bourgogne. Political differences caused a split in the company during the French Revolution. Napoléon reconvened the group and in 1812, laid down the rules for the functioning of the company.
The valley of the Nile, under Roman domination, was divided into four provinces: Lower and Upper Egypt, Lower and Upper Thebaid. The last two comprised the upper part of the valley. During the fourth to fifth centuries it was the chosen land of the monks, who by their sanctity and by the form they impressed on the monastic system greatly influenced the East and the West. The eremetical life was introduced into the Lower Thebaid by St. Anthony. Born in 251, he embraced the ascetic life at the age of twenty; then impelled by a love of solitude he buried himself in the desert. After twenty years of complete isolation the fame of his sanctity drew around him disciples who imitated his mode of life. St Anthony’s biography was compiled by St Athanius in 365.
BkXVII:Chap3:Sec2 The Desert Fathers referred to.
An ancient city, once capital of all Egypt (c. 1570 - c. 1085BC), its supremacy was linked with that of its god, Amon. Karnak, Luxor and the Valley of Kings are nearby.
BkXXI:Chap1:Sec1 The French soldiers applauded on first seeing the ruins of Thebes.
Theil, Louis-François du
Chargé d’affaires for the Comte d’Artois in London 1798.
BkXI:Chap3:Sec3 He gave support for the publication of Chateaubriand’s work.
Historically, Thekla was the daughter of Wallenstein, a general of the Thirty Years’ War. Dramatically, she was the love interest in the second of Friedrich von Schiller’s plays (1799) about the historical Wallenstein.
c525-c460BC. The Athenian statesman, and naval commander, was elected one of the three archons in 493 BC. In succeeding years many of his rivals were eliminated by ostracism and he became the chief figure of Athenian politics. He persuaded the Athenians to enhance their navy, foreseeing that the Persians, defeated at Marathon, would send another and stronger force against Greece. Xerxes invaded Greece in 480, and military defence of Athens was impossible; Themistocles evacuated the city. Although the Greek fleet was entrusted to a Spartan, Themistocles determined its strategy, thus bringing about the decisive victory of Salamis (480) and the retreat of Xerxes to Persia. Despite Themistocles’ prominence, in 479 the chief commands went to his rivals, who had previously been recalled from exile to fight the Persians. Themistocles devoted himself to strengthening the navy and the fortifications, especially those of Piraeus. About 471, after his opponents came to power, he was exiled. Ultimately he lived in Persia, where King Artaxerxes made generous provision for him.
BkXXIV:Chap3:Sec1 He sought exile with Admetus of Epirus, King of the Molossians, who found him refuge with the Persians his former enemies. See Plutarch Life of Themistocles XLVI.
c310-250 BC. A Geek poet born in Sicily, he worked on the island of Cos and at Alexandria. His surviving Idylls include six dramatic dialogues between countrymen which defined the pastoral.
BkXXXIX:Chap18:Sec1 Olpis and Asphalion are fishermen.
Théodebert I, King of the Franks.
c.500-548. Merovingian king of Austrasia from 533-548, residence: Reims, now in northeast France.
454?-526. He was King of the Ostrogoths and founder of the Ostrogothic kingdom in Italy. Sent by the Byzantine emperor Zeno to invade Italy in 488, he made himself sole ruler by 493 and murdered Odoacer by treachery. With Ravenna as his capital he staved off the Franks and Bulgarians, and he held sway over a kingdom that included Sicily, Dalmatia, and some German lands. An Arian, he tolerated Catholicism and promoted peace between Goths and Romans.
Thérésia, see Tallien, Madame
The pass in East Central Greece was held by King Leonidas and the Spartans for three days against the Persians in 480BC. The Spartans and Thespians fought to the death. The famous monument erected there read: ‘Go tell the Spartans thou that passest by, that here obedient to their laws we lie.’
BkXXXII:Chap5:Sec1 Chateaubriand took the banal information on the beetroot factory from an 1843 book of travel.
Théroigne de Méricourt, Anne-Josèphe Therwagne
1762-1817 Born in the Principality of Liège (at Marcourt in the Ardennes) of peasant stock, at a time of Austrian control, she was companion to a lady of Antwerp who provided her with an education. She subsequently travelled Europe as a courtesan, lived in London, and in 1786 become a singer in Paris then elsewhere. Dressed as an Amazon with gun and sabre she later took part in the Revolution and was known as La Belle Liégeoise, holding a salon in the Rue du Boulay. After returning to Liège in debt, she was briefly imprisoned in Austria, but returned to Paris at the end of 1791. In January 1792 she was welcomed by the Jacobins and aligned herself with Brissot. In May 1793 she was arrested by a party of women on the terrace of the Tuileries, denounced for her support of Brissot, and publicly stripped and flogged. This degrading act and her view of the Revolution as a failure drove her into madness. She was confined to an asylum for the last 23 years of her life.
A sea goddess, daughter of Nereus and Doris. Peleus overcame her wiles, and she bore him the hero Achilles.
Thiard, Henri-Charles Gabriel de Thiard de Bissy, Comte de
1726-1794. He was Commandant for the King in Brittany 1787, succeeding Montmorin.
BkV:Chap7:Sec1 Indecisive and ineffectual.
Thiard, Auxonne-Marie-Theodose, Comte de Bissy, General
1772-1852. Nephew of Henri. Chamberlain to Napoleon, he acted as diplomat and was aide-de-camp to the Emperor in 1805/6/7. He became a Deputy for Saône-et-Loire. He was named as a Marshal but in 1816 was implicated in a Bonapartist plot. He continued his career in the Chamber of Deputies 1820-1824 and 1837-1848.
1765-1854. A Councillor of state and Prefect under Napoleon, he had been a terrorist and regicide in the Convention. He remained an ardent Republican in the Council of Five Hundred of the Directory but supported the coup d’état of 18th Brumaire. In March 1800 Bonaparte appointed him prefect of the Gironde but recalled him to Paris to serve in the Council of State in September 1800.
BkXXIII:Chap11:Sec1 Fouché kept him on the proscribed list at the Restoration.
BkXXIV:Chap11:Sec2 His Mémoires sur le Consulat etc. are valuable
Thibault IV, Comte de Champagne
1201–53, A French trouvère, he became Thibaut I, king of Navarre, in 1234, succeeding his uncle Sancho VII. He was defeated in battle while leading a Crusade (1239), but returned to become a poet and composer of the first rank. Some of his songs and courtly verses are addressed to Blanche of Castile, regent of France.
Preface:Sect4 An example of a writer who was also involved with warfare.
Tihern or Brient I, born about 1020. Ancestor of Chateaubriand. Married Ynoguen de Biré. His father was Eudes de Porhoet, Comte de Penthièvre, Comte de Bretagne, born in 999. He died on 7 Jan 1078/9.
BkI:Chap1:Sec4 Root-stock of the family according to Chateaubriand.
BkI:Chap1:Sec6. Chateaubriand asserts his ancestry, and that Brient fought at Hastings.
1797-1893. Prefect of the Haute-Saône after the July Revolution, he was a historian like his brother and wrote a History of the Gauls (1828).
Thierry, Jacques Nicolas Augustin
1795-1856. A French historian, his vivid literary style, romantic treatment of events, and use of contemporary documents helped to create interest in historical studies in the early 19th cent. His two most famous works, Histoire de la conquête de l'Angleterre par les Normands (1825) and Récits des temps mérovingiens (1840), were great popular successes; however, they lacked scholarship.
BkXXIX:Chap10:Sec1 He had become partially blind and paralysed.
BkXXX:Chap5:Sec1 Writes to Chateaubriand in March 1829.
The town is in Auvergne in the Massif Central region. The eighteenth century town is famous for cutlery making.
BkXVII:Chap3:Sec1 Chateaubriand there in 1805.
Thiers, Louis Adolphe
1797-1877. French politician and historian who was the first President (1871–1873) of the Republic formed after the fall of Napoleon III. His History of the French Revolution (10 vol., 1823–27) illustrated his moderate liberal views.
BkXIX:Chap16:Sec1 A reference to the History.
BkXIX:Chap16:Sec2 Quoted by Chateaubriand.
BkXXIV:Chap7:Sec1 A reference to his decision to build fortifications around Paris.
BkXXV:Chap11:Sec1 A reference to his decision in 1832 to destroy the chapel to the Duc de Berry created at the site of his assassination in the Rue de Richelieu by public subscription. The decision was in reprisal for the Duchesse de Berry’s activities in the Vendee.
BkXXXII:Chap2:Sec1 Went into hiding on the 27th of July 1830.
BkXXXII:Chap4:Sec1 At a meeting of the monarchist party on 28th July 1830.
BkXXXII:Chap6:Sec1 Active with Lafitte on the 29th of July 1830.
BkXXXII:Chap16:Sec1 At the Palais-Royal on the 31st of July 1830.
BkXXXIV:Chap6:Sec1 Travelling in the Midi in May 1830.
BkXXXIV:Chap9:Sec1 Chateaubriand’s friendship with him.
BkXXXIV:Chap13:Sec1 In 1832.
BkXLII:Chap2:Sec1 Chateaubriand’s description of him and his politics. Thiers was Minister of the Interior, October 1832 to November 1834, and Foreign Minister, February to August 1936 and March to October 1840. Grand-Vaux in Burgundy belonged to Comte Vigier and was the scene of a sumptuous banquet in 1834 at which a tipsy Thiers indulged in horseplay. The reference to the Turkish fleet is to events of 1839 when the English supported the Imperial Ottoman power in Constantinople against Ibrahim Pacha and his father Mehmet Ali. Thiers supported Ibrahim and increased intervention and was dismissed in October 1840 and replaced by Guizot, the Ambassador to London.
The city in Lorraine, France, is near the Moselle River and the borders with Germany and Belgium. The town was besieged in 1639 during the Thirty Years’ War.
Chateaubriand with the army there in September 1792.
BkIX:Chap12:Sec1 The siege of 1792.
BkIX:Chap16:Sec1 The raising of the siege on 20th September 1702.
Thionville, Antoine Merlin, de
1762-1833. Deputy of the Moselle to the National Conventionm he fought in the Vendée. Took an active part in the Fall of Robespierre. Retired from public life during the Consulate, he escaped proscription under the Restoration.
Thomas, Antoine Léonard
1732-1785. He established the model and tone of academic eulogy, rhetoric at once virtuous and sensitive, but mocked by Voltaire.
BkV:Chap10:Sec1 Mentioned as a model of clarity.
BkXI:Chap2:Sec2 A native of the Auvergne.
c1225-1274. The ‘Angelic Doctor’ of theology, and medieval philosopher. He entered the Dominican order, and sought to achieve a synthesis between Aristotelian philosophy and Christian thought. (He accompanied Albertus Magnus to the University of Paris in 1245, and remained there with his teacher for three years, at the end of which he graduated as bachelor of theology.)
BkXXVII:Chap3:Sec2 BkXXVIII:Chap11:Sec1 The 17th and 18th century church of Saint-Thomas-d’Aquin in Paris is in the Rue de Bac. It was used by the Jacobin Club in 1797 and re-sanctified in 1802. Easter Duty is the obligation of members of the Catholic Church to approach the Sacrament of Penance, if in a state of sin, once a year, and also of receiving the Holy Eucharist, as a mark of fidelity to membership, and under penalty of exclusion from it and all rights as a Catholic.
Thomas, Clément, General
1809-1871. Commanded the National Guard in 1848, proscribed during the second Empire, and shot by insurgents of the Commune.
BkXXXII:Chap5:Sec1 At the Tuileries on 29th July 1830.
BkXXXII:Chap16:Sec1 At the Palais-Royal on the 31st of July 1830.
Toruń (Thorn), Poland
The city in northern Poland, on the Vistula river. The medieval town, was the birthplace of Nicolaus Copernicus.
BkXX:Chap13:Sec1 Napoleon there in May 1812.
Thorwaldsen (Thorvaldsen), Bertel
1769-1844. A Danish sculptor who lived in Rome from 1796. He worked on the tomb of Pius VII, and lived luxuriously in a house on the Via Sistina.
BkXXIX:Chap16:Sec1 His daughter in a play in 1829.
BkXXXV:Chap11:Sec2 His Lion Monument (1819) in Lucerne commemorates the Swiss Guards who died in Paris during the Revolution.
1746-1794. A Lawyer from Normandy, he was President of the National Assembly (three times) and a Member of the Constitutional Committee. He was arrested during the Terror.
c460-c400BC. The Greek historian, who served as an Athenian general in the Peloponnesian War but was banished in 24BC for allowing the Spartan general Brasidas to take the colony of Amphipolis. He remained in exile until 404BC. His eight-volume History of the Peloponnesian War is notable for its detailed analysis of the issues and leaders of the war and marks the maturing of the historical narrative form.
BkXIX:Chap1:Sec1 Chateaubriand refers to the Athenian expedition against Syracuse (415-413BC) and its departure. See The Peloponnesian War VI:32.
BkXXII:Chap 22:Sec1 The reference is to The Peloponnesian War III:38.4.
BkXXXIV:Chap14:Sec1 See The History of the Peloponnesian War II:47,54
Thuisy, Messieurs de
Booksellers in London?
Thumery, or Tuméry, Marquis de
The Emperor, Tiberius Claudius Nero (42BC-37AD), was the elder son of Livia by her first husband. Augustus adopted the boy and appointed him as his successor in 4AD after the early deaths of other candidates. He was also Augustus’s stepson through his marriage to the elder Julia, Augustus’s daughter by Scribonia. He succeeded Augustus in 14AD, and retired to Capri in 26AD where he gained a reputation for depravity.
BkXXIX:Chap16:Sec1 The ruins of his Rome.
c55-c19BC. Albius Tibullus the Roman poet was a friend of Horace and Ovid. His elegiac poetry was mostly addressed to his patron Marcus Valerius Messalla. Two books of his poems were published during his lifetime and were known as Delia and Nemesis after the pseudonyms of his mistresses.
BkII:Chap3:Sec4 Chateaubriand quotes from Elegies I.1 verses 45-46: Quam juvat immites ventos audire cubantem, et dominam tenero continuisse sinu: What joy to hear the raging winds as I lie there holding my girl to my tender breast’:
BkIII:Chap7:Sec2 A love poet.
BkXXX:Chap13:Sec1 His poems to Delia.
Tiberina, Pontificia Accademia
In 1809 the well-known archaeologist, Antonio Nibby (1792-1839), founded the short-lived ‘Accademia Ellenica. In 1813 many of its members withdrew to found the ‘Accademia Tiberin. The first president, Antonio Coppi (1783-1870), drew up its first rules, according to which the Academy was to devote itself to the study of Latin and Italian literature, hold a weekly meeting, and a public session monthly. Great scientific or literary events were to be signalized by extraordinary meetings. It was also agreed that the Academy should undertake the history of Rome from Odoacer to Clement XIV, as well as the literary history from the time of that pontiff.
BkXXIX:Chap14:Sec1 Chateaubriand was a member in 1828, and went to its session on the 8th of December.
Tilleul, Monsieur du
He was a companion of Chateaubriand’s on the journey to Jersey.
The Treaties of Tilsit (now Sovetsk, on the Neman River in Kaliningrad Oblast, Russia) were two agreements signed by Napoleon in the town in July, 1807. The first was signed on July 7, between Tsar Alexander I of Russia and Napoleon. The second was signed with Prussia on July 9. The treaties ended the war between Imperial Russia and France. The two countries secretly agreed to aid each other in disputes. France pledged to aid Russia against Ottoman Turkey, while Prussia agreed to join the Continental System against the British Empire. Napoleon also convinced Alexander to enter into the Finnish War against Sweden in order to force Sweden to join the Continental System. The treaties also created the Duchy of Warsaw. Co-operation between Russia and France broke down in 1810 when the Tsar began to allow neutral ships to land in Russian ports. In 1812, Napoleon invaded Russia, ending any vestige of alliance.
The mistress of Alcibiades: Plutarch says she was the mother of the famous courtesan Lais, known as the Corinthian, though she was a prisoner of war from Hyccara in Sicily. She rescued Alcibiades’ corpse and gave him honourable burial.
The Indonesian Island, largest of the Nusa Tenggara Group.
Tinténiac, Monsieur de
A gentleman of the neighbourhood of Combourg.
BkXII:Chap5:Sec1 The Tinteniac family line.
Tinteniac, Jehan de
Tintoretto, Jacopo Robusti
1518-1594. He was a Venetian High Renaissance painter.
BkXXXIX:Chap7:Sec1 His Miracle of St Mark Freeing the Slave of 1548 is in the Accademia in Venice.
BkXXXIX:Chap15:Sec1 His Glory of Paradise in the Ducal Palace Venice was painted after 1588. Chateaubriand is presumably talking about a sketch, cartoon, or copy of the painting.
A stock shepherd from mythology, the character appears in La Fontaine’s Fables (VIII.13 "Tircis et Amarante," 1678-79).
Tite-Live, see Livy
Titian, Tiziano Vecellio
c1485-1576. The great Venetian painter is famous as a colourist and for his portraits, as well as mythological and religious subjects. He was a pupil of Giorgione.
BkXXIX:Chap6:Sec1 See his Charles V with his Irish hound 1532-3, his Charles V seated of 1548 (Alte Pinakothek, Munich), his Charles V on horseback of 1548 (Prado, Madrid). Charles V knighted Titian in 1533.
BkXXXIX:Chap7:Sec1 BkXXXIX:Chap15:Sec1 BkXL:Chap2:Sec4 There is now a huge monument to Titian in the Frari created in 1853 by Canova’s pupils Luigi and Pietro Zandomeneghi. His Assumption is over the main altar in the Frari. The portrait of the old woman mentioned, was probably Giorgione’s Old Woman of 1508 now in the Gallerie dell’Accademia, Venice. The Presentation of the Virgin in the Temple of 1539 is also in the Gallerie in Venice.
Tittery, Bey of
Tittery was an Algerian province (or beylik). The French zouaves ( annewly created corps) defeated the Bey, its ruler, October 1830-January 1831, Blida and Médéa being occupied.
Titus Flavius Sabinus Vespasianus, Roman Emperor
39-81AD. Roman emperor (79-81), he was the son of the Emperor Vespasian, and closely associated with his father in military campaigns. After 71 he acted as co-ruler. He served in Britain and in Germany and captured and destroyed Jerusalem in 70. On succeeding his father he pursued a policy of conciliation and sought popular favour, completing the Colosseum. During his reign a great fire in Rome ocurred, and the eruption of Vesuvius which buried Pompeii and Herculaneum. The Arch of Titus, now restored and standing outside the ancient entrance to the Palatine, was erected by his brother Domitian to commemorate Titus’ conquest of Jerusalem.
BkXXIII:Chap20:Sec3 His destruction of the Temple in Jerusalem.
BkXXX:Chap13:Sec1 The forced labour in Rome of Jews deported from Jerusalem by Titus in 79.
Ancient Tibur, a town in Central Italy, is in Lazio. The Anio flows nearby. It was a summer resort in Roman times, and contains the remains of Hadrian’s villa, and the Renaissance Villa d’Este.
Chateaubriand walks on the Tivoli road, the ancient Via Tiburtina, from Rome.
BkXXXVIII:Chap5:Sec1 Its cascades. (Chateaubriand uses the word cascatelle, only ever employed in this phrase)
Tivoli Gardens, Paris
The Folie-Boutin, one of the most frequented areas of the capital until 1810, especially under the Directory. The park and its attractions lay between the Rue Saint-Lazare and the Rue de Clichy.
BkIX:Chap6:Sec2 Chateaubriand spent the 14th July 1792 there.
BkXVII:Chap1:Sec1 Chateaubriand said goodbye to his brother there before emigrating, see above.
The Archangel Raphael helped his son Tobias to cure his blindness.
BkXII:Chap1:Sec1 The Book of Tobit appears in the Apocrypha. See Tobit XII:15.
Tocqueville, Alexis Henri Charles de Clérel, Comte de
1805-1859. French politician and writer, prominent in politics, particularly just before and just after the Revolution of 1848, and minister of foreign affairs briefly in 1849. His observations made in 1831 during a government mission to the United States to study the penal system resulted in De la démocratie en Amérique (2 vol., 1835; tr. Democracy in America, 4 vol., 1835–40), one of the classics of political literature. A liberal whose deepest commitment was to human freedom, Tocqueville believed that political democracy and social equality would, inevitably, replace the aristocratic institutions of Europe. He analyzed the American attempt to have both liberty and equality in terms of the lessons Europe might learn from American successes and failures. His other important works are L'Ancien Régime et la révolution (1856), which stressed the continuance after the French Revolution of many prior trends, and his Recollections (1893).
BkXVII:Chap1:Sec1 His relationship to Chateaubriand.
Tocqueville, Hervé Louis François Jean Bonaventure de Clérel, Comte de
1772-1856. Prefect under the Restoration and Peer of France, tutor of his sister-in-law’s children, Louis and Christian de Chateaubriand, until their majority, their parents having been guillotined in 1794. He was the father of Alexis.
BkXXXVIII:Chap10:Sec1 He was Prefect for the Moselle from February 1817 to June 1823.
Tocqueville, Louise-Madeleine-Marguerite Le Pelletier de Rosanbo, Comtesse de
Originally, it was the Anglicized name for the famed wines of the Tokaj-Hegyalja region in Hungary. The wines were rich and aromatic. Later it came to refer to wines made from Muscadelle, a white wine grape.
Tolentino, Treaty of
Tolentino is in the Marche, in central Italy, on the Chienti River. In 1797, Pope Pius VI signed at Tolentino a humiliating treaty with Napoleon Bonaparte, under which the pope gave up considerable territory and numerous works of art. Murat was defeated by the Austrians near the city in 1815 and lost the throne of Naples.
BkXIX:Chap12:Sec2 The treasures ceded by the treaty, included the Raphael painting, and classical sculptures from the Belvedere Palace in Rome. The Belvedere Apollo is a Roman copy probably of a bronze original made by the Athenian sculptor Leochares, who worked for Alexander the Great, around 320BC. The Laocoon is a marble group, by Hagesandros, Athenodoros and Polydoros of Rhodes, of Laocoon and his sons c. 175-150 BC.
BkXXIX:Chap2:Sec3 Chateaubriand there in October 1828.
A town in Belarus.
BkXXI:Chap7:Sec1 Napoleon there in 1812.
Tolstoï Princess Anna Ivanovna Bariatinskaia, Countess?
1774-1825. She married Count Nicolai Alexandrovitch Tolstoi (1765-1816), and died in Paris.
BkXXXIX:Chap3:Sec1 Her sons were Alexander and Emmanuel. She died in 1825.
An east facing bay at the western most end of Lyme Bay in the south west of England, situated roughly midway between the cities of Exeter and Plymouth.
The Battle of Torgau (Germany) was fought on November 3, 1760 during the Seven Years’ War, on the Süptitzer Höhen. A Prussian army of 50,000 under Frederick II fought an Imperial army of 53,400 under the Austrian Field Marshal Daun. The Prussians won the battle but lost 16,600 men, the Austrians 15,700 men and 43 guns.
1755-1829. He emigrated to Italy from the Auvergne and made a fortune in military supplies. He became a banker and philanthropist and was created Duke of Bracciano and a Prince of Rome by Pius VII. He was adopted by Roman high society and was noted for his brilliant entertainments.
BkXXIX:Chap11:Sec1 Chateaubriand describes a ball at his house in 1828.
BkXXX:Chap3:Sec1 His death in February 1829.
Torre Vergata, Rome
This was not in the modern Tor Vergata university district to the south-east, but a site to the north-west of Rome, near La Guistiniana, where Chateaubriand locates it, which was being excavated in Chateaubriand’s day. See La campagna romana by Tomassetti, volume 3. The excavation produced 400 silver coins of Valerian, a bas-relief of Mercury, marbles, terra-cottas and tools. See also Antoine Nibby’s Environs of Rome.
Torrington, George Byng, 6th Viscount
1768-1831. The Admiral was a descendant of the famous Admiral Byng.
BkX:Chap4:Sec1 Present at the Literary Fund annual meeting in 1822.
Touchet, Monsieur du
Tutor to the Dauphin.
The port in south-eastern France in the Var department, lies on the Mediterranean.
BkIX:Chap9:Sec1 Naval officers from there in the émigré army in 1792.
BkXXIII:Chap10:Sec1 Napoleon was involved in besieging and re-taking the city, occupied by the English, in 1793. By December he was a brigadier general having risen from the rank of captain in four months. Chateaubriand attributes certain atrocities to him.
BkXXIV:Chap16:Sec1 Napoleon sailed for Egypt from there on the 19th of May 1798.
The city in Southern France is the capital of the Haute-Garonne department, on the River Garonne. The capital of the Visigoths, and later of the Kingdom of Aquitaine, it passed to France in 1271. It was the centre of persecution during the Albigensian Crusade.
BkXIV:Chap2:Sec5 BkXXXVIII:Chap8:Sec1 Chateaubriand was there in 1802. The Basilica of Saint-Sernin, a major example of Romanesque architecture, became a major staging post on the pilgrimage to Compostella. Begun in the 11th century it was added to until the 16th, but remains incomplete, lacking the western towers. Toulouse gold, Aurum tolosanum, is proverbially a treasure which brings bad luck.
He was a member of the Committee for the Medal-Winners of July.
BkXXXV:Chap1:Sec1 Mentioned in April 1832.
The city in Hainaut province, south-west Belgium, is on the Scheldt River. Tournay and Doornijk are alternate spellings for the commune’s French and Dutch names. One of Belgium's oldest cities, Tournai was the fortified capital of a Roman province and in the 5th century it became a seat of the Merovingian kings of Austrasia. The city was destroyed by the Normans in 881. It belonged to France from 1187 to 1521, when Emperor Charles V captured it and attached it to the Spanish (from 1714, Austrian) Netherlands. Tournai joined in the rebellion of the Spanish Netherlands and was a Calvinist stronghold until its capture (1581) by Alessandro Farnese. It was taken several times by the French in the wars of the 17th-18th century
Tournai has been a cultural centre since the 12th cent. Of note are the Cathedral of Notre Dame (11th-12th century), with many art treasures; a 15th-century tower named for Henry VIII of England (who took the city in 1513 and made Cardinal Wolsey bishop of Tournai); the cloth-workers hall (17th century); and a well-known art museum.
BkIX:Chap7:Sec1 Chateaubriand reaches there in 1792.
BkIX:Chap7:Sec2 In the 5th century, Tournai was the capital city of the kingdom of the Salian Franks. Childéric I (c.436-c.481), the alleged son of Mérovée (a more or less mythical Franck chief who gave his name to the Merovingian dynasty), reigned and was buried in Tournai. Jewels found in Childéric's grave in 1653 are the distant source of the bees used as an Imperial symbol by the Napoléons. Childéric's son, Chlodowig/Clovis (465-511) succeeded his father. After having defeated the last rex Romanorum Syagrius in Soissons (486), the Alamans (495 and 505 or 506), the Burgunds (500) and the Visigoths (Vouillé, 507), Clovis ruled over the whole of Gaul and unified the former Frankish kingdoms.
BkXXIII:Chap4:Sec1 Chateaubriand passes through in March 1815, fleeing Paris.
Tournefort, Joseph Pitton de
1656-1708. A French botanist, born at Aix, in Provence, he studied in the convent of the Jesuits at Aix, and was destined for the Church, but the death of his father left him free to follow his botanical inclinations. After two years collecting, he studied medicine at Montpellier, but was appointed professor of botany at the Jardin des Plantes in 1683. On the kings orders he travelled through Western Europe, where he made extensive collections, and subsequently spent three years in Greece and Asia Minor (1700-1702). Of this journey a description in a series of letters was posthumously published in 3 vols. (Relation dun voyage du Levant, Lyons, 1717). His principal work is entitled Institutiones rei herbariae (3 vols. Paris, 1 700). BkV:Chap15:Sec3 His work consulted by Chateaubriand.
He was a student at the École Polytechnique in July 1830.
Tournon, Comte de
1778-1833. He was a Prefect in Rome 1809-1814, then under the Restoration in the Gironde and Rhône. Named a Peer of France in 1814, his Études statistiques sur Rome etc. was published in 1831.
A town at the centre of the Loire Valley, between the Loire and Cher rivers, it was formerly the capital of Touraine. Its silk industry declined following the Edict of Nantes (1685) and the exodus of the Huguenot weavers.
BkXVIII:Chap3Sec1 Chateaubriand there in 1807.
He was a General in the National Guard in 1814.
Tourville, Anne Hilarion de Cotentin, Comte de
1642-1791. French naval commander. He served in the wars of King Louis XIV and was made commander of the French fleet in the War of the Grand Alliance. His great victory over the English and the Dutch at Beachy Head (1690) probably marked the height of French sea power, but in 1692 he was defeated by the English and Dutch at La Hougue. He was later victorious (1693) near Cape St. Vincent, Portugal. Tourville was one of the greatest naval technicians of his time.
Toussaint de Saint-Luc, Le Père
BkI:Chap1:Sec3 A source of information regarding Chateaubriand’s family.
1743-1803. A Haitian military and political leader who led a successful slave insurrection (1791–1793) and helped the French expel the British from Haiti (1798). In 1801 he invaded Spanish Santo Domingo and freed the slaves there. He briefly maintained control over the entire island, establishing the first Black-led government in the Americas, before being arrested by Bonapartist agents (1802) and deported to France.
BkXXIV:Chap4:Sec1 His arrest laid at Bonaparte’s door.
Toutelmine, Monsieur de
A Russian field-officer, assistant director of the Foundlings Hospital in Moscow, previously patronised by Napoleon, he had acted as a go-between in Napoleon’s communications with St Petersburg.
Townsend, John Kirk
1809-1851. An American naturalist, ornithologist and collector, Townsend was born in Philadelphia and trained as a physician and pharmacist. He developed an interest in natural history in general and bird collecting in particular. In 1833 he was invited by the botanist Thomas Nuttall to join him on Nathaniel Wyeth’s second expedition across the Rocky Mountains to the Pacific Ocean. Townsend collected a number of birds new to science, including the Mountain Plover, Chestnut-collared Longspur, Black-throated Gray Warbler, Townsend’s Warbler and the Sage Thrasher. On his return he wrote The Narrative of a Journey across the Rocky Mountains to the Columbia River and a Visit to the Sandwich Islands (1839). A number of mammals are named for him, including Townsend’s Ground Squirrel, Townsend’s Chipmunk, Townsend’s Pocket Gopher, Townsend’s Mole, Townsend’s Vole and the Whitetail Jackrabbit Lepus townsendi.
BkVIII:Chap5:Sec3 His travels across America.
The naval engagement fought off Cape Trafalgar on the south-west coast of Spain on October 21st, 1805, in which the British fleet under Horatio Nelson won a comprehensive victory over the allied French and Spanish fleets under Pierre de Villeneuve. It resulted in the capture of 20 enemy ships (one was blown up). The British lost no ships. Among the dead was Nelson himself, struck by a bullet from the French ship Redoutable. The decisive English victory ended Napoleon I’s power on the sea and made a French invasion of England impossible. The words signalled by Nelson at the beginning of the battle—‘England expects that every man will do his duty’—are well known.
Trajan, Marcus Ulpius Trejanus
c53-117AD. Roman emperor from 98, and born in Spain, he was the first non-Italian to become head of the empire. Trajan served in the East, in Germany, and in Spain. He was adopted in 97 by Emperor Nerva, who died shortly afterward. In two wars against Dacia he brought that region under Roman control. This conquest is commemorated by Trajan’s Column, in the Forum of Trajan in Rome. He then annexed Arabia Petraea, and in three campaigns conquered the greater part of the Parthian empire, including Armenia and Upper Mesopotamia. On his way home from this campaign, he died in Cilicia. An able military organizer and civic administrator, he partially drained the Pontine Marshes and restored the Appian Way, and at Rome he built an aqueduct, a theatre, and the immense Forum of Trajan, containing basilicas and libraries.
BkXX:Chap11:Sec1 His campaign in Dacia.
BkXIV:Chap7:Sec1 BkXXIV:Chap16:Sec1 BkXXX:Chap12:Sec1 Trajan’s Column is a monument in Rome raised by Apollodorus of Damascus at the order of the Senate. It is located in Trajan’s Forum, built near the Quirinal Hill, north of the Roman Forum. Finished in 113, the spiral bas-relief commemorates Trajan’s victory in his military campaigns to conquer Dacia. After Trajan's death in 117, the Roman Senate voted to have Trajan's ashes buried in the Column’s base in a golden urn. (The ashes no longer lie there.)
BkXXXVI:Chap7:Sec1 Trajan’s Bridge or the Bridge of Apollodorus was the first to be built over the lower Danube. Situated east of the Iron Gates, near the present-day cities of Drobeta-Turnu Severin in Romania and Kladovo in Serbia, it was built as a supply route for the Roman legions fighting in Dacia. For more than a thousand years, it was the longest bridge to have been built, both in terms of total and span length. Aurelian destroyed it on the withdrawal from Dacia.
He was a literary man – no details known.
Trasimene (Trasimeno), Lake
The Battle of Lake Trasimene (north of Rome) on June 24, 217 BC was a Roman defeat in the Second Punic War between the Carthaginians under Hannibal and the Romans under the consul Gaius Flaminius.
A commune in the western suburbs of Paris, it is located 16.6 miles from the centre.
BkXXXIII:Chap2:Sec1 The Royal party at Trappes at midnight on the 31st of July 1830.
The Traun is a 153 km long river in Upper Austria. Its source is in the Salzkammergut area. It is a tributary of the Danube, which it meets near the city of Linz.
A port town and commune of the Côtes-d’Armor département, in north-western France, it is located 36 miles northwest of Saint-Brieuc by road. The port is situated about 5 1/2 miles from the English Channel at the confluence of two streams that form the Tréguier River.
1742-1810. He was a French revolutionary deputy to the Estates-General of 1789. He became president of the criminal tribunal of Paris. Elected to the Convention, he attached himself to the Mountain and voted for the death of Louis XVI. He was a member of the committee of public safety and became president of the Convention on the 27 December 1792. Under the Directory, he entered the Council of Five Hundred, of which he was president during the month of Nivose, year IV; was a member of the Tribunal of Cassation; plenipotentiary at the Congress of Rastadt; and became a director in the year VI. After the coup d'état of 18 Brumaire he became president of the tribunal of appeal and councillor of state. He took an important part in drafting the civil code, the criminal code, the code of civil procedure and the commercial code. He died a senator and count of the empire.
1795-1879. A Republican physician and psychologist, he became a Government Minister (Public Works) briefly in 1848. He was in 1830 a member of the Réunion Lointier.
BkXXXII:Chap11:Sec1 A member of the Republican Municipal Commission in July 1830.
BkXXXII:Chap16:Sec1 At the Palais Royale on the 31st of July 1830.
Trémargat, Louis Geslin, Comte de
d.1749 His nickname ‘Peg-Leg’ came from a wound received as lieutenant in the navy.
BkV:Chap7:Sec1 Present at the Brittany States in December 1788.
A local family at Combourg, friends of the Chateaubriands.
Trémigon, Comte de
He was a member of a Breton family.
He was loved by Mademoiselle de Boisteilleul.
The Combat des Trente was held on Saturday the 26th March 1351 at la Mi-Voie, between Josselin and Ploërmel, two forts on the strategic route through Brittany. The combatants represented Jean de Montfort (English garrison of Ploërmel) and Charles de Blois (French garrison of Josselin).
Trévelec, see Le Douarin
Trèves, Trier, Germany
The city in south-west Germany, in the Rhineland-Palatinate on the Moselle. Founded by the Emperor Augustus.
Trévise, Duc de, see Mortier
The city of the Veneto dating from Roman times. It has an 11th century cathedral. It was occupied by the French in 1797 and became part of Austria from 1805 until 1866.
The Grand and Petit Trianon are two villas in the grounds of the Palace of Versailles. The Grand Trianon was built by Mansart for Louis XIV in 1687, the Petit Trianon (1762-1768), by Gabriel for Louis XV.
La Tribune des départements, produced by Victorien and Auguste Fabre, was the main newspaper of the Republican Party during the July Monarchy.
The seaport on the Gulf of Trieste at the head of the Adriatic Sea, it was an important Roman port in the 1st century AD, passing to Austria in 1382. It expanded rapidly in the 19th century, and was ceded to Italy in 1920.
In Greek mythology he is the sea and river god, son of Neptune-Poseidon, and Amphitrite the Nereid. He is depicted as half man and half fish and the sound of his conch-shell calms the waves. (See Wordsworth’s sonnet ‘The world is too much with us; late and soon,’)
Trivulzio (Trivulce or Trivulzi)
A noble family of Milan: Jacques de Trivulce (Gian Giacimo:1441-1518) was Governor of Milan under Louis XII. Princess Christina Beliojoso-Trivulzi (1800-1871) was a noted Italian nationalist.
BkXXIX:Chap2:Sec2 The reference has not been identified.
Trogoff, Joachim-Simon, General de
1763-1840. An émigré, he served in the Austrian army until 1814, was made a general under the Restoration and then Governor of Saint-Cloud in 1828. He subsequently retired to his native Brittany (Landivisiau is twenty miles from Brest, Landenau between it and Brest, La Cornaille is the coastal region with Quimper as its capital)
BkXXXVIII:Chap1:Sec1 At Carlsbad in 1833.
BkXXXVIII:Chap4:Sec1 Sees Chateaubriand off on his journey.
Trojolif or Tronjoli, Thérèse-Joséphine de Moëlien, Comtesse de
BkII:Chap7:Sec5 Her bravery on the scaffold.
Tromelin, Jacques-Jean-Marie-François Boudin, Comte de
1771-1842. A former émigré he was a Napoleonic General in 1813. He supported the repeal of the decrees of 1830 and the dismissal of Polignac.
Tronchet, Abbey of
BkII:Chap3:Sec2 Chateaubriand ate there.
The Congress of Troppau was a conference of the Quintuple Alliance to discuss means of suppressing the revolution in Naples of July 1820. The congress met on October 20, 1820 in Opava, and resulted in the Troppau Protocol (19th November) an agreement essentially between Austria, Russia and Prussia.
Troy in Dardania, was the famous city of the Troad in Asia Minor near the northern Aegean Sea and the entrance to the Hellespont. It was the scene of the Trojan War between the city and the Greek Armies who were seeking the return of Helen.
BkXVIII:Chap1:Sec1 Chateaubriand set off to reach it in 1806.
The town in north-east France, capital of the Aube on the River Seine, was the capital of the old province of Champagne.
BkXXII:Chap9:Sec1 Napoleon re-entered Troyes on 24th February 1814.
Trublet, Nicolas-Charles-Joseph, Abbé
1697-1770. Canon of Saint-Malo, he was Treasurer of the Church at Nantes, and a friend of Fontenelle and La Motte. He wrote his Essais de littérature et de morale (1736) to support his quarrel with Voltaire. Voltaire condemned him in three verses, of which the last is the best known, ‘Il compilait, compilait, compilait!’ which Trublet himself laughed at and appreciated, and has become more famous than his own works.
The League of Virtue was a secret political society founded in Prussia in 1808. Its principal aims were to foster patriotic feelings and to organise the struggle for German liberation from Napoleonic occupation and for the establishment of a constitutional system. At Napoleon’s request the Tugendbund was formally dissolved in 1809 by the King of Prussia but it actually continued to exist until the end of the Napoleonic wars.
The former palace in Paris, was planned by Catherine de’ Medici and begun in 1564 by Philibert Delorme, it occupied part of the present Tuileries gardens. It was rarely used as a royal residence until 1789, when Louis XVI was forced by the revolutionaries to move there from Versailles. He and his family were brought back there after their attempted flight (1792) and their arrest at Varennes. A few weeks later (Aug. 10, 1792) a mob attacked the palace. Napoleon I made the Tuileries his chief residence, as did Louis XVIII, Charles X, Louis Philippe, and Napoleon III. During the Commune of Paris of 1871, the palace was destroyed by fire. The splendid formal gardens laid out by Le Nôtre remain, and are connected to the Louvre museum.
BkV:Chap8:Sec2 The action at the Tuileries on the 12th July 1789.
BkV:Chap11:Sec1 The National Assembly moved to the Manège near the Tuileries in November 1789.
BkXVI:Chap5:Sec1 The Tuileries Palace served as the royal residence after the Bourbon Restoration.
BkXIX:Chap6:Sec1 Attacked on the 10th of August 1792, when the National Guardsmen killed many of the King’s Swiss Guard.
The officer son of the Reverend William Tulloch, from an old Scottish family, was educated at the Royal Military School, Woolwich, where his father was pastor. He was a member of the Sulpiciens’ seminarist mission.
BkVI:Chap6:Sec3 They met again in London in April 1822.
The capital of Tunisia on the Lake of Tunis. It was developed by the Arabs in the 7th century. It came under French rule in the late 19th century.
BkVI:Chap4:Sec1 A haven for pirates.
BkXVIII:Chap2:Sec1 Chateaubriand there in January 1807. The ruins of Carthage are nearby to the north-east. Access to the Gulf of Tunis an arm of the Mediterranean, is now via canal terminating at La Goulette.
BkXVIII:Chap3Sec2 A letter dated from there.
Turenne, Henri de la Tour d’Auvergne, Vicomte de, Marshal of France
1611-1675. French military leader noted for his campaigns in France and Italy (1635–1642) during the Thirty Years’ War and for his victory in the Battle of the Dunes (1658) where the Great Condé was defeated.
BkXIII:Chap1:Sec1 From 1648, in the first war of the Fronde, Turenne’s family’s interests, and the friendship of Condé’s sister, the Duchess de Longueville, lead him to intervene on the side of the rebellion. In January 1650 Mazarin, had Condé arrested. Turenne again fled, joining the Duchess de Longueville at Stenay on the eastern border of Champagne.
BkXIX:Chap5:Sec1 His language, French.
BkXX:Chap10:Sec1 His military knowledge.
BkXXII:Chap9:Sec1 As a type of the great leader.
BkXXXVIII:Chap9:Sec1 His devastation of the Palatinate in 1674.
Turenne, Henri-Amelie-Mercure, Comte de
1776-1852. He served in the Revolutionary army as a young man. Later he was First Chamberlain to Napoleon (1809), a colonel and a Count (1813) and remained loyal to Napoleon whose aide-de-camp he was at Waterloo.
Turgot, Anne-Robert-Jacques, Baron de l’Aulne
1727-1781. French economist who served under Louis XV and XVI, he was educated at the Sorbonne, was one of the Physiocrats and an advocate of laissez-faire. He was appointed Comptroller General in 1774. There was resistance to his reforms, especially the Six Edicts, which included the abolition of forced labour, and he was dismissed in 1776.
A city of northwest Italy on the Po River west-southwest of Milan, it was an important Roman town, later a Lombard duchy and the capital of the kingdom of Sardinia (1720–1861). It was also the first capital of the new kingdom of Italy.
Turpin, Tilpinus of Rheims, Archbishop
753-794. Archbishop of Rheims from 773, secretary and friend to Charlemagne, he appears as a warrior-priest in the Song of Roland.
BkIX:Chap8:Sec2 A legend of Charlemagne.
Turreau or Thureau, General Louis Marie Baron Turreau de Garambouville de Linieres
1756-1816. French soldier. Fought under Count Rochambeau for American independence; served as a general of division in the Vendée, Italy, and Switzerland, and in 1804 was made a baron. He was minister to the United States 1804-11, and vainly attempted to induce the government to adopt a French policy. After his return he published ‘percu sur la situation politique des Etats-Unis’(1815), a bitter critique of the government of the United States, which he says in the preface ‘he author has studied eight years without being able to comprehend it.’ Some time before his death he retired to his estate at Conches, in the department of the Eure. He also published ‘Memoires pour servir a l'histoire de la guerre de la Vendee’ (1815).
BkXI:Chap3:Sec2 In the Vendée.
An ancient city of Latium in Italy situated in a commanding position on the north edge of the outer crater ring of the Alban volcano, in the Alban Hills 11 miles north-east of the modern Frascati on the Tuscolo hill.
A fashionable retreat from court life, with elegant country houses, Twickenham in the 18th century was popular with the foremost artisans. Henrietta Howard, mistress of George II, had Marble Hill House built for her and regularly entertained the greatest poets and wits of the day. Both Horace Walpole and Alexander Pope left their mark on Twickenham: Walpole’s gothic fantasy at Strawberry Hill and Pope’s Grotto.
BkXII:Chap5:Sec1 Chateaubriand walked there.
Tycho Brahe, Tyge Ottesen Brahe (de Knutstorp)
1546-1601. A Danish nobleman best known today as an early astronomer, he was also well known as an astrologer and alchemist. From 1600 until his death in 1601, he was assisted by Johannes Kepler, who later used Tycho’s astronomical information to develop his own theories of planetary motion.
BkXXXVII:Chap10:Sec1 Tycho fought a duel with rapiers with Manderup Parsbjerg, a fellow Danish nobleman, at Christmas 1566, while the 20-year-old Tycho was studying at the University of Rostock in Germany. The duel (in the dark) resulted in Tycho losing the bridge of his nose. For the rest of his life, he was said to have worn a replacement made of silver and gold blended into a flesh tone, and used an adhesive balm to keep it attached. However, in 1901 Tycho’s tomb was opened and his remains were examined by medical experts. The nasal opening of the skull was rimmed with green, a sign of exposure to copper, not silver or gold. He may have worn various prosthetic attachments. From Herrevad Abbey, on the 11th of November 1572, he observed the supernova in the constellation Cassiopeia, now named SN 1572.
An ancient Phoenician city on the eastern Mediterranean Sea in present-day southern Lebanon, it as the capital of Phoenicia after the 11th century BC, and a flourishing commercial centre noted for its purple dyestuffs and rich, silken clothing. Tyre was besieged and captured by Alexander the Great in 332BC, and was finally destroyed by Muslims in AD1291.
BkXIX:Chap16:Sec1 It’s thirteenth century archbishop.
BkXXXI:Chap6:Sec1 The Biblical Tyrus.
BkXXXIX:Chap4:Sec1 The Pactum Warmundi was a treaty of alliance established in 1123 between the Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem and the Republic of Venice, it gave the Venetians special rights in Acre which they had captured, and in Ascalon and Tyre which they had agreed to attack. The Venetian communes in Acre and Tyre were particularly powerful and influential in the 13th century after the Kingdom lost Jerusalem and was reduced to a coastal state. They resisted Emperor Frederick II’s attempts to claim the Kingdom, and virtually ignored the authority the Lord of Tyre, conducting affairs instead as if they controlled their own independent lordship.
7th century BC. A lyric poet of ancient Greece, his war-songs greatly heartened the Spartans in their struggle with the Messenians.
BkXXII:Chap5:Sec1 The quotation is a free translation of Tyrtaeus I:27-30.