François de Chateaubriand
Mémoires d’Outre-Tombe: Index M
Mably, Gabriel Bonnot de, Abbé
1709-1785 A French philosopher and politician, and brother of Condillac, his works contributed to the later concepts of both Communism and Republicanism. His best known work is Entretiens de Phocion, a dialogue first published in 1763, which introduced themes of his mature thought.
The protagonist in Shakespeare’s play of that name.
MacCarthy, Nicholas Tuite, Abbé
1769-1833. Born in Dublin but educated in Paris, he was ordained in 1814 before becoming a Jesuit in 1818. After the July Revolution he retired to Italy where he died of a fever on the 3rd of May 1833.
BkXXXVII:Chap3:Sec1 He had died before being able to respond to Charles X’s summons.
Macchi, Vincenzo, Cardinal
1770-1860. Papal Nuncio to France (1819-1826), he was in Paris from January 1820. He was a Cardinal from 1826. He was Bishop of Ostia at his death.
Macdonald, Jacques Étienne Joseph Alexandre, Duc de Tarente, Marshal of France
1765-1840. A Marshal of France, of Scottish descent, he distinguished himself in the French Revolutionary Wars, particularly in Italy, but was defeated by Russian forces under Alexander Suvorov at the battle of Trebbia (June, 1799). He aided Napoleon’s coup of 18th Brumaire (1799). Temporarily in disgrace for defending Jean Victor Moreau, he returned to favour, was created duke of Taranto, and played an important part in the battle of Wagram (1809), the Peninsular War, and the Russian campaign. In the Hundred Days he was loyal to King Louis XVIII.
BkXX:Chap1:Sec1 Withdrew from Naples in June 1799.
BkXXIII:Chap1:Sec1 Hastened to Lyons when Napoleon landed from Elba.
A city in Italy, the capital of the province of Macerata in the Marche region.
BkXXIV:Chap11:Sec2 Napoleon’s 1787 proclamation from there.
BkXXIX:Chap2:Sec3 Chateaubriand there in October 1828.
Machault d’Arnouville, Jean Baptiste de,
1701-1794. A French statesman, he held a succession of government offices and was (1743–45) Intendant of Valenciennes. Louis XV appointed him Controller General of finances in 1745. To raise funds for the War of the Austrian Succession and to alleviate the government's chronic deficit he proposed (1749) that a tax of one twentieth (vingtième) of all incomes be levied. Opposition and evasion by the nobility, clergy, and certain privileged groups made the tax inequitable and decreased its revenue. Finally in December 1751, he was forced to suspend payment of the vingtième by the clergy and to abandon fiscal reform. In 1754, Machault was made Minister for the Navy. Having incurred the enmity of Madame de Pompadour, he was dismissed (1757) by Louis XV. He was arrested (1794) during the French Revolution and died in prison.
1469-1527. Florentine political philosopher, musician, poet, and romantic comedic playwright, Machiavelli was also a key figure in realist political theory. His best known work is his political treatise Il Principe (The Prince).
BkXX:Chap7:Sec1 A reference to The Prince and its cynical view of power politics.
Mack, Karl Freiherr, Baron von Lieberich
1752-1828. Austrian soldier, commander of the defeated forces at the Napoleonic battles of Ulm and Austerlitz. He was subsequently court-martialled and imprisoned for two years, but later re-instated.
BkXX:Chap2:Sec1 Defeated at Ulm.
Mackenzie, Sir Alexander
1755-1820. Alexander Mackenzie was born in Lewis, in the Outer Hebrides, in 1764. His family emigrated to North America when he was 12. Mackenzie worked for the North West Company as a fur trapper and trader and became convinced that there had to be a river route to the Pacific and set out to find it. On his first trip in 1789 he followed a river which the local Indians called the ‘Big River’. It was later to be called the Mackenzie River but instead of reaching the Pacific it ended up in the Arctic. Three years later he began a voyage on the Peace River but, when it became impassable, the rest of the journey had to be completed overland on foot through the Rocky Mountains. He eventually reached the Pacific, carving on a rock the words ‘Alex Mackenzie from Canada by Land 22 July 1793.’
BkIV:Chap13:Sec1 Mentioned. Chateaubriand in 1802 wrote an appreciation of his Voyages, published in 1801.
BkVII:Chap1:Sec1 His 1789 trip.
Mackintosh, Sir James
1765-1832. The British writer and public servant, was born in Scotland. He was trained as a physician, but after settling (1788) in London he became a writer and lawyer. His Vindiciae Gallicae (1791), a spirited reply to Edmund Burke's Reflections on the French Revolution, was the leading Whig statement in favour of the French Revolution, but from 1796 he grew hostile to French radicalism. Mackintosh served as recorder of Bombay (1804–6) and judge in Bombay vice-admiralty court (1806–12). As a Member of Parliament after 1812, he supported penal and parliamentary reform. His writings include several historical works. He defended Peltier in 1803.
BkXII:Chap5:Sec1 BkXXII:Chap15:Sec3 Peltier at first and wrongly hoped General Bonaparte would reinstate the monarchy. He then abused Bonaparte in his English journal L’Ambigu. Napoleon demanded his extradition after the Peace of Amiens with England. He took Peltier to Court in England in February 1803 for libel, but Mackintosh obtained the moral victory for Peltier, who was not sentenced, and continued to inveigh against Napoleon.
Madame Mère, see Bonaparte, Maria Letizia
Madeleine, Mary Magdalen
Mary Magdalene of Magdala, See Luke vii:2. Identified with the sinner of Luke vii:37
A convent in Paris founded in 1620, it was converted to a Prison for male prisoners during the Revolution. The building was later razed by Haussman.
The capital and largest city in Spain, located on the Manzanares river in the centre of the country. Cultural highlights include the Escorial, the Royal Palace of Madrid, and the nearby royal monastery of San Lorenzo de El Escorial, built by Philip II in the sixteenth century.
BkXVIII:Chap3Sec1 Chateaubriand there in 1807.
BkXVIII:Chap3Sec2 A letter dated from there.
The Escorial palace.
BkXX:Chap8:Sec1 Napoleon left Spain in January 1809.
BkXXII:Chap3:Sec1 The paintings at the Prado and the Escorial.
BkXXII:Chap6:Sec1 The Spanish capital.
BkXXIII:Chap8:Sec1 An example of French influence.
BkXLII:Chap2:Sec1 France supplied troops to put down the Carlist insurrections in Madrid in 1836. Thiers wished to increase the force but was opposed and resigned in August 1836, to be replaced by Molé at the Foreign office.
Maeotian Sea, Sea of Azov
The Sea of Azov, a northern section of the Black Sea, linked to the larger body through the Strait of Kerch, is bounded on the north by Ukraine, on the east by Russia and on the west by the Crimean peninsula. In antiquity, it was known as the Maeotian Lake or Maeotian Sea (Palus Maeotis).
A commune in the Val ‘dOise, it lies near Beaumont-sur-Oise, thirty kilometres north of Paris.
The Large and Small Magellanic Clouds are satellite galaxies which accompany our own. They are situated near the south pole of the heavens. They were first recorded by the great navigator, Ferdinand Magellan (c1480-1521) in 1519.
Magon de La Gicquelais, Hervine
Childhood playmate of Chateaubriand.
Mahmud II, Sultan
1784-1839. The Ottoman sultan (1808-39) was the younger son of Abd al-Hamid I. He was raised to the throne of the Ottoman Empire (Turkey) upon the deposition of his brother, Mustafa IV, and continued the reforms of his cousin, Selim III. During his reign, the Eastern Question assumed increasing importance. Mahmud inherited the Russo-Turkish War of 1806-12, which ended with Turkey’s loss of Bessarabia.
BkXXIX:Chap13:Sec1 The brutal elimination of the Janissaries in 1826 displayed his political determination. At the end of 1831 he started on the path of reform.
BkXXIX:Chap13:Sec2 Supported by England.
BkXXIX:Chap13:Sec4 The threat from him in 1828 analysed.
BkXXIX:Chap16:Sec1 BkXXX:Chap5:Sec1 Mentioned. The lady who wrote to Chateaubriand in 1829, and was pro-Mahmud, was the Comtesse de Castellane whose friendship with Chateaubriand in 1823 lead Madame Récamier to leave Paris for a long stay in Italy.
BkXXIX:Chap17:Sec1 The French Liberal view of him.
Mahomet, or Mohammed, or Muhammad
c570-c632. The founder of the Islamic faith, he was born into the noble Quraish clan, he was orphaned at an early age. He became a successful merchant then a contemplative. Following a supposedly divine vision he spent the rest of his life winning converts and uniting Arabia behind his faith, known as Islam (‘Submission’, to the Will of God). His teachings later formed the basis of the written Koran (or Quran).
BkXIX:Chap12:Sec2 The militaristic origins of Islam.
BkXIX:Chap14:Sec3 Bonaparte as a friend of Islam. In Islam, Munkar and Nakir (the Moukir and Quarkir of the text) are two black, blue-eyed malaikah (angels) who test the faith of the dead in their graves.
BkXIX:Chap16:Sec1 Muslim faith in an afterlife.
BkXXIX:Chap13:Sec2 The tomb of the prophet is in Medina.
BkXXIX:Chap13:Sec3 Chateaubriand’s dislike of Islam as a pernicious religion.
Mahomet, for Mehmed II, the Conqueror, Sultan
1432-1481. He was Sultan of the Ottoman Empire for a short time from 1444 to 1446, and later from 1451 to 1481. At the age of 21, he conquered Constantinople, bringing an end to the Medieval Greek Byzantine Empire. From this point onward, he claimed the title of Caesar in addition to his other titles.
BkXXXVII:Chap11:Sec1 In 1490 his son Bayezid II (1447-1512) was Sultan.
Mailhes, for Mailhe, Jean-Baptiste
1754-1834. Deputy to the National Convention from Haute-Garrone, he reported in 1792 the decision of the Committee on Legislation that the person of Louis XVI was not inviolate as a matter of law. As one of the first to vote in the question of death after the trial, he voted for death but suggested that the Convention might delay the execution. Mailhe survived the persecution of the Gerondists and, after the fall of Robespierre, moved the disbanding of the Jacobins. As a regicide he was exiled to Brussels at the Restoration; he prospered there and returned to Paris a wealthy man in 1830.
BkXXII:Chap18:Sec1 Welcomed the Provisional Government’s condemnation of Napoleon in April 1814.
Maillard de Lescourt, Major
An artillery officer in 1814.
Maillis, Théodore Berbis de
Officer in the Navarre Regiment.
BkIV:Chap4:Sec1 Chateaubriand encountered him in 1786.
Mailly, Louise-Julie de Mailly-Nesle, Comtesse de
1710-1751 Mistress of Louis XV, she was the daughter of Louis, Marquis de Nesle. In 1726 she married her cousin, Louis Alexandre de Mailly. Although Louis XV had paid her attentions from 1732, she did not become titular mistress until 1738. She did not use her position either to enrich herself or to interfere in politics. She was supplanted by her sister, the Duchess of Châteauroux, and obliged to leave court in 1742.
Maine de Biron
1766-1824. Lawyer and writer.
BkXXII:Chap7:Sec1 A Member of the Legislative commission in 1813.
The château, near Chartres, was bought in 1674 and enhanced by Françoise d'Aubigné, the widow of the poet Scarron and future Marquise de Maintenon. In 1698 it passed to the Noailles family.
BkIV:Chap13:Sec1 Mentioned as a place where part of the Memoirs was written.
Maintenon, Françoise d’Aubigné, Marquise de
1635–1719. The second wife of the French king Louis XIV, her grandfather was Agrippa d'Aubigné, the Huguenot hero. The family spent some years in Martinique, but upon her father's death she and her mother returned to France. Although baptized a Roman Catholic, the child was educated by a Protestant aunt. Later cared for by Catholic relatives, she became a very devout Catholic. At 16 she married the poet Paul Scarron and became a figure in the literary and intellectual world of Paris. After his death in 1660 the queen mother continued the poet's pension to his widow, and later Mme de Montespan obtained a pension for her. She became (1669) the governess for the children of Mme de Montespan and the king and gradually supplanted Mme de Montespan in the esteem and affections of Louis XIV, who made her a marquise. Mme de Maintenon exercised considerable influence over Louis and greatly lifted the moral tone of the court, although the ascription to her of Louis's mistakes (particularly the revocation of the Edict of Nantes) is an exaggeration. The queen, Marie Thérèse, was devoted to her and died in her arms. In 1684 she was morganatically married to the king. In her later years Mme de Maintenon gave much of her attention to the famous school of Saint-Cyr, which she had founded for the daughters of poor but noble families. She also wrote remarkable essays and letters dealing with education.
BkI:Chap1:Sec11 Her school at Saint-Cyr.
Capital of the Rhineland-Palatinate, West Germany, a port on the east bank of the Rhine River opposite the mouth of the Main River. Its French name is Mayence. Mainz is one of the great historical cities of Germany. It grew on the site of the Roman camp of Maguntiacum, or Mogontiacum (founded 1st cent. BC). The city was (746–47) the seat of the first German archbishop, St. Boniface (c.675–754). The later archbishops acquired considerable territory around Mainz and in Franconia, on both sides of the Main, which they ruled as princes of the Holy Roman Empire. Very early they received a vote in the imperial elections and had precedence over the other Electors; they crowned the German kings. From the 16th cent., with the emperors-elect, the archbishops-electors were ex officio arch-chancellors of the Holy Roman Empire. Under the rule of the archbishops-electors Mainz flourished as a commercial and cultural centre. Johann Gutenberg (c.1397–1468) lived in Mainz, which he made the first printing centre of Europe. Occupied in 1792 by the French, the city was ceded to France by the treaties of Campo-Formio (1797) and Lunéville (1801), and the archbishopric was secularized and reduced to a diocese in 1803. The last archbishop, K. T. von Dalberg, became (1806) prince-primate of the Confederation of the Rhine. The Congress of Vienna made (1815) Mainz a federal fortress of the German Confederation and awarded it, with Rhenish Hesse, to the grand duchy of Hesse-Darmstadt. The city was made (1816) the provincial capital of Rhenish Hesse.
BkXIX:Chap13:Sec1 Ceded to the French (as Mayence) in 1797.
BkXX:Chap6:Sec1 Napoleon there in 1806.
1771-1840. General under Napoleon, he was a Peer of France under Louis XVIII, and Governor of Paris, a Marshal of France under Charles X, and ambassador to Venice (1831) and St Petersburg (1833) under Louis-Philippe, and finally Minister of War in 1835.
BkXXII:Chap 21:Sec1 Met Louis XVIII landing at Calais in April 1814. He was made a Marshal in 1829 for his action leading the expedition to the Morea.
He was secretary to Deshayes in 1647.
Maitland, Rear Admiral Sir Frederick Lewis,
1777-1839. A Naval commander, he was born in Rankeilour (near Cupar, Fife), the son of a naval Captain, who had fought much of the Seven Years War in the West Indies, and grandson of Charles Maitland, the 6th Earl of Lauderdale. Maitland began his naval career at the age of 8, as servant to his father who was, by that time, Captain of the Royal Yacht Princess Augusta. He was a Midshipman by the age of 16, Lieutenant by 18, Commander by 22 and Captain of his own ship by 24. He served in the Mediterranean, supported General Sir Ralph Abercromby (1734 - 1801) at Aboukir Bay, but also in Canada, America and the West Indies. While in command of HMS Bellerophon, he took Napoleon on board at Rochefort (France) after the Hundred Days. Maitland went on to be promoted to Admiral (1830), knighted (1831) and ended his career (and his life) as Commander-in-Chief in the East Indies. He acquired an estate at Lindores through his wife’s family and built a country house there.
On March 1, 1808, Napoleon established a legal system of titles, but the word ‘nobility’ is not used anywhere in the legal texts, and no privileges were attached to it. Nevertheless, in common parlance it is often called nobility (‘noblesse d’Empire’). Titles were created by Letters Patent of the Emperor, or, for the most part, were automatic and came with certain positions. However, the titles did not become hereditary until certain conditions were met (in particular the constitution by the grantee of an endowment in land to be attached to the title, the majorat), and a newly created Conseil du Sceau des Titres was in charge of verifying compliance.
Majorien, Emperor Julius Valerius Majorianus
d. 461. Soldier, Western Emperor from 457, he campaigned in Gaul, Italy and Spain.
Saint William of Malavalle (William X, Duke of Aquitania and Count of Poitiers) supporter of anti-pope Anacletus II, was converted by Bernard of Clairvaux. He withdrew to Malavalle di Castiglione della Pescaia, an isolated valley in Tuscany in Siennese territory, to live a hermit’s life. He died in 1157, and was canonized in 1202.
Malcolm, Admiral Sir Pulteney
1768-1838. The Naval Commander at St Helena, replacing Cockburn, he was a friend of Walter Scott. He entered the navy in 1778. He distinguished himself by his support of Nelson against the French fleet in the West Indies in 1805. Promoted to Rear Admiral, he was given command of a convoy carrying troops to America in 1813. Malcolm was involved in the British attack on Washington DC, the battle of Baltimore, and the battle of New Orleans. He returned to duty in the North Sea, providing naval support for the army under Wellington. He was made commander on the St. Helena station, maintaining a blockade of the island to guard Napoleon. He completed his active naval career with two terms as Commander in Chief of the Mediterranean between 1828 and his retirement in 1834.
Attorney-general to Louis XIV.
BkI:Chap1:Sec4 Signatory to the order granting rights to Christophe II in 1669.
Malesherbes, Chrétien-Guillaume de Lamoignon de
1721-1794. A leading figure of the pre-Revolutionary era in France. Minister of State under Louis XVI, he defended the King in front of the Convention. He was banished from court in 1771 for criticising the monarchy, but was guillotined as a Royalist, 22nd April 1794.
Preface:Sect1 Chateaubriand mentions meeting him.
BkIV:Chap13:Sec1 BkIX:Chap15:Sec1 His two daughters were Marie-Thérèse who married President de Rosanbo, and Françoise-Pauline who married Baron de Montboissier. His grand-daughter was Madame d’Aulnay. Sympathetic to the revolutionary ideals.
BkIX:Chap5:Sec1 Chateaubriand visits him again in Paris in 1792.
BkIX:Chap6:Sec2 In fact Malesherbes had married in 1749 the daughter of the financier Grimod de la Reynière. His second daughter’s mother-in-law, Madame de Montboissier was Charlotte Boutin, but not a daughter of Boutin of the Tivoli Gardens, rather the daughter of Charles-Robert Boutin, the Intendant of Guyenne.
BkX:Chap3:Sec1 Chateaubriand’s brother staying with him in Paris in January 1793.
BkX:Chap8:Sec1 Chateaubriand learnt of his death and those of his other relatives, executed on the 22nd of April 1794 at 5pm, in the Place de la Révolution.
BkXXI:Chap1:Sec1 Stumbled on leaving for the Tribunal.
Malestroit en Dol
A village in Brittany, it was part of the titled estates of Chateaubriand’s father.
Malet, Claude-François, General
1754-1812. Malet tried to overthrow Napoleon and was later executed. A member of an aristocratic family, Malet was disinherited for supporting the revolution. He was opposed to the crowning of Napoleon as emperor, and was accused of belonging to the Philadelphes, a secret Republican society. He was under house arrest at the time of his conspiracy, but disguised himself as a current general with a fictitious name, Lamotte, in order to free his co-conspirators from prison. He shot the governor of Paris in 1812 but got no closer to the emperor, and was captured, court-martialed and executed.
BkXXI:Chap5:Sec3 Napoleon made aware of the conspiracy in Russia.
Malfilâtre, Alexandre-Henri de
1757-1803. A Counsellor at the High Court of Brittany, he was a cousin of the poet.
Malfilâtre, Jacques-Charles-Louis de Clinchamp de
1732-1767. A French poet, he led a difficult and impoverished life in Paris. He left verse fragments of a translation of Virgil and a poem Narcisse dans l'île de Vénus (1769).
Malibran, Maria Felicita, Madame
1808-1836. Daughter of the tenor Manuel García, she began her brief but intense career at a very early age, making her debut in London in 1825 when she stood in for Giuditta Pasta in the Barbiere di Siviglia. Famous throughout the world for her performances in the operas of Rossini and Bellini, she was considered one of the greatest singers of the nineteenth century, thanks to her fine stage presence and a voice (soprano, mezzo-soprano, contralto) with extraordinary extension. She died in Manchester, England, at the age of twenty-eight, after a fall from a horse.
Mallet du Pan, Jacques
1749-1800. Born in Geneva, he left for Paris after the 1782 Revolution. A Royalist partisan, he was editor/writer of the Mercure de Paris. He fled to Geneva, then in 1792 Brussels and finally England, where he was an effective counter-revolutionary agent.
Malleville, Claude de
1597-1647. A French poet, he became Secretary to the King.
Malmaison (Rueil-Malmaison), France
Located six miles outside Paris, on Josephine’s initiative the château was purchased by Napoleon in 1799 and transformed by the architects Percier and Fontaine into what was to become the couple’s preferred residence during the entire Consulate period. Although Josephine was occasionally elsewhere during the first years of the Empire, Malmaison became her refuge after the divorce in 1809 and it was here that she died in 1814.
BkXXII:Chap 23:Sec1 Used for receptions for the foreign sovereigns in 1814.
BkXXIII:Chap18:Sec2 Napoleon writes from there in June 1815.
BkXXIII:Chap19:Sec1 Napoleon retires there after his second abdication.
The modern Maladzechna in the Minsk province of Belarus, it is located on the Usza River, and has been a settlement since 1388 when it was part of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania.
BkXXI:Chap7:Sec1 Napoleon’s 29th Bulletin is headed from there, dated December 3rd 1812.
Maloyaroslavec (Malojaroslavets), Russia
A town near Moscow, on the Luzh River, it was where Eugène’s corps won a battle on 24th October 1812 during the retreat from Moscow. French casualties were about 5,000, including Delzons killed, while the Russians lost 6,000. Strategically, though not tactically, it was a victory for the Russians.
BkXXI:Chap5:Sec1 Taken during the French retreat.
Born in Glamorgan, Wales c487. A disciple of Saint Brendan. The British Saint Aaron crossed into Armorica (Brittany) and lived as a hermit on the island of Cesambre, called Saint Aaron until 1150 and now Saint Malo. Eventually Aaron was joined by a group of disciples and became their abbot. Among the disciples was Saint Malo, who arrived from Wales c538 and was warmly welcomed.
BkI:Chap4:Sec3 Malo’s building of a church on the island.
Malouët, Pierre Victor, Baron
1740-1814. French publicist and politician, born at Riom (Puy-de-Dôme), he entered the civil service and was employed in Lisbon, San Domingo, and in France under Napoleon, who created him Baron, and the first Restoration when he became Commissary of the Navy. He had previously emigrated to England in September 1792.
BkXXII:Chap 24:Sec1 Commissary of the Navy in 1814.
Malouine Islands, The Falklands
The Falkland Islands were first sighted by English navigator John Davis of the ‘Desire’ in 1592. They were re-identified by another English navigator Sir Richard Hawkins in 1594 who named them ‘Hawkins Maydenlande’ after himself and Queen Elizabeth. The first recorded landing by the British on the Falkland Islands occurred in 1690. The name ‘Falkland's Land’ was given to the whole archipelago in 1708 by Captain Woode Rogers, an English privateer who was later made Governor of Jamaica. The first settlement was established in February 1764 by the French nobleman, Antoine Louise de Bougainville, who named the Islands ‘Isles Malouines’ after Saint-Malo, the port from which the expedition set out. Bougainville dreamt of founding a new colony for the Acadians who had been expelled from Canada to Saint-Malo. He chose the Falkland Islands because he believed their remote location would protect the colonists from harassment. In 1766 Political expediency forced the French to accede to Spanish demands that France abandon the colony, which the Spanish claimed contravened both the papal bull of 1494 and the recently signed 'Family Pact'. Bougainville was instructed to sign away the colony in return for £25,000 and reimbursement of the expenses which he had incurred in setting it up. The formal act of cession was carried out at Fort St. Louis (renamed Port Soledad or Port Solitude by the Spanish) on 1 April 1767 in the presence of Bougainville and a small contingent of Spanish settlers lead by the new Governor of the ‘Islas Malvinas’ Don Felipe Ruiz Puente. The disputed islands (claimed successively by Britain, France, Spain, and Argentina) were reclaimed by the British during the mid-nineteenth century, and subsequently defended against invasion.
BkI:Chap4:Sec5 Named by Bougainville after Saint-Malo.
Malta, Order of
The Sovereign Military Hospitaller Order of St. John of Jerusalem of Rhodes and of Malta (commonly known as the “Order of Malta”) is a lay, religious order of the Catholic Church, founded in Jerusalem during the eleventh century. With the Bull of 15 February 1113, Pope Paschal II approved the foundation of the Hospital and placed it under the aegis of the Holy See, granting it the right to freely elect its superiors without any interference by other secular or religious authorities. The Order first settled in Cyprus, then Rhodes, after the abandonment of the Holy Land, and driven from Rhodes established itself in Malta which it defended from Sultan Soliman in the great siege of 1530. Its fleet contributed to the Battle of Lepanto in 1571 which destroyed Ottoman naval power. The Order was forced to leave Malta in 1798 when Napoleon occupied the island, and the Order settled in Rome. The earliest members of the Order were drawn from throughout Europe. Most were of noble birth, being the younger sons of enfeoffed knights and other feudal lords. They belonged to one of three ranks, namely knights, who were of noble birth, chaplains, and serving brothers. Much later, the Order instituted the practice of investing as knights worthy gentlemen who, though not of noble birth, were received by the grace of the Grand Master.
BkI:Chap1:Sec3 Chateaubriand mentions his affiliation to the Order.
BkIX:Chap1:Sec1 Chateaubriand’s affiliation to the Order would have entitled him to certain benefices.
BkXIX:Chap14:Sec2 Napoleon landed there and seized the island on the 9th of June 1798.
BkXXXIX:Chap5:Sec1 Its churches.
Malte-Brun, Malte Conrad Bruun, called
1775-1826. A Danish geographer, living in Paris from 1802. He published a number of significant works on Geography and wrote for the Journal des Débats. First Secretary-general of the French Geographic Society from 1822-1824.
BkXIX:Chap9:Sec1 His news sheet, La Semaine.
He was a lawyer in the Court of Cassation, and one of Chateaubriand’s literary executors.
Mandelot, François de, Seigneur de Pacy, Vicomte de Chalon
d. 1588 Governor of Lyons at the time of the St Bartholomew’s Day Massacres in 1572. He was responsible for the Huguenot massacre there.
1750-c1810. Singer at the Opera Buffa. The baritone sang the role of Count Almaviva in Mozart’s The Marriage of Figaro. He later sang in Vienna, Venice, Naples and St. Petersburg.
A singer at the Opera Buffa, she was the wife of Stefano. The soprano sang Marcellina in the Marriage of Figaro. She was born in France, the daughter of a court official at Versailles, joining the newly formed Italian Opera company with him in Vienna in 1783. Her début with the Italian Opera company was as Madama Brillante in L'Italiana in Londra by Cimarosa. She also appeared as Britomarte in L'arbore di Diana by Vicente Martín y Soler - another opera to a libretto by Da Ponte.
Slave soldiers who converted to Islam and served the Muslim caliphs and the Ottoman Empire. Over time they became a powerful military caste, and on more than one occasion they seized power for themselves, for example in Egypt from 1250 to 1517. Napoleon defeated Mameluke troops when he attacked Egypt in 1798 and drove them to Upper Egypt.
d. 1801. An art collector from Friuli, whose wealth derived from a tobacco monopoly, he built up a fine collection (from 1748) displayed from 1787 in his palace (the Palazzo Venier renamed Palazzo Manfrin) in the Canareggio quarter. The collection mainly specialized in paintings from the Veneto. The collection was added to by his son, see Hobhouse’s journal and Byron’s Beppo: Stanzas 11-12. The collection was later sold and dispersed ( Paris 1870).
BkXXXIX:Chap7:Sec1 Chateaubriand visits the gallery.
1786-1835. Magistrate and Orator, Councillor at the Court of Cassation from 1827, he was Prefect of Police during the 1830 Revolution, having taken up his post in August 1829.
BkXXXII:Chap1:Sec1 Mentioned in 1830.
d. 1797. He was the last Doge of Venice. His tomb is in the church of Santa Maria Nazareth on the Grand Canal.
The Maniots (also known as Maniates) are the Greek inhabitants of the Mani Peninsula in southern Peloponnese in the Greek prefecture of Laconia. The peninsula itself is an extension of the Taygetus mountain range. The Maniots are deemed an ancient Greek people who descend from the Lacedaemonians (Spartans). They played a prominent part in the wars of Greek Independence.
BkXIX:Chap12:Sec2 Bonaparte writes to them.
A city in Germany. It is now the second largest city in the state of Baden-Württemberg after the capital Stuttgart. Mannheim is situated at the confluence of the rivers Rhine and Neckar, in the northwestern corner of the state of Baden-Württemberg.
BkXXXVIII:Chap7:Sec1 Chateaubriand on his way there in June 1833.
BkXXXVIII:Chap8:Sec1 Chateaubriand there in June 1833. Mannheim gold is a kind of brass made in imitation of gold. It contains eighty percent copper and twenty percent zinc.
It was the site of an Egyptian canal project.
Mansfield, Frederica Markham Murray, Lady
1774-1860. Society hostess.
Manso, Giambattista, Marchese della Villa
1560-1645. Founder of the College of nobles at Naples, he published a Life of Tasso.
A city of northern Italy south-southwest of Verona, it was originally an Etruscan settlement, was ceded to Austria in 1714 and was finally returned to Italy in 1866.
BkXIX:Chap12:Sec1 Napoleon took the strategic Austrian fortress there finally after a long siege on 2nd February 1797.
BkXX:Chap1:Sec1 The second siege of Mantua in 1799.
1775-1827. French politician and orator, he left the army in 1797 to become a lawyer. In 1814 he was chosen a member of the Chamber of Representatives, and in 1815 he urged the claim of Napoleon’s son to the French throne and protested against the restoration of the Bourbons. After this event he actively opposed the government, his eloquence making him the foremost orator among the members of the Left. In February 1823 his opposition to the proposed expedition into Spain to help Ferdinand VII against his rebellious subjects produced a tumult in the Assembly. Manuel was expelled, but he refused to accept this sentence, and force was employed to remove him.
BkXXIII:Chap18:Sec2 His support for Napoleon’s son and his claims.
BkXXVIII:Chap14:Sec1 His death in 1827.
1785–1873, An Italian novelist and poet, in 1821–27, under the influence of Sir Walter Scott, Manzoni produced his most famous work, I promessi sposi (translated as The Betrothed, 1827), a novel of 16th-century Milan, that reveals a detailed understanding of Italian life and remains one of Italy’s most enduring novels. By 1875, 118 editions had appeared, and the work was widely translated.
BkXXIV:Chap11:Sec1 His ode on the death of Napoleon entitled: ‘Il cinque maggio’ (1821)
BkXXXIV:Chap14:Sec1 See the second plague in Milan in The Betrothed of 1827.
BkXXXVIII:Chap8:Sec1 See his tragedy of 1820-1822 Adelchi IV:1 lines 15-16. ‘Sento una pace! Stanca, foriera della tomba.’
BkXXXIX:Chap10:Sec1 See Adelchi IV:1 lines 98-102.
The château of Le Marais, near Saint-Chéron, forty kilometres south-west of Paris belonged to Madame La Briche.
1743-1793. A Swiss-born scientist and physician, who made much of his career in England, he is best known as a French Revolutionary. A member of the radical Jacobin faction he helped to launch the Reign of Terror. From a relatively early date, Marat advocated doing away with the monarchy and raged against more moderate revolutionary leaders. In July 1790 he wrote ‘Five or six hundred heads cut off would have assured your repose, freedom and happiness. A false humanity has held your arms and suspended your blows; because of this millions of your brothers will lose their lives.’ He approved of the September 1792 massacres of jailed ‘enemies of the Revolution’ and established the ‘Committee of Surveillance’ whose role was to root out antirevolutionaries. Marat composed the death lists from which the innocent and the guilty alike were executed. One of his victims may have been the chemist Antoine Lavoisier. He was stabbed in his bathtub by Charlotte Corday, a Girondist, in 1793.
BkIX:Chap3:Sec1 Publishing L’ami du people in early 1792 despite the decree against him.
BkIX:Chap3:Sec2 He and his friends described. He had achieved fame as a doctor, and in 1777, the comte d’Artois, afterwards Charles X of France, made him, by brevet, physician to his guards with 2000 livres a year and allowances.
BkXIX:Chap10:Sec1 His bust, by Bonvalet, was displayed in the council-chamber, and widely replicated as part of the cult following his death.
The site of the battle during the Greek-Persian Wars, in 490BC, it was where Miltiades and the Athenians defeated the Persians. Phidippides was sent to summon Spartan help (the Marathon distance) but the Spartans arrived too late to influence the battle.
BkVIII:Chap5:Sec2 Marathon, New York State.
BkXVIII:Chap3Sec5 The plains of Marathon in Greece.
Marbeuf, Charles-Louis-René, Comte de
1712-1786. A Breton general from a military family, born in Rennes, he rose to the rank of Brigadier before becoming gentleman-in-waiting to King Stanislas I of Poland. He was subsequently Governor of Corsica (1772-1786), where he died. James Boswell, Samuel Johnson’s biographer, stayed with him when visiting Corsica.
Marceau-Desgraviers, François-Séverin, General
1769-1796. A Revolutionary General, he joined in the storming of the Bastille on July 14, 1789. He took part in the defence of Verdun in 1792 and the defence of Saumur against the Vendéean Royalists, distinguishing himself at Saumur on 10 June 1793. With Kléber, he won important victories near Le Mans (December 12-13) and Savenay (23 December 1793). He took part in the 1795-1796 campaign with the armies of the Sambre and Meuse, fighting on the Rhine and the Lahn and distinguishing himself alongside Kléber near Neuwied and Sulzbach. In 1796, Jourdan and Jean Victor Moreau’s invasion of Germany ended in disaster and Marceau’s men covered Jourdan’s retreat over the Rhine. Marceau fought in the desperate actions on the Lahn (16-18 September 1796) until at Altenkirchen on September 19, he received a mortal wound. He died two days later. The Austrians competed with Marceau’s own countrymen to honour the dead general. His body was burned and the ashes placed under a pyramid in Koblenz designed by Kléber. They were transferred to the Panthéon in 1889.
BkXXII:Chap15:Sec1 A great general of the Republic.
Marcellus, Marie-Louis-Jean-André Demartin du Tyrac, Vicomte then Comte de
1795-1865. A Diplomat and writer, and a cultivated man he brought the Venus de Milo to France. He served in Constantinople from 1816-1820. He was the author of Souvenirs de L’Orient (1839), Twenty Days in Sicily (1841).
BkVI:Chap1:Sec1 Chateaubriand’s main confidante in London. Became First secretary and then chargés d’affaires at the time of the Congress of Vienna.
1800-1857. A Republican he was in 1830 secretary to the ‘Aide-toi’ society. ‘Aide-toi, le ciel t’aidera: Aid yourself, and Heaven will aid you’ was founded by Guizot in 1827, its President in 1830 being Barrot a moderate Republican who favoured a Constitutional monarchy hedged by Republcian institutions.
BkXXXII:Chap4:Sec1 His arrest ordered but not carried out on 28th July 1830.
BkXXXII:Chap16:Sec1 At the Palais-Royal on the 31st of July 1830.
1785-1864. A Deputy from 1827, he used the telegraph to consolidate the new regime’s grip on France. Re-elected 1831-1834 and 1837-1845.
BkXXXII:Chap8:Sec1 Named as Commissioner for Telegraphic Services of the Municipal Commission, 29th July 1830.
Marchand or Le Marchand, Abbé
A teacher at Rennes college.
Marchand, Louis Joseph, Comte
1791-1876. Napoleon’s head valet on St Helena, and an executor of his will. He joined the Imperial service in 1811, remained loyal to Napoleon and retired to France after Napoleon’s death, where he married in 1823. Napoleon made him a Count on his death-bed, an act ratified in 1869 by Napoleon III. He participated in the ceremonial return of Napoleon’s remains in 1840. His Memoirs were published in 1955.
Marche, Jean-François de la, Comte de Léon, Bishop of Saint-Pol-de-Léon
1729-1805. Royalist reactionary.
BkXI:Chap2:Sec4 Emigrated to London.
1768-1821. Exiled in France because of his unorthodox views, he collaborated with Marat for a time. He was expelled after Fructidor (1797) for his counter-revolutionary views. He is known as a translator and for his erotic Latin pastiches.
BkXIX:Chap11:Sec1 His pamphlets.
c1254-1324. A Venetian traveller, he journeyed with his uncle Niccolo Polo and his uncle Maffeo Polo who had made a trip to Beijing (Peking) in 1260-1269, in 1271. He entered the Mongol Emperor, Kublai Khan’s service there and conducted missions to South India. He left China in 1292. He subsequently fought for the Venetians against the Genoese, was captured, and in prison (1296-1298) dictated his account of his travels, which remained a major source of knowledge on the East until the 19th century.
BkXL:Chap1:Sec1 Chateaubriand attributes him with a 27 year trip.
Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Augustus Caesar
121-180. He was the last of the ‘Five Good Emperors’ who governed the Roman Empire from 96 to 180, and is also considered one of the most important Stoic philosophers.
Maréchal, see Keith, Lord
The Battle of Marengo witnessed the defeat of the Austrians on 14 June 1800 by a French army under Napoleon, during his Italian campaign, near the village of Marengo in Piedmont, Italy. It was one of Napoleon’s most significant victories and resulted in the Austrians ceding northern Italy to France.
BkVIII:Chap5:Sec2 Marengo County, Alabama.
Maret, Hughues-Bernard, Duc de Bassano
1763-1839. A French statesman and publicist, born at Dijon, he was a Feuillant. He helped to publish the Moniteur universel, which gained a wide reputation for correctness and impartiality. Representative of the Revolutionary Government in London and Naples. Secretary of State to Napoleon, the Moniteur became the official journal of State. Made a Minister 1804, and a Duke 1809. Remained as private secretary to Napoleon through 1814-1815. Exiled after the second Restoration, he retired to Gratz. Returned to France in 1820. After the 1830 Revolution he was made a Peer by Louis-Philippe. He was noted for his loyalty to Napoleon, his moderation, sense, and hard-work.
BkXXII:Chap15:Sec1 He takes Chateaubriand’s pamphlet to Napoleon in 1814.
BkXXIII:Chap18:Sec2 With Napoleon after the Hundred Days.
Marguerite d’Écosse, Margaret of Scotland
c1418-1445. Daughter of James I of Scotland, she married Louis XI of France in 1436.
Marguerite de France, Duchesse de Berry
1523-1574. Daughter of Francis I of France and his first wife Claude of France, the daughter of Louis XII and Anne de Bretagne. Marguerite married Emmanuel Philibert, Duke of Savoy. Their only child was Charles Emmanuel I of Savoy.
1492-1549. Margaret of Angoulême was queen consort of Navarre, and sister of King Francis I of France. After the death of her first husband she married (1527) Henri d’Albret, king of Navarre; their daughter was Jeanne d’Albret. Margaret was an ardent supporter of religious liberty and mild church reform. Her brilliant court at Navarre was frequented by literary men, among them Étienne Dolet, Clément Marot, and François Rabelais. A writer herself, she is best known for the Heptaméron (1558), an original collection of 72 stories in the manner of Boccaccio. She also wrote plays and poems.
Marguerite de Provence
c1221-1295. A daughter of Raymond Berenger IV, Count of Provence, and Beatrice of Savoy. She was queen consort of Louis IX, Saint Louis. Her older sister Sanchia of Provence became the Queen consort of Richard, Earl of Cornwall and rival King of the Germans. Her sister of similar age Beatrice of Provence was the Queen consort of Charles I of Sicily. Her younger sister Eleanor of Provence became the Queen consort of Henry III of England. See Dante’s Paradiso Canto VI:112 for a famous mention of Raymond and his four daughters ‘every one a queen’.
BkIV:Chap13:Sec1 Noted for her beauty.
Marguerite de Valois
1553-1615. Queen of France and Navarre, she was the daughter of King Henry II of France and of Catherine de’ Medici. She was known as Queen Margot. Her wedding (1572) with Henry, Protestant king of Navarre (later Henry IV of France), which was intended to mark the peace between Roman Catholics and Protestants, instead was a prelude to the massacre of Protestants on Saint Bartholomew’s Day. The marriage was one of mutual toleration. Margaret took part in the intrigues of her husband and her brother Francis, duke of Alençon and Anjou. In 1583 her brother King Henry III exiled her from Paris because of her promiscuous conduct. Estranged from both her husband and her brother, she took up arms against them and seized Agen. She was taken prisoner by royal troops (1586) and confined at the castle of Usson, but she soon became mistress of the castle. Although sympathetic with the Catholic League, she took little part in the succeeding troubles. She refused to agree to Henry IV’s demand for the annulment of their marriage so he could marry his mistress, Gabrielle d’Estrées, although she finally consented (1599) to the annulment after Gabrielle’s death. In her retirement at Usson (1587–1605), she maintained a small court, in which men of letters were prominent. She spent her last years in Paris. See Dumas’ ‘Queen Margot’.
She was a maidservant in the London Embassy in 1822.
Maria-Christina of Bourbon, Princess of the Two Sicilies, Queen of Spain
1806-1878. Queen Consort of Spain (1829 to 1833), Queen Regent of Spain (1833 to 1840). Maria Christina was the fourth wife of her uncle King Ferdinand VII of Spain.
BkXXXI:Chap2:Sec1 Married in 1829.
Marie-Antoinette, Queen of France
1755-1793. Daughter of Francis I, and Maria Theresa, she was the wife (from 1770) of Louis the Dauphin (Louis XVI of France) and Queen from 1774-1793, her extravagance, alleged immorality, and uncompromising attitude to the Revolution contributed to the monarchy’s demise. She was guillotined on the 16th October 1793.
BkV:Chap3:Sec1 The affair of the Queen’s necklace was a scandal that took place at court just before the Revolution. An adventuress who called herself the comtesse de La Motte duped Cardinal de Rohan, the grand almoner, who was out of favour with the queen, into believing that she could regain the queen’s regard for him. Mme de La Motte and her accomplices then engineered a sham correspondence between the cardinal and the queen and even arranged an interview between him and a woman impersonating the queen. In the interview the cardinal was led to believe that the queen wished to acquire a diamond necklace of enormous value and that she had chosen him as her confidential agent. When Rohan obtained the necklace from the jewellers, he turned it over to the Comtesse; her husband took it to London, where it was broken up for sale. The affair became public after Rohan failed to meet the payments to the jewellers. The cardinal was arrested and tried by the parlement; he was acquitted but lost his position in court. Mme de La Motte was punished and imprisoned, but she escaped to London, where she wrote her highly questionable memoirs. Alessandro Cagliostro, at first suspected of complicity, was acquitted. The queen, noted for her extravagance and frivolity, was unjustly implicated in the affair; her enemies hinted that she had schemed to ruin the cardinal or that she had used her favour to obtain the necklace and then refused to pay. The scandal added greatly to her unpopularity at a critical time. A vast literature grew around the subject, notably Dumas’ romance The Queen’s Necklace and Carlyle’s Diamond Necklace.
BkV:Chap10:Sec1 Appeared at the provocative banquet given by the Guardes du Corps for the officers of the Flanders Regiment, on 1st October 1789.
BkVI:Chap1:Sec1 The anniversary of her death on the 16th October.
BkXXII:Chap 25:Sec1 Her remains exhumed 18th January 1815.
Marie-Caroline, see Berry
Maria Christine, Albertina Carolina of Saxony
1779-1851. She married the Prince de Carignan, Charles-Emmanuel of Savoy. After his death in 1800 she married again. Her son Charles-Albert became King of Piedmont-Sardinia in 1831.
Maria-Christina, Johana Josephe Antonie of Austria, Archduchess
1742-1798. Called ‘Mimi’, she was the fourth daughter and fifth child of Maria Theresa of Austria and Francis I, Holy Roman Emperor. She is buried in the Tuscan Vault of the Imperial Crypt in Vienna, along with her husband and daughter. The famous and moving monument sculpted by Canova, her husband erected to her memory, is in the Augustinerkirche.
Maria-Fedorovna, Sophie Marie Dorothea Auguste Louise of Württemberg
1759-1828. The second wife of Paul I of Russia.
BkXXIX:Chap13:Sec4 She died on the 4th of November 1828. The reference is to the Decembrist conspiracy which broke out in December 1825, and resulted in the executions of 13th January 1826.
Marie de France
Late 12th century. A poetess born in France according to her works, she later lived in England. She wrote a form of continental French that was copied by Anglo-Norman scribes.
BkXLII:Chap6:Sec1 The langue d’Oïl is the linguistic and historical designation of the Gallo-Romance languages which originated in the northern territories of Roman Gaul now occupied by northern France, part of Belgium and the Channel Islands. It takes its name from the word for ‘yes’, now pronounced oui.
Marie-Louise, Empress of the French, Duchess of Parma
1791-1847. She was Marie Louise Léopoldine Françoise Thérèse Joséphine Lucie, the daughter of Emperor Francis I of Austria. Empress of the French (1810–15) as consort of Napoleon I she was also duchess of Parma, Piacenza, and Guastalla (1816–47). She was the mother of Napoleon II. When Napoleon I was defeated (1814), she fled to Vienna. Her duchies were awarded to her at the Congress of Vienna; she ruled them ineptly from Parma, with the assistance of her lover, Count Adam Adalbert von Neipperg, whom she married morganatically in 1821. After his death (1829) she married the Comte de Bombelles.
BkXX:Chap9:Sec3 BkXX:Chap10:Sec1 She married Napoleon by proxy in the church of St. Augustine, Vienna, on the 11th of March 1810 after delays due to the divorce from Josephine. Her son the future King of Rome, and ultimately Duc de Reichstadt was born on March 20th 1811.
BkXXI:Chap2:Sec1 She sent their son’s portrait to Napoleon in Russia in 1812.
BkXXIII:Chap13:Sec1 She remained in Vienna despite Napoleon’s return from Elba.
BkXXIV:Chap11:Sec2 Napoleon ordered on his death-bed that she was to receive his heart.
Marie-Stuart, see Mary Stuart
Marie-Thérèse, Empress Maria Teresa
1717-1780. The first and only female head of the Habsburg dynasty, she was Archduchess of Austria, Queen of Hungary and Bohemia, and ruler of other territories from 1740 until her death. She also became the Holy Roman Empress when her husband was elected Holy Roman Emperor.
BkXX:Chap10:Sec1 The Military Order of Maria Theresa (Militär-Maria-Theresien-Orden in German) was an Order of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, founded on June 18, 1757, the day of the Battle of Kolin, by the Empress to reward especially meritorious and valorous acts by a commissioned officer.
Marie-Thérèse Infirmary, Paris
Founded in 1819 by Chateaubriand’s wife in Paris, for aged priests and widows, and named after the sister of the Duc D’Enghien. It was sited originally at 92 Rue Denfert-Rochereau (then Rue d’Enfer, the Chateaubriands lived at the present 88), then in addition 261-285 Boulevard Raspail (next to the present Cartier Foundation building, where there is a Cedar of Lebanon planted by Chateaubriand in 1823). See Balzac Ferragus, Ch. V. The Infirmary was transferred to the Archbishopric of Paris in 1836 and Céleste de Chateaubriand was buried in the Infirmary chapel in 1847.
BkXXXIV:Chap12:Sec1 Chateaubriand writes from there in December 1831.
BkXXXVI:Chap1:Sec1 Mentioned in 1833. The Foundlings Hospital is that of Saint-Vincent de Paul. The boulevard is now Boulevard Raspail.
Marignan, Battle of
On 13th-14th September 1515, near the village of Melegnano on the Lambro, 10 miles south-east of Milan, Francis I defeated the Swiss mercenary troops supporting the Duke of Milan, and was knighted by Bayard on the field of battle.
The château was seven miles north-west of Fougères, in Saint-Germain-en-Coglès. It served as an active centre for the Chouans, and under the restoration was transformed by the Pommereul family, who hosted Balzac there in 1828. As Vivetière it appears in Balzac’s Les Chouans. It was demolished after the First World War.
BkIV:Chap7:Sec1 Chateaubriand visits his sister there.
BkIV:Chap10:Sec1 The château was altered significantly after it was sold.
Marigny, François-Jean-Joseph-Geffelot, Comte de
d. 1793. Brother-in-law of Chateaubriand. Married Marie-Anne-Françoise de Chateaubriand 11th January 1780.
BkII:Chap3:Sec3 His marriage.
Marigny, Marie-Anne-Françoise de Chateaubriand, Comtesse de
1760-1860. Wife of François, sister of Chateaubriand. Born 4th July 1760. Married 1780. Widowed 1793. Died, aged over 100, on 17th July 1860.
BkI:Chap2:Sec1 Her birth.
BkII:Chap3:Sec3 Her marriage.
BkIV:Chap7:Sec1 Chateaubriand stayed with her.
BkXIII:Chap8:Sec1 Sought Chateaubriand out first on his return to France.
Marin, Louis de?, Le Chevalier
He was the leading harpist in 1802.
BkXXIX:Chap1:Sec2 Played Mozart with Madame Récamier in London in 1802, possibly a favourite Salon piece, the harp variations ‘O dolce contento’ (published later by Marin in 1810) based on an air from The Magic Flute.
1799?-d.after 1840. He wrote a Life of Chateaubriand published 1832.
BkXXXVIII:Chap7:Sec1 Mentioned, for its false claim that Chateaubriand was deformed.
Marion, Charles Stanislaus, Baron de, General
1758-1812. A Napoleonic General.
157-86BC. Roman general and politician elected Consul an unprecedented seven times during his career. He was also noted for his dramatic reforms of Roman armies, authorizing recruitment of landless citizens and reorganizing the structure of the legions into separate cohorts.
BkXXII:Chap 20:Sec3 He was exiled to Africa.
The disciple is considered the author of St Mark’s Gospel.
BkXXXIX:Chap18:Sec1 For Simon’s mother-in-law see Mark I:30-31
BkXXXIX:Chap21:Sec1 See Mark IV:39.
Marlborough, John Churchill, 1st Duke of
1650-1722. An English military officer during the War of the Spanish Succession, Marlborough is often considered the greatest military genius that Britain has produced.
Marmont, Auguste-Frédéric-Louis-Viesse de, Marshal of France, Duc de Raguse
1774-1852. He concluded a truce with Russia in 1814, and was regarded by Bonapartists as a traitor. He tried to suppress the 1830 Revolution, and escorted Charles X to Cherbourg in 1830.
BkXXII:Chap9:Sec1 Defending Paris in 1814.
BkXXII:Chap12:Sec1 He accepted the surrender of Paris in 1814.
BkXXIII:Chap3:Sec1 His agreement with Chateaubriand in 1815.
BkXXXII:Chap4:Sec1 Commanding for the King during the July Revolution.
BkXXXII:Chap2:Sec1 Chateaubriand refers to the incident when Marmont agreed the surrender of his corps with the Allies in March 1814, while previously defending Paris, an action Napoleon never forgave.
BkXXXII:Chap3:Sec1 He writes to the King on the 28th of July 1830.
BkXXXII:Chap5:Sec1 Active on the 29th of July.
1723-1799. A French poet, literary critic, novelist and historian, he entered the French Academy in 1763 as one of France’s principal ‘historiographers’. Marmontel’s reputation was largely extended after contributing many works of literature, and articles, notably in the Mercure and in the great Encyclopédie.
Marnes, Comtesse de, see Duchesse d’Angoulême
d. 37 AD. King of the Marcomanni, he organized a confederation of several Germanic tribes in about 9 BC to deal with the threat of Roman expansion into the Rhine-Danube basin. The Marcomanni formed a confederation with neighboring Germanic tribes in what are now Silesia and Saxony. He was the first historical ruler of Bohemia.
Marolles, Abbé Michel de
1600-1681. He was the son of an officer in the Royal Guard. Author of Mémoires (1656-1657). Abbé of Villeloin (Indre et Loire, 1626, effective 1630). He made a prose translation of Virgil (1649) and wrote a history of the Roman Emperors (1677). A notable collector of prints and engravings, his prints, gifted to the King in 1627, formed the core of the Cabinet des estampes.
BkIII:Chap1:Sec2 At the start of his Memoirs, Michel mentions acquiring the team of white horses, with a little carriage, later used by his mother to go to church.
1496-1544. The French Renaissance poet won the patronage of Francis I and Margaret of Navarre. Imprisoned for Reformationist heresy in 1526 he based his allegorical satire Enfer on the experience. Exiled from France for his Calvinist sympathies, he eventually died in Turin. He translated the Psalms into French for the Geneva Psalter
BkXXXIX:Chap13:Sec1 He was in exile in Venice July to November 1536.
The Roman war god, equivalent to the Greek Ares, was the son of Jupiter and Juno.
BkIII:Chap8:Sec1 His skill with weapons.
BkXLI:Chap2:Sec1 Tyr or Tiw was the Teutonic god of war, hence the equivalent of Mars.
Mars, Mademoiselle, Anne-François-Hippolyte Boutet-Monvel
1779-1847. French actress, the natural daughter of the actor-author named Monvel and Mlle Mars Salvetat, an actress whose southern accent had made her Paris debut a failure. Mlle Mars began her stage career in childrens’ parts, and by 1799, after the rehabilitation of the Comédie Française, she and her elder sister joined that company, of which she remained an active member for thirty-three years. Her beauty and talent soon placed her at the top of her profession. She was incomparable in ingenue parts, and equally charming as a coquette. Molière, Marivaux, Sedaine, and Beaumarchais had no more accomplished interpreter, and in her career of half a century, besides many comedy roles of the older repertoire, she created fully a hundred parts in plays which owed success largely to her. For her farewell performance she selected Elmire in Tartuffe, and Silvia in Jeu de lamour et du hasard, two of her most popular roles; and for her benefit, a few days after, Climne in Le Misanthrope and Araminthe in Les Femmes savantes. She retired in 1841.
The principal French seaport, capital of the Bouches-du-Rhône department, it is flanked by limestone hills and overlooks the Gulf of Lions. Founded about 600BC it was destroyed by Arabs in the 9th century, redeveloped during the Crusades, and came under the French crown in 1481.
BkXIV:Chap2:Sec3 Chateaubriand was there in 1802. Its history. Notre-Dame de la Garde developed as a religious complex on the traditional look-out post of the Garde hill. Francis I fortified the hill, the first church was founded in 1241, and from the 16th century it became a site for pilgrimage and religious devotion. A large Basilica was later built in 1853.
BkXXXII:Chap16:Sec1 Mentioned. The Marseillaise, written by Rouget de Lisle, first called the Chant de la guerre pour l’armée du Rhin when published at Strasbourg, became known by its present title when published by the Marseilles Federalists in Paris. It was banned for a time by Napoleon and after the Restoration.
BkXIX:Chap18:Sec1 Subject to Corsair raids from the Barbary Coast/ Algiers.
BkXXXIV:Chap14:Sec1 The plague there in 1720 and 1721. The Église Notre Dame des Accoules, in the Accoules quarter of the city, was built in the 12th Century and modified in the 14th and 17th Centuries. It was mostly destroyed during the Revolution for hosting meetings of the Sections who were outraged by the Convention. The fine belltower, built above an older square tower, remains. Phocea was an Ionian Greek city near Izmir from which Marseilles, the Roman Massilia, was founded traditionally around 600BC.
Martha of Bethany
Martignac, Jean-Baptiste Sylvère Gay, Vicomte de
1776-1832. A French statesman, he was elected (1821) to the chamber of deputies and was named a member of the council of state in 1822. In 1828 he was made minister of the interior and virtual head of the new cabinet by King Charles X after the fall of the ministry of the Comte de Villèle. Martignac’s cabinet, composed of both liberals and reactionaries, was ineffective; his liberal reforms were killed by the ultra-royalists. The king had never liked Martignac’s moderate concessions to the liberals and in 1829 dismissed him and appointed the reactionary Prince de Polignac to succeed him.
BkXXXII:Chap9:Sec1 President of the Council 1828.
BkXXXI:Chap1:Sec1 Mentioned in 1829.
A character in Voltaire’s Candide.
316-367. A bishop of Tours whose shrine became a famous stopping-point for pilgrims on the road to Santiago de Compostela. His miraculous cloak was preserved among the relics gathered by the Merovingian kings of the Franks.
BkXXXIX:Chap1:Sec1 His cloak mentioned.
Martinez de la Rosa, Francisco
1787-1862, Spanish dramatic poet, statesman, and historian. He was an outspoken liberal professor of philosophy, a deputy, and an ambassador. His major plays include La conjuración de Venecia [the conspiracy of Venice] (1834), a landmark of the romantic theatre in Spain; Abén Humeya (in French, 1830, Span. tr. 1836); and the neoclassic Edipo [Oedipus] (1829). Among his poems the best known are the elegy entitled Epístola al duque de Frias and El recuerdo de la patria [memory of our country]. Martínez de la Rosa also wrote historical novels and political histories.
Preface:Sect1 Chateaubriand mentions meeting him.
A work by Chateaubriand entitled Les Martyrs ou le triomphe de la religion chrétienne (1809).
BkXII:Chap4:Sec2 The quotation is from Book IV.
BkXIII:Chap7:Sec2 The question is asked by Paul, of Eudore, in Book XI, a reference to the Lives of the Desert Fathers.
BkXVIII:Chap6:Sec1 It went on sale on the 27th of March 1809. The third edition with major corrections was published in January 1810, the fourth in September 1822. The definitive edition is that in the Complete Works of 1826-7.
BkXIX:Chap16:Sec2 The reference is to Book XI.
Mary, the Virgin
Traditionally she was the mother of Jesus Christ.
BkIII:Chap8:Sec1 Pictures of her in church.
Mary of Bethany
An eastern seaboard state. One of the 13 original colonies it was first settled by the English. It was granted in 1632 to George Calvert, 1st Baron Baltimore by Charles I and named after his wife Henrietta Maria. It became a refuge for Catholics under the 2nd Baron Baltimore.
BkVI:Chap6:Sec1 Chateaubriand’s ship becalmed off the coast in 1791.
Marylebone (High) Street, London
Located in the City of Westminster, London, south of the Marylebone Road and running into Paddington Street.
BkX:Chap6:Sec2 Chateaubriand lodged by Saint-George’s cemetery (1731-1857) off Paddington Street, near Paddington Street Gardens. Body-snatching (for anatomical dissection) was a common problem at the time.
1725-1797. English poet, editor and gardener, he was born in Hull and studied at St John’s College, Cambridge. He was ordained in 1754 and held a number of posts in the church. Among his works, none of them highly regarded today, are the historical tragedies Elfrida (1752) and Caractacus (1759) and a long poem on gardening, The English Garden (three volumes, 1772-82). His garden designs included one for the 2nd Earl of Harcourt.
The Duchy of Massa and Carrara controlled the towns of Massa di Carrara and Carrara; the area is now part of unified Italy, but retains its local identity as the province of Massa-Carrara. It lies in the north-west of Tuscany and passed to the Duke of Modena in 1814. The Duchesse de Berry lived there from the start of 1832.
Masséna, André, Duc de Rivoli, Prince d’Essling, Marshal of France
1756-1817. He fought in Napoleon’s Italian campaign, winning an important victory at Rivoli in 1797. He subsequently defeated the Russians in Switzerland in 1799, fought again in Italy, and against the Austrians, 1809-10. He was defeated by Wellington in the Peninsular War, and was relieved of his command.
BkXXIII:Chap1:Sec1 On the evening of 3rd March 1815 he sent a courier from Marseilles to Lyons carrying the news of Napoleon’s landing from Elba, it was passed by telegraph to Paris and arrived in the King’s hands late on the morning of the 6th. The Moniteur published the news on the 7th. Note the skilful literary use of the delay (and the innovation of the telegraph) in Dumas’: The Count of Monte Cristo.
BkXXIII:Chap3:Sec1 Devious in his dealings with the monarchy in 1815.
BkXXIII:Chap18:Sec2 Speaking in the Chamber of Peers in June 1815.
Masseria, Philippe (Antonio Filippo)
1739-1814. A nationalist who acted as a British secret agent in the Corsican nationalist movement, the friend and confidante of Paoli. He was President from 1790 of the Jacobin Club in Ajaccio, and helpful to Napoleon.
BkXIX:Chap7:Sec1 His praise of Napoleon’s pamphlet.
1663-1742. Bishop of Clermont from 1717. He was celebrated for his preaching, especially at the courts of Louis XIV and Louis XV. Collections of his sermons include a series for Advent and a series for Lent.
BkII:Chap3:Sec4 His sermons on the Adulteress and the Prodigal Son.
BkIII:Chap7:Sec2 His verbal portraits depicting the effects of passion.
Massimo, Prince Camillo VII of Arsari
1730-1801. Father of Princess Lancellotti.
Battle of, 1250. At this battle, the Egyptian army under Turan Shah defeated the armies of the Seventh Crusade commanded by Louis IX, King of France, who was taken captive and imprisoned in Dar bin Luqman in Mansurah, near Cairo.
1101-1169. Daughter of Henry I of England. Married Geoffrey V (Plantagenet) of Anjou. After much internecine warfare, her son Henry II became King.
Matignon, Madame de
Angelique-Elisabeth le Tonnelier de Breteuil, married the Comte de Gracé, Louis Charles Auguste de Goyon-Matignon in 1772. She was the mother of the Duchesse de Montmorency.
One of the twelve apostles in the New Testament, he was a tax-collector who became a follower of Jesus. According to tradition he preached in Judea, Ethiopia and Persia, and suffered martyrdom. His gospel draws material from that of Saint Mark.
BkII:Chap6:Sec2 Chateaubriand alludes to Matthew XVI.19
BkIII:Chap12:Sec1 Chateaubriand alludes to Matthew XX.12. ‘unto us which have borne the burden and heat of the day.’
BkXXIII:Chap3:Sec1 The reference is to Matthew IX.6.
BkXXIV:Chap11:Sec1 See Matthew IV.7, also Luke IV.12.
BkXXXV:Chap1:Sec1 See Matthew V.7.
BkXLII:Chap8:Sec1 See Matthew XXVII:30
Maubreuil, Marquis de
1782-1855. A French political adventurer, who was equerry to the King of Westphalia, he was implicated at the start of 1814, in a theft to the detriment of the Queen of Westphalia. He tried to exonerate himself by claiming he had been charged by Talleyrand and the Allies with liquidating Napoleon.
BkXXII:Chap 20:Sec3 Mentioned.
BkXLII:Chap8:Sec1 At Saint-Denis on 21st January 1827 he revenged himself on Talleyrand, whom he considered responsible for his arrest, and during the funeral service for Louis XVI struck him, knocking him to the ground.
He was a sergeant of the gendarmerie at Saint-Lô in 1809.
1785-1854. A Liberal lawyer he joined the Chamber of Deputies in 1827. He remained in opposition under Louis-Philippe.
Maunoir, le Père Julien
1606-1683. A revered seventeenth-century Jesuit, he was one of the most active missionaries of the Counter-Reformation in Brittany. He spent forty-two years traversing Brittany, recording his many missions in his Latin Journal.
BkI:Chap4:Sec8 Chateaubriand quotes him.
1714-1792. Chancellor of France (1768-74). He was president of the parlement of Paris before he succeeded his father as chancellor. He was the chief mover in the attempt of Louis XV to master the parlement and end its opposition to the fiscal measures needed to replenish the treasury. Maupeou dissolved (1771) all the parlements, exiled the magistrates from Paris, and abolished the sale of many offices. He then substituted a new high court (nominating all the members) and a system of superior courts. He became highly unpopular with the nobility, whose interests had been protected by the parlement. Louis XVI on his accession dismissed Maupeou and restored the old parlements. Although Maupeou's reforms have been regarded by many enlightened leaders as an act of tyranny, his measures, if Louis XVI had allowed them to stand, might have brought about enough fundamental reform to have prevented the fall of the monarchy.
Maupertuis, Pierre-Louis Moreau de
1698-1795. A mathematician, famous for his journey to northern Sweden to measure the meridian degree of the Arctic Circle, which established the slight flattening of the ice-cap. He was elected by Frederick II to the new Academy of Berlin, and lived at his court from 1745 to 1756.
Maurepas, Jean-Frédéric Phélypeaux, Comte de
1701-1781. On the accession of Louis XVI in 1774 he became a minister of state and Louis XVI’s chief adviser, a position he held until 1781.
Maxime, Sextus Quintilius Valerius Maximus?
He was the recipient of a letter from Pliny the Younger.
BkXXX:Chap12:Sec1 See Pliny’s Letters VIII:24.
Maximilien I, see Bavaria
Mayenne, Charles de Lorraine, Duc de
1554-1611. French Catholic general in the Wars of Religion, brother of Henri, 3d Duc de Guise, and Louis de Lorraine, Cardinal de Guise. After the murder of his brothers (1588), he became the head of the Catholic League. Defeated by Henry IV of France at Arques (1589) and Ivry (1590), he nevertheless raised Henry’s siege of Paris (1590). For a time he wielded almost royal power over the parts of France that supported the League. He became estranged from the pro-Spanish faction, which supported the claim to the French crown of the Spanish Infanta Isabella, a granddaughter of King Henry II of France. In 1596, Mayenne made his final peace with Henry IV, who had previously abjured.
A grotesque character representing the National Guard, a ‘hero of July’, created by Charles Traviès in 1831, and the subject of anecdotes and engravings..
Mazarin, Jules, Cardinal
1602-1661. A French statesman, cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church, born in Italy, his original name was Giulio Mazarini. After serving in the papal army and diplomatic service and as nuncio at the French court (1634–36), he entered the service of France and made himself valuable to King Louis XIII’s chief minister, Cardinal Richelieu, who brought him into the council of state. Although he had received only minor orders and had never been ordained a priest, he was raised to cardinal upon the recommendation of Louis XIII (1641). After the deaths of Richelieu (1642) and Louis XIII (1643), he was the principal minister of the regent, Anne of Austria. The theory that he was secretly married to the widowed queen has been widely credited. He won favourable terms for France in the Peace of Westphalia (1648), but his attempts to raise money through taxation and his centralizing policy provoked the troubles of the Fronde (1648–53), during which he was several times forced to leave France. After the defeat of the Fronde, Mazarin was securely in control of France. By clever diplomacy he strengthened the crown and negotiated the favourable Peace of the Pyrenees at the end of the war with Spain (1659).
BkXXV:Chap4:Sec1 More powerful in fact than the Regent or King.
A commune in the metropolitan area of Paris, it is located 25.5 miles east-northeast from the centre of Paris. Meaux is a sous-préfecture of the Seine-et-Marne département, being the seat of the Arrondissement of Meaux.
BkXXXVIII:Chap10:Sec1 Chateaubriand passes through in June 1833.
A city of western Saudi Arabia near the coast of the Red Sea, the birthplace of Muhammad, it is the holiest city of Islam, and a pilgrimage site for all devout believers of that faith.
BkXIX:Chap14:Sec2 The Ka’aba is a building located inside the mosque known as al-Masjidu’l-Ḥarām in Mecca. The mosque was built around the original Kaaba. The Kaaba is the holiest place in Islam.
Méchin, Alexandre, Baron
1772-1849. A Prefect from 1801 to 1814, he was a liberal Deputy from 1819, a translator of Juvenal, and a supporter of the Duc d’Orléans. He became Prefect of the North, then Councillor of State.
BkXXXII:Chap15:Sec1 At the Hôtel de Ville on the 31st of July 1830.
Mecklenburg is a geographical area located in Northern Germany. Its borders are the Baltic Sea to the north, the rivers of Recknitz and Trebel to the east, the Elbe river to the southwest, and Lower Saxony and Holstein to the west. The name derives from a castle named ‘Mikilenburg’ (Old German: ‘big castle’), located between the cities of Schwerin and Wismar. It was the ancestral seat of the House of Mecklenburg.
The mythological sorceress of Chalcis, she appears as a character in Corneille’s Medée.
BkXX:Chap12:Sec1 See Act I, Scene V: ‘Moi!/Moi, dis-je, et c’est assez.’
Megacci for Mattei (?), Alessandro
1744-1820. After the French occupation of Rome, he was named pro-datary on March 26, 1808. Expelled from Rome on June 10, 1809 by order of the French authorities as a reprisal for posting the bull of excommunication against Emperor Napoléon; he was exiled to Paris; he refused to attended Napoleon’s wedding to Archduchess Marie-Louise of Austria on April 2, 1810, and because of this he was prohibited by Napoleon from wearing the red cardinal’s habit and became one of the thirteen ‘black cardinals’.
BkXX:Chap9:Sec1 Mentioned? The name Megacci in the text is unknown.
Megara is a city in Greece, northeast of the Isthmus of Corinth in the modern Attiki region.
c1769-1849. An Albanian soldier in the service of Turkey, who was made viceroy of Egypt, and wrested control from the Ottoman Empire to establish Egypt as a modern state.
Several scenes in Rousseau’s best-seller, La Nouvelle Héloïse, are set in Meillerie, a village on the edge of Lake Léman, close to Evian, which became a romantic place of pilgrimage for tourists.
BkXXVIII:Chap10:Sec1 Chateaubriand there in 1826.
Mélas, Michael, General
1729-1806. Born in Transylvania, he fought in the Seven Years’ War (1756-1763) but was a solid, rather than exceptional, soldier and advanced slowly up the ladder. In 1799, he rose to command the army in the Italy campaign and began it well with victories at Cassovo, Novi and a successful siege that forced Massena to surrender Genoa.
Melchthal, Arnold von
A character (possibly the name of a historical person) in the reconstructed and therefore mythical Swiss legend of William Tell, according to which Albert of Austria, with the view of depriving the Forest lands of their ancient freedom, sent bailiffs (among them Gessler) to Uri and Schwyz, who committed many tyrannical acts, so that finally on 8th November 1307, at the Rutli, Werner von Stauffacher of Schwyz, Walter Fürst of Uri, and Arnold von Melchthal in Unter-walden, each with ten companions, among whom was William Tell, resolved on a rising to expel the oppressors, which was fixed in literature at New Year’s Day 1308. The underlying reference is to a legend of the Swiss Confederation the origin of which dates back to the agreement between the three mountain cantons of Uri, Schwytz and Unterwalden in 1291. Supposedly representatives of the three cantons met in the Grutli (or Rutli) meadow in 1307, and took an oath of loyalty in the joint struggle against Austrian rule.
An ancient kingdom, Melindum, it lay on the east coast of Africa, near Zanzibar. The Portuguese traded there.
BkXXIV:Chap9:Sec1 It was used by poets as a romantic location.
The capital of the Seine-et-Marne, 33 miles south south-east of Paris, on the Seine. The nearby chateau of Vaux-le-Vicomte is considered a smaller predecessor of Palace of Versailles.
Melzi d’Eril, Francesco, Comte de Magenta, Duc de Lodi
1753-1816. An open-minded politician of broad education (he travelled in France, England and Spain), he was a champion of moderate liberalism. Opposed to the republican régime, he would have preferred a strong monarchic state in northern Italy, to ensure a balance of power between France and Austria; nevertheless, when Napoleon constituted the Italian Republic (Congress of Lyons: 1802), he agreed to become its Vice-President (the President was Napoleon himself). With the advent of the Kingdom of Italy he ceased to hold any position. In 1807 he acquired the title of Duke of Lodi.
BkXIV:Chap7:Sec1 Chateaubriand dined at a reception given by him in Rome in 1803.
In Greek mythology a dark-skinned Ethiopian king, the son of Tithonus and Aurora (the Dawn), he fought for Troy in the Trojan War with Greece. He was killed by Achilles, but his mother Aurora begged Zeus for funeral honours, and he created the warring flock of birds, the Memnonides, from his ashes.
BkXL:Chap2:Sec4 Chateaubriand refers to the Colossi of Memnon, two massive stone statues of Pharaoh Amenhotep III (14th century BC) in the Theban necropolis, across the Nile from the modern city of Luxor. The Greek historian and geographer Strabo writing in the early years of the 1st century, tells of an earthquake (in 27 BC) that shattered the northern colossus, collapsing it from the waist up. Following its rupture, this statue was then reputed to ‘sing’ every morning at dawn: a moaning or whistling probably caused by rising temperature and the evaporation of dew from the porous rock. The reputation of the statue’s oracular powers caused several Roman Emperors to visit. The mysterious vocalisations ceased in 199, however, when Emperor Septimius Severus reassembled the two shattered halves.
Mémoires sur de Consulat
It is a work by Thibaudeau.
An ancient city of Lower Egypt, south of modern Cairo, it was founded as the capital of Egypt after its unification by Menes (c3100 BC) remaining so until supplanted by Thebes (c1570 BC). The necropolis of Saqqarah, and the Pyramids and Sphinx complex at Giza form part of its extensive ruins.
BkVIII:Chap5:Sec2 Memphis, Tennessee.
BkVIII:Chap5:Sec1 Greece, his homeland.
Menneval, for Méneval, Claude François, Baron de
1778-1850. He was private secretary to Napoleon from April 1802, until St. Helena in 1815, and published various Memoirs.
Menichini, Luigi, Abbot
He was one of the instigators of the Carbonari uprising in Naples in July 1820.
BkXXVI:Chap7:Sec1 A reference to him as one of the instigators.
Menou, Jacques-François, Baron de
1750-1810. He represented the nobility in the States-General, committed himself to the Revolution and fought in the Vendée. He succeeded Kléber in Egypt in 1800 but was unable to avoid abandoning Egypt in 1801. He was Military governor of Rosetta when the famous stone was discovered, and had the Greek characters translated which enabled the deciphering of the hieroglyphic script.
He was a restaurant owner of the Palais-Royal, his restaurant becoming highly popular during the Revolution. Once chef to the Duc d’Orleans. Hired by Joseph Bonaparte and followed him to Naples and Madrid.
1809-1835. A poetess, born in Nantes, she lived in Paris from 1828. Her complete works were published in 1843.
Mercure de France
BkXIII:Chap6:Sec1 Issued under Lucien Bonaparte, as Minister of the Interior, with Fontanes as editor, helped by La Harpe. It ran from June 1800, and Chateaubriand collaborated on the journal in 1800-1.
BkXVIII:Chap5:Sec1 Chateaubriand became sole editor for a sum of 20,000 francs paid to Fontanes probably in 1807. His article appeared in the Mercure on the 4th July 1807, at the same time as the bulletin announcing the victory of Friedland. On the 9th the Treaty of Tilsit was announced.
BkXVIII:Chap8:Sec2 The publication terminated with its incorporation in the Revue philosophique (the former Décade) in 1807.
BkXXIX:Chap9:Sec1 The letter of 3rd March 1804 ‘to Fontanes’.
BkXXXIX:Chap11:Sec1 Chateaubriand’s article of 1807 quoted.
Mercy, François de = Franz Freiherr von Merci
c1595-1645. Lord of Mandre and Collenburg, he was a German general in the Thirty Years War, who came of a noble family of Lorraine. He was made general field marshal in 1643 when he won his great victory over the French marshal Rantzau at Tuttlingen (Nov. 24-25). In the following year he opposed the French armies, under the duke of Enghien (afterwards the great Condé) and the Vicomte de Turenne. He lost the desperate battle of Freiburg, but the following year inflicted on Turenne the defeat of Mergentheim (Marienthal). Later on 3rd August 1645, fighting once more against Enghien and Turenne, Mercy was killed at the battle of Nordlingen (or Allerheim). On the spot where he fell, Enghien erected a memorial, with the inscription Sta viator, heroem calcas (Stop passer-by, you tread upon a hero).
Town in Brittany, near Dinan.
Mère coupable, La
Work by Beaumarchais.
Méréville, Château de
The château, Essonne, Île-de-France, in the Juine valley, belonged to Jean-Joseph de Laborde, and was inherited by Nathalie de Noailles his daughter.
BkXVIII:Chap3Sec1 Mentioned. The column, a sort of replica of Trajan’s column, 37 metres high, sometimes served as a telegraph relay station. It was a feature of the Park. Chateaubriand travelled to the Pyrenees again in 1829, and to Toulouse in 1838.
Merfeld (Merveldt), Maximilian Freidrich, Baron von
1764-1815. An Austro-Hungarian soldier and diplomat, as a General commanding the 2nd Corps he was captured at Leipzig. He was Ambassador to St Petersburg from 1806-8, and to London from 1814, where he died.
Méricourt, see Théroigne
1788-1856. A Liberal lawyer.
BkXXXII:Chap1:Sec1 His advice sought in July 1830.
BkXXXII:Chap8:Sec1 Named as Commissioner for Justice of the Municipal Commission, 29th July 1830.
Merlin, J. S.
A Paris bookseller, he was still active in 1832.
BkXXV:Chap6:Sec1 Auctioned Chateaubriand’s library of almost 1800 volumes in April 1817, at 30 Rue des Bon-Enfants
Merlin de Douai, Philippe-Antoine, Comte
1754-1838. As a member of the Convention he instigated the Law of Suspects, and was a Director and Councillor of State in 1806. He was proscribed as a regicide by the law of 25th July 1815.
BkXXIII:Chap12:Sec1 Suggested by the liberals as Minister of Justice.
Mérona, Monsieur de
In Lisbon in 1824.
Mesmer, Franz Anton
1734-1815. A German physician who claimed to cure disease by correcting the flow of ‘animal magnetism’ in his patient’s bodies during séance like sessions. Investigations concluded that cures were due to his powers of suggestion and prompted studies of hypnosis.
BkV:Chap3:Sec1 Mentioned. Mesmerism was popular in Paris among the nobility.
Mesnard, Louis-Charles, Comte de
1769-1842. A co-pupil of Bonaparte’s at Brienne, he emigrated to England. There he entered the service of the Duc de Berry. He was his aide-de-camp during the Restoration and then principal Master of Horse to his widow. He was involved in the abortive uprising of 1832, tried and acquitted in 1833. He replaced de Brissac at Blaye, and accompanied the Duchess to Italy.
A Royal notary (1814-1819) he had offices at 30 Rue du Bac.
BkXXV:Chap2:Sec1 Chateaubriand at his office in 1816.
Messager des Chambres, Le
It was an ultra newspaper in Paris (in 1829), owned by Count Colonna-Walewski (1810-1868), Napoleon’s son by Countess Walewski. He sold the paper to Thiers in 1840.
A prefecture in the Peloponnese, a region of Greece, Messenia is bounded on the east by Mount Taygetus, on the north by the river Neda and the Arcadian Mountains, on the south and west by the sea.
The port in north-eastern Sicily on the Strait of Messina, originally known as Zancle, was successively occupied by Greeks, Carthaginians, Mamertines, Romans, Saracens, Normans and Spaniards. In 1860 it became part of united Italy.
The industrial town is in the Veneto near Marghera, not far from Venice on the mainland.
BkXL:Chap7:Sec1 Chateaubriand sets out for Mestre in September 1833.
BkXLI:Chap1:Sec1 Chateaubriand passes by in the night.
Metastasio, Pietro, (Pietro Antonio Domenico Trapassi)
1698-1782. An Italian poet and librettist, in 1730 he was appointed Court poet in Vienna, where he wrote classical libretti. These include L’Adriano (1731), and La clemenza di Tito (1732) set to music by Mozart and others.
BkX:Chap6:Sec2 His early poem, Scendi propizia col tuo splendore, o bella Venere, madre d'Amore, from Epitalamio, II.
Métel, Hugues, Hugo Metellus
BkIX:Chap12:Sec1 His fable of Le loup qui se fit ermite.
1st Century BC. The famous circular turret-like tomb of Cecilia Metella, daughter of Quintus Caecilius Metello, the Consul who conquered Crete, and wife of the triumvir Marcus Licinius Crassus’ son, who served with Caesar in Gaul from 57 to 51BC, is on the Appian Way and its most important symbol. It was commonly called Capo di Bove, and was converted into a fortress by the Caetani (their coat of arms is still there), who added the pinnacles and built a palace. They fortified with walls a little village which included a church (S. Nicola di Bari). The fortress was attacked and damaged several times and eventually became a brigands' retreat.
Chateaubriand mentions the tomb.
BkXXIX:Chap5:Sec1 Her sarcophagus from the tomb is in the courtyard of the Villa Farnese.
In hierarchical Christian churches, the rank of Metropolitan pertains to the diocesan bishop or archbishop (then more precisely called Metropolitan archbishop) of a metropolis; that is, the chief city of an old Roman province, ecclesiastical province, or regional capital. His jurisdiction is called a metropolia.
BkXXI:Chap1:Sec1 In 1812, Platon Levshin (1737-November 1812) was the Metropolitan of Moscow. In 1775 he was enthroned archbishop of Moscow, and throughout the reigns of Catherine II, Paul, and Alexander I diligently promoted the religious, moral, intellectual, and material welfare of his archdiocese, It was Platon who crowned both Paul (1797) and Alexander I (1801); Shortly before his death, he was evacuated from Moscow, which was about to be surrendered to Napoleon.
Metternich, Klemens Wenzel Nepomuk Lothar, Prince von
1773-1859. An Austrian nobleman and political leader; he was Chancellor of the Austrian government for nearly forty years. Through his leadership at the Congress of Vienna and elsewhere, Metternich restored order in Europe after the fall of Napoleon. He did so, however, to the advantage of the European kings and princes and at the expense of movements toward democracy in Europe.
BkXXVIII:Chap1:Sec1 In 1822.
BkXXVIII:Chap3:Sec1 Mentioned in 1824.
BkXXXI:Chap8:Sec1 His view of the July 1830 decrees.
BkXXXVII:Chap3:Sec1 His potential for meddling in French affairs.
BkXL:Chap6:Sec1 Mentioned in 1833.
BkXLII:Chap8:Sec1 The transaction took place in 1817, with Metternich’s agreement.
The city in north-east France, capital of the Moselle Department, is situated on the Moselle River. Part of the Holy Roman Empire until seized by France in 1552, it fell to Germany in 1871 but returned to France after World War I.
A captain of the 3rd Guards Regiment in 1830.
BkXXXII:Chap5:Sec1 Wounded in the fighting on the 29th of July 1830.
Mézeray, François Eudes de
1610-1683. French historian, He had two brothers, one of whom, Jean Eudes, was the founder of the order of the Eudists. He studied at the university of Caen, and completed his education at the college of Ste Barbe at Paris. His Histoire de France depuis Faramond jusqu' a Louis le Juste (3 vols. 1643-1651), is a fairly accurate summary of French and Latin chronicles.
Mézy, Antoinette Véron, Madame de
d. 1824 Daughter of a Tax-Collector. Wife of Charles Dupleix de Mézy (1766-1835), Prefect under the Restoration, Peer of France under the July Monarchy. The Manor of Mézy (at Mézy-sur-Seine, Yvelines) on the right bank of the Seine, downstream from Melan, contained a garden by Le Nôtre. Her daughter Louise was killed in an accident in 1812, and she later lost a son to consumption.
Micara, Ludovico, Cardinal
1775-1847. A Cardinal from 1824, he was a friend and then defender of Premier Lamenais. His brother Clemente was an economist.
BkXXX:Chap1:Sec2 An anti-Jesuit voter.
Chateaubriand’s cat (micetto simply means kitten) inherited from Leo XII.
1767-1839. A Royalist journalist and editor, he was a close friend of Madame de Krüdner. He wrote at times for Le Mercure. He edited La Quotidienne, from 1796, being arrested and sentenced to death for his royalist polemic. He edited it again under the Directory, was briefly imprisoned in 1800 under the Consulate, and temporarily abandoned journalism. From 1814 he edited the paper again under the Restoration. He lost his post as King’s Reader for his opposition to the law on censorship in 1827. He was Deputy for the Ain in 1815, and wrote a monumental History of the Crusades (1808-1822) and the first Universal Biography (1811-1828, with his brother).
BkXXVIII:Chap14:Sec1 He writes to Chateaubriand.
Michelangelo di Ludovico Buonarroti Simoni
1475-1564. Italian sculptor, painter, architect and poet, he trained under Ghirlandaio and in the school in the Medici Gardens under the patronage of Lorenzo de’ Medici. His later works include the David in Florence, the Piéta in Rome, the Medici Chapel in Florence (San Lorenzo) and the Sistine Chapel ceiling and Last Judgement (1534-1541) frescoes in Rome (Vatican).
BkXII:Chap1:Sec1 Chateaubriand quotes slightly incorrectly from the second verse of his poem ‘Dal ciel discese..’
BkXX:Chap5:Sec3 Napoleon comparable to him in his fields of war and politics.
BkXXIX:Chap5:Sec1 Michelangelo in 1589 completed the cornice etc of the Farnese Palace in Rome, begun by Sangallo.
BkXXIX:Chap6:Sec1 Titian met Michelangelo on his 1545-56 journey to Rome. Michelangelo’s tomb, designed by Vasari in 1570, is in Santa Croce, Florence. Michelangelo worked on the Villa Giulia in Rome.
BkXXIX:Chap14:Sec1 His Last Judgement in the Sistine.
BkXXX:Chap1:Sec1 His frescoes in the Sistine.
BkXXX:Chap13:Sec1 A head of Christ by him (unknown).
BkXXXIX:Chap7:Sec1 Drawings by him in the Accademia in Venice.
1798-1855. The Polish romantic poet and playwright, born in Belorussia, studied at the University of Vilna, where he was arrested (1823) for pan-Polish activities and deported to Russia. He was permitted (1829) to travel through Europe, remaining there following the Polish uprising of 1830. Later he served as professor of literature in Lausanne (1839) and in Paris (1840–44). In the revolutionary upheavals of 1848 and again in the Crimean War he organized legions for Polish emancipation. He died in Constantinople during a cholera epidemic. Mickiewicz’s poetry gave international stature to Polish literature. His powerful verse expressed a romantic view of the soul and the mysteries of life, often employing Polish folk themes. His major works include the fantastic drama The Forefathers (1823); the philosophical poem Konrad Wallenrod (1828); The Books of the Polish Nation and of Polish Pilgrimage (1832); and the great epic Pan Tadeusz (1834). This poem, Mickiewicz’s masterpiece, is a comprehensive and Homeric treatment of the life of the Polish gentry.
BkXX:Chap12:Sec1 Quoted from the Books of the Polish Nation.
Sand dunes near the town.
Before the Revolution, Migneret was shop floor supervisor for the guild printer François Gueffier. With the declaration of the freedom of the press he opened his own printing shop on the Rue Jacob. He published a series of François de LaHarpe’s works as well as operas and dramatic comedies. In 1799 Migneret published an English novel, Le Faux Ami, by Mary Darby Robinson. During the next few years Migneret published Chateaubriand: first Le Génie du christianisme, and then Atala.
BkXIV:Chap3:Sec1 A dinner at his house.
1796-1884. He was a historian and politician.
BkXXXII:Chap2:Sec1 Goes into hiding on the 27th July 1830.
BkXXXII:Chap4:Sec1 At a meeting of the monarchist party on 28th July 1830.
BkXXXII:Chap11:Sec1 A supporter of Louis-Philippe in July 1830.
BkXXXIV:Chap9:Sec1 Chateaubriand’s friendship with him.
A little Indian girl, her name used in Atala.
BkVII:Chap9:Sec1 Her singing.
BkVII:Chap11:Sec1 Her youth and sweetness.
BkXXXIX:Chap10:Sec1 A reference.
The capital of Lombardy in northern Italy on the River Olona, it was founded by the Gauls c600BC and captured by the Romans in 222BC. Later devastated by the Huns and Goths it became prosperous from the 12th century. It was ruled by the Visconti from 1310 to 1447 when it passed to the Sforza family, who ruled it until it fell to Spain in 1535. It was under Austrian rule from 1713-1796, and in 1797 Napoleon made it the capital of the Cisalpine Republic and the capital of Italy (1805-1814).
BkXIV:Chap7:Sec1 Chateaubriand passed through in 1803 on his way to Rome.
BkXIX:Chap12:Sec2 The Ambrosian Library founded c.1605 in Milan by Cardinal Federigo Borromeo, was one of the earliest libraries to be opened to the public. The library’s collection is rich in classical manuscripts notably Homer and Virgil, in incunabula, and in Oriental texts. It also contains Leonardo da Vinci’s profusely illustrated Codex Atlanticus.
BkXX:Chap2:Sec1 Occupied by Napoleon on the 2nd of June 1800.
BkXXIX:Chap2:Sec1 The Chateaubriands were there in September 1828.
BkXXX:Chap6:Sec2 In Austrian hands in 1829.
BkXXXIX:Chap3:Sec1 The Teatro alla Scala was founded, under the auspices of the Empress Maria Theresa of Austria, to replace the Royal Ducal Theatre, which was destroyed by fire on 26 February 1776 and had until then been the home of opera in Milan. It was built on the site of the church of Santa Maria alla Scala, hence the name, and opened in 1778 with an opera by Salieri. Chateabriand was in Milan in September 1833.
Millesimo, Battle of
April 14th 1796. The French under Augereau defeated the Austro-Piedmontese under Provera. Millesimo, is now the ‘City of Truffles’, the commercial centre for 13 mountain communities in the upper Val Bormida.
Miloradovich (Miloradowitch), Mikhail Andreyevitch, Count
1770-1825. A career soldier, he commanded Russia’s rearguard during the evacuation of Moscow. His earlier campaigns had been against the Turks and Poles and he fought with Suvarov against France in Italy and Switzerland. Promoted to general in 1810, Miloradovich fought at Borodino and beat Murat at Tarutino. Highly regarded for his calmness and bravery, Miloradovich was killed in an 1825 Decembrist mutiny when he tried to negotiate with the disaffected troops.
1608-1674. The English poet was the author of Paradise Lost (1667). During the 1640’s and 50’s he supported the Puritan Revolution and wrote many pamphlets. In 1649 he was appointed Latin Secretary to the Council of State, but he sight began to fail and by 1652 he was totally blind. After the Restoration he retired to write his epic poems
BkIX:Chap3:Sec2 Pandemonium, in Paradise Lost, is the capital of Satan and his peers where the solemn council of demons is held. In Book II of Paradise Lost, Sin is the daughter of Satan.
BkXII:Chap1:Sec1 His place in English literature. Chateaubriand quotes from Milton’s ‘An Epitaph on the admirable dramatic poet W. Shakespeare’ of 1630.
BkXVI:Chap10:Sec1 Chateaubriand quotes edited extracts from Paradise Lost, Book X.
BkXVIII:Chap8:Sec2 Chateaubriand quotes from his Second Defence of the English People against an Anonymous Libel, of 1654 (The translation used here is by Robert Fellowes, Philadelphia 1847).
BkXXI:Chap4:Sec3 A reference to his A Brief History of Moscovia: and of other less-known countries lying eastward of Russia as far as Cathay. Gather’d from the writings of several eye-witnesses (Published posthumously, 1682). See paragraph 2.
BkXXII:Chap 26:Sec1 See Paradise Lost, IV.
BkXXVI:Chap5:Sec1 He was as involved in politics as in poetry.
BkXXVII:Chap11:Sec1 As a famous Englishman.
BkXXXII:Chap13:Sec1 The quotation is from Milton’s letter to Charles Diodati of 23rd September 1637 in his Familiar Letters, translated from the Latin.
BkXXXIX:Chap3:Sec1 Mentioned in Voltaire’s Candide.
BkXLII:Chap7:Sec1 See Paradise Lost II:754-758
A town in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. Located on the Weser river below the Porta Westfalica, it is the capital of the district of Minden-Lübbecke.
BkXXXV:Chap11:Sec1 The Minden painting of the Dance of Death.
Minerve Française, La
Minims, Order of the
Followers of a Roman Catholic religious order founded by Francis of Paola in the fifteenth century in Italy. The order flourished in France until the time of the French Revolution. The name refers to their humility as the ‘least of all religious’ and is derived from a passage in the Vulgate, specifically Matthew 25:40.
The semi-mythical King of Crete, ruler of a hundred cities.
The capital and largest city in Belarus is situated on the Svislach and Niamiha rivers.
Miollis, Sextius-Alexandre-François, Comte de
1759-1828. Fought and was wounded at Yorktown (1781) in the War of American Independence. A Napoleonic general, he was Governor of the Roman States. Took Rome and became commander of the Division de Rome, February 1808. Ordered the arrest of Pius VII, 6 July, 1808. Commanded the 30th division in Rome (1810) until the convention agreed between Murat and Fouché forced him to leave, 10 March, 1814. During the Hundred Days made governor of Metz by Napoleon, April 1815. He was retired by Louis XVIII, 25 August, 1815, on full pension.
1770-1842. A numismatist who between 1806 and 1837 published his Description of Greek and Roman coins, with their degree of rarity and their value, in five volumes.
BkXXX:Chap11:Sec1 An expert valuer.
b1779. French commissary in Egypt he was present at the Battle of the Pyramids. He wrote Mémoires pour servir à l'histoire des expéditions en Egypte et en Syrie pendant les années VI, VII et VIII de la République française (1804).
An Island in Saint-Pierre-et-Miquelon archipelago, off the coast of Newfoundland, it is a French department, being all that remained to France of its Canadian territories after 1763: the islands were traditional fishing and smuggling bases.
Mirabeau, André-Boniface-Louis-Riqueti, Vicomte de
1754-1792. Soldier and Orator. Mirabeau’s brother. Deputy for the nobility of Limoges. He was known as Mirabeau-Tonneau (the ‘Barrel’) because of his corpulence. Though he fought in America, he was an ardent Royalist. Emigrated 1790 to Germany and raised a regiment under his own name. BkV:Chap12:Sec2 Quoted.
BkV:Chap13:Sec1 In the National Assembly.
BkV:Chap14:Sec1 Raised the Legion of the Black Hussars in 1792, the Hussards de la Mort, whose insignia was a skull and crossbones.
BkIX:Chap1:Sec1 Declared a traitor in December 1791.
Mirabeau, Honoré-Gabriel Riquetti, Comte de
1749-1791. Orator and Statesman, his ancestors were merchants of Marseilles in Provençe. In the years before the Revolution he was a notorious libertine and profligate. In 1789 he was elected to the States General, championing the cause of the Third Estate. However he was out of sympathy with growing Republicanism and advocated a constitutional monarchy on the British model. He was increasingly attacked by the Jacobins, but died of natural causes before the crisis point was reached.
Preface:Sect1 Chateaubriand mentions meeting him.
BkV:Chap8:Sec1 His influence over Royal policy in the summer of 1789.
BkV:Chap11:Sec1 His dominance of the Constituent Assembly.
BkV:Chap12:Sec1 Described. His father was Victor Riqueti Marquis de Mirabeau (1715-1789), physiocrat economist, who exchanged with his brother Bailli de Mirabeau (1717-1794) a voluminous correspondence.
BkV:Chap12:Sec2 Chateaubriand’s meetings with Mirabeau. Chateaubriand quotes Mirabeau’s ‘Mémoire á mon père’ of December 1777 from his Lettres écrites du donjon de Vincennes. The quote ‘oiseau haggard; a wild bird’ was said by Mirabeau’s father of himself not of his son, in a letter to his brother. Chateaubriand was no doubt thinking of himself in relation to Combourg.
BkV:Chap12:Sec3 His royalist sentiments.
BkV:Chap13:Sec1 In the National Assembly, Mirabeau shouted against the turbulent minority of the left (the thirty votes) when he presided in February 1791 during the debate on the émigrés.
BkV:Chap14:Sec1 The song ‘La sainte chandelle..’ makes an ironic reference to Mirabeau, whose family hailed from Provence. The Petit Almanach was a satirical squib published in 1791 under the title Petit Dictionnaire des Grands Hommes et des grandes choses qui ont rapport à la Revolution, composé par une société d’aristocrates. Mirabeau was involved in saving the life of Besenval.
BkV:Chap15:Sec1 He fell from favour in 1790.
BkV:Chap15:Sec4 A letter announcing his death, on 2nd April 1791, sent from Chateaubriand’s brother to his mother.
BkIX:Chap3:Sec1 No longer on the scene in 1792.
BkXIX:Chap3:Sec1 His noble birth.
BkXIX:Chap6:Sec1 He proposed an amnesty for Corsican exiles in 1789.
BkXX:Chap6:Sec1 BkXXVI:Chap2:Sec1 BkXXVI:Chap7:Sec1 Reference to his Histoire secrète de la cour de Berlin (1787), XXVI:2 and 5, then XXI, XXII, XLIII, XLVII-XLIX,, LV, LXI, LXV, then XXIV (17th August 1786).
BkXXIII:Chap18:Sec1 His remonstrations in favour of order.
BkXXXIX:Chap3:Sec1 Imprisoned in the fortress of Joux in 1775.
Miseno, Cape Misenum, Italy
The Cape lies at the northwest end of the Bay of Naples. Augustus founded (1st century BC) a naval station (Misenum) there, which was destroyed by the Arabs (9th century AD).
It is the second longest river in North America, rising in Minnesota and flowing to the Gulf of Mexico. With the Missouri, its chief tributary, it forms the third longest river system in the world.
BkVIII:Chap5:Sec2 Its steam-boats and three-masters.
Misson, François Maximilien
1650-1722. His A New Voyage to Italy was published in 1691.
The longest river in North America and the chief tributary of the Mississippi, it rises in the Rocky Mountains and flows through Montana and North and South Dakota before joining the Mississippi at St Louis.
BkVIII:Chap5:Sec2 Its steam-boats and three-masters.
BkXXIII:Chap9:Sec1 The natural canals through the Missouri swamplands.
Mithridates VI, King of Pontus
132-63BC. Mithridates the Great also called Eupator Dionysius was king of Pontus in northern Anatolia from 120 to 63BC. He is remembered as one of Rome’s most formidable enemies who engaged three of the most prominent generals of the late Roman Republic: Sulla, Lucullus, and Pompey the Great.
The ruins of the Zapotecan tomb site and city lie near Oaxaca, Mexico.
c738-804. Duke Mnata (The Rememberer) of Bohemia was a legendary early ruler, grandson of Přemysl the Ploughman (husband of Libuše the granddaughter of the ancestor of the Czech people Protech Čech (Bohemus), she being the founder of Prague.
Mocenigo, Tommaso, Doge
1343-1423. Doge of Venice 1413-1423.
BkXXXIX:Chap7:Sec1 His tomb in Santi Giovanni e Paolo, Venice. The tombs of Pietro Mocenigo (1406-1476), Doge from1474-1476, and Giovanni Mocenigo (1409-1485), Doge from 1478-1485, are also in the same church.
Unidentified: she was a member of the famous Mocenigo family of Venice.
BkXXXIX:Chap15:Sec1 Chateaubriand meets her again in Venice in 1833.
A town in south-west Yemen, on the Red Sea coast, it was once famous for its coffee.
A port in Messenia in the south-west Peloponnese, once held by Venice.
BkVII:Chap5:Sec1 Chateaubriand landed there when visiting Greece, not as he says in the text at Coron (Coroni).
BkXVIII:Chap1:Sec1 Chateaubriand landed there on Sunday the 10th of August 1806.
BkXVIII:Chap3Sec2 A letter dated from there.
Modena, Francesco IV Giuseppe Carlo Ambrogio Stanislao d'Absburgo-Este, Duke of
1779-1846. He was Duke of Modena, Reggio, and Mirandola (from 1815), Duke of Massa and Prince of Carrara (from 1829), Archduke of Austria-Este, Royal Prince of Hungary and Bohemia, Knight of the Order of the Golden Fleece. His father was Archduke Ferdinand of Austria-Este, Duke of Breisgau, his mother Maria Beatrice Ricciarda d’Este, Duchess of Massa and Princess of Carrara, Lady of Lunigiana. He was the model for the Prince in Stendhal’s The Charterhouse at Parma.
Mollendorf, Richard Joachim Heinrich von
1724-1816. He commanded the Prussian army on the Rhine in 1794. In the disastrous campaign of Jena (1806) Mollendorf played a considerable part, though he did not actually command a corps. He was present with the king at Auerstadt, falling into the hands of the French in the debacle which followed. After his release, he passed the remainder of his life in retirement.
The Mohawk River empties into the Hudson 150 miles to the north of what became New York City. The Mohawk, which extended nearly all the way to the Great Lakes, was a main water highway through the lands of the five nations of the Iroquois Confederacy. The Mohawk Indians in particular travelled down it in their canoes, bringing furs to trade with the Dutch.
BkVII:Chap2:Sec1 Chateaubriand crossed the Mohawk in 1791.
Mohilov (Mogilov), Russia
This city lies on the left bank of the Dniester across from the Bessarabian city Otek.
The Biblical leader who led the Israelites out of Egypt to the Promised Land, it is also the title of a work by Chateaubriand.
BkXIV:Chap7:Sec1 Chateaubriand refers to Exodus II:11-22.
BkXIX:Chap14:Sec3 Chateaubriand refers to Exodus XIV:15-31.
BkXXIX:Chap14:Sec1 Chateaubriand’s ill-fated tragedy, an abandoned project.
BkXXXIX:Chap8:Sec1 See Exodus XXXIV:29-30 for the horns of fire.
A town near the Borodino battlefield about seventy miles west of Moscow.
BkXXI:Chap3:Sec1 Napoleon headquartered there 10th-12th September 1812.
BkXXI:Chap5:Sec1 Napoleon passed through in retreat in 1812.
1734-1805. An actor, he acted with Lekain in 1771 as Gaston in Belloy’s Gaston et Baïard. He created the role of Count Almaviva in Beamarchais’ Figaro in 1784. His elegant tomb is in the Heller Park. Paris.
BkIV:Chap11:Sec1 Actor at the Théâtre-Français.
BkIV:Chap13:Sec1 Examples of parliamentary magistrates.
d.1794 President. Son-in-law of the Marquis de Lamoignon.
BkXIV:Chap1:Sec1 Guillotined April 1794.
Molé, Matthieu-Louis, Comte
BkXIV:Chap1:Sec1 He regained possession of his father’s estate Champlâtreux (near Luzarches) and restored the house and grounds. There is a reference here regarding the painting (by Vincent, 1779) to his ancestor the statesman, Mathieu Molé (1584-1656), first President of the Parliament (1641) and his efforts during the Fronde.
1622-1673. French dramatist, and the father of modern French comedy, his plays include Tartuffe (1664) and Le Bourgeois Gentilhomme (1670). His ridicule of hypocrisy and his satire on contemporary manners brought him into conflict with the religious authorities. He frequently acted in his own productions and died on stage.
BkXII:Chap1:Sec1 His play Monsieur de Pourceaugnac, of 1669.
BkXII:Chap3:Sec1 Ignored by the English in 1822.
BkXIX:Chap9:Sec1 In Les Fourberies de Scapin (1671), Act II:Scene 7, Géronte is asked for ransom money for his son, allegedly held in a galley. He repeats, ‘What the devil was he doing in that galley?’ (‘Que diable allait-il faire dans cette galère?’) The word galère (‘galley’) is used in French nowadays to mean ‘a cumbersome, painful affair’, often with this sentence from Les Fourberies de Scapin.
BkXXV:Chap1:Sec1 His comic genius.
BkXXX:Chap2:Sec2 The quotation (slightly inexact) is from Le Médecin malgré lui Act II:4.
BkXXX:Chap3:Sec1 The jumbled quotation is from L’Avare (The Miser, 1668) II:1
BkXXXII:Chap16:Sec1 The quotation is from Amphitryon I:2, line 525.
BkXXXV:Chap1:Sec1 Fleurant and Purgon are the apothecary and the doctor in Le Malade imaginaire (1673).
BkXXXV:Chap6:Sec1 See Tartuffe V:4 lines 1741-1742.
BkXXXVI:Chap11:Sec1 See L’Avare I:1
Moligny, Abbé de
A young priest selected in 1830 to be confessor to the Duc de Bordeaux.
He was a Captain in the 18th Infantry Regiment.
1751-1829. Member of the Convention. Consul at Smyrna (1797-1798).
Monaldeschi, Gian Rinaldo, Marquis
Monarchie selon la Charte, La
Monarchy according to the Charter, Chateaubriand’s pamphlet of 1816 which deprived the author of both the title and income of Minister of State.
BkXIII:Chap10:Sec2 Its impact mentioned.
BkXXIII:Chap20:Sec2 See Part I: Chapter 29.
The Duc d’Orléans’ country house near Paris, acquired in 1778, in the village of Monceaux (Montchauf), on the old road to Arguenteuil (Now Rue des Lévis, Paris: the Place des Lévis is the old centre of the village). It became the favoured meeting place of the beau monde under the name of the Folie de Chartres.
BkV:Chap14:Sec1 BkXVII:Chap1:Sec1 There are accounts of the Duke and his friends indulging in the pastime of ‘collecting girls from the lowest quarters of Paris, and thrusting them nude and inebriated into the park of Monceaux.’
Moncey, Bon Adrien Jeannot de, Duc de Conegliano, Marshal of France
1754-1842. A professional soldier from 1769 he served in various units before being made an officer in 1779. Five years later he was a general of division and, after capturing San Sebastian, led the West Pyrenees campaign for a year. In 1797, he was removed from command after the leaders of the coup of Fructidor suspected he was a pro-royalist. He returned to favour in 1800 and served in Switzerland and Italy, before becoming Inspector General of the Gendarmes. In Spain, Moncey fought at Tudela and Saragossa, but did not see action again until he led the Paris National Guard against the invading allies in 1814. After Napoleon’s final fall, Moncey was jailed for three months for refusing to lead the court martial of Marshal Ney. He was later reinstated in 1819 and in 1823 won his last victories at Barcelona and Tarragona in Spain.
Monchoix, Château of
Near Plancoët in Brittany.
BkI:Chap4:Sec2 The joyful life there.
BkXI:Chap6:Sec1 The Comte did not see the chateau again before he died, on returning to France from exile.
The battle of 21st April 1796, saw Bonaparte pursuing General Baron Colli’s Piedmontese and catching him near the hilltop town of Mondovi. With a small advantage in numbers, 17,500 to 13,000, Bonaparte went on the attack but had his first assault driven off. The French general was not to be denied and a further advance forced Colli to move. The Piedmontese signed an armistice two days later.
Monet, for Monnet, Antoine
1734-1817. Thanks to Malesherbes he obtained the post of Inspector-General of Mines in 1774. He taught mineralogy at the Jardin des Plantes.
BkV:Chap15:Sec2 He and his young daughter visited Chateaubriand in 1790.
1746-1818. A French mathematician, physicist, and public official, he was distinguished for his geometrical research, which laid the foundations of modern descriptive geometry. He also made important contributions to differential geometry and inspired his pupils, who included J. B. Biot, J. V. Poncelet, and C. Dupin, to new advances in several branches of geometry. He was professor of mathematics (1768) and of physics (1771) at Mézières. One of the founders of the École polytechnique, he served there as professor of descriptive geometry. From 1792 to 1793 he was minister of marine. He was a close and loyal friend of Napoleon and was stripped of all his honours and positions following the restoration of the monarchy in 1815. He wrote Feuilles d'analyse appliquée à la géometrie (1795) and Géometrie descriptive (1799). He accompanied Napoleon on the Egyptian Campaign.
c322-387. Born of Christian parents at Tagaste, North Africa; died at Ostia, near Rome, in 387. The mother of Saint Augustine.
BkI:Chap4:Sec8 Her words to her son: Nihil longe est a Deo: ‘Nothing is far from God.’ (St Augustine’s Confessions IX.11.28)
Monlouet for Montlouet, Comte de
Monnier, Marie-Thérèse-Richard de Ruffey, Comtesse de, called Sophie
1754-1789. Mistress of Mirabeau who called her ‘Sophie’. She is immortalised in his Lettres écrites du donjon de Vincennes.
Monroe, James, President of the United States
1758-1831. Fifth President of the United States from 1817-1825, his declaration of 1823 prohibited European intervention in American (especially South-American) affairs, later known as the Monroe Doctrine. As Minister to France in 1794-1796, he had displayed strong sympathies for the French cause; later, with Robert R. Livingston, he helped negotiate the Louisiana Purchase.
The city in Belgium, it is situated near Brussels.
BkIX:Chap6:Sec2 The French fought the Austrians there on the 28th-29th April 1792 in the French War of the First Coalition (1792-1798). The French were repulsed but the Austrians did not follow up their offensive.
Monsieur, see Charles X
The highest mountain in the Alps lies on the French-Italian border. It was first climbed in 1786.
Originally created in Italy by the Franciscans to avoid usury, the Monts (regulated pawnbrokers) offered credit against security. They were given Royal authority in a number of cities by Louis XIV. Created by Louis XVI and Charles-Pierre Lenoir, the Paris Mont was opened in 1778 in the Marais. Napoleon in 1804 granted it a monopoly on loans against security. It became known colloquially as ‘Chez ma tante.’ The origin of the phrase is proverbially attributed to the Prince de Joinville who claimed to have left his watch ‘at his aunt’s house’.
Mont-d’Or, Mont Dore
The highest mountain near Riom, it is in the Auvergne.
BkXI:Chap2:Sec2 In 1791, the name was proposed and rejected for the region subsequently called Puy-de-Dôme.
A village on the heights south of Waterloo it contains the Mont-Saint-Jean Farm which belonged to the Templar Order since 1230 before being rebuilt in 1778 by the Knights of Malta. It was used as a field-hospital by the British during the battle, and the extant building comprises a large square of whitewashed brick, stone and granite.
Montaigne, Michel Eyquem de
1533-1592. The Essayist, who after the death of his father, a wealthy merchant, in 1568, resigned his position as a magistrate in Bordeaux and began composing his Essais. He travelled in Europe and was Mayor of Bordeaux from 1581 to 1585. His Essais began a new literary genre, expressed his humanism, and are a fine self-portrait. They were published in 1580, in 1588, and post-humously, incorporating his revisions. They were translated into English by John Florio in 1603.
BkII:Chap3:Sec2 Chateaubriand quotes from Essais: I.9
BkII:Chap9:Sec1 Chateaubriand slightly misquotes from Essais III.4 (On Diversions).
BkIII:Chap2:Sec1 In the Essais I.26 Montaigne describes how his father had him woken with music.
BkV:Chap14:Sec1 The troubled times in which he lived.
BkVII:Chap9:Sec1 Chateaubriand quotes from Essais I.31 (On Cannibals), both the song and the final comment.
BkIX:Chap5:Sec1 Chateaubriand quotes from Essais III.12 (On Physiognomy). The Guelphs and Guibellines were warring factions in Medieval Italy, for Pope and Empire respectively (See Dante’s Divine Comedy)
BkXII:Chap2:Sec1 Chateaubriand quotes from Essais, III.9 (On Vanity).
BkXIV:Chap2:Sec5 Chateaubriand quotes approximately from Essais, III.9
BkXIV:Chap7:Sec1 His familiarity with the Vatican buildings. He visited Rome in 1581.
BkXVIII:Chap3Sec4 The reference derived from Essais, III.9 (On Vanity).
BkXIX:Chap14:Sec3 A condensed quotation from Essais, II.36 (On the finest men.)
BkXXII:Chap13:Sec1 The quotation is from Essais III.8 (On the Art of Conversation)
BkXXIX:Chap1:Sec1 See the opening of Essais III:1.
BkXXIX:Chap7:Sec1 BkXXIX:Chap9:Sec1 Chateaubriand refers to the Journal de voyage en Italie. Montaigne was given Roman Citizen’s rights by a Bull of 13th March 1581. The 16th century house he stayed in was on the corner of the Via dell’Orso and the Via Monte Brianzo.
BkXXXI:Chap1:Sec2 See the Essais III:5 (On Virgil’s poetry)
BkXXXVI:Chap7:Sec1 See Essais II:33.
BkXXXVIII:Chap6:Sec1 See Essais III:2.
Montaigne, Léonore de
She was the daughter of Michel de Montaigne. She married Gaston de la Tour.
The town near Nantes, is in the Vendée, which is the area of the west coast of France between Nantes and La Rochelle.
Montalivet, Camille Bachasson, 3rd Comte de
1801-1880. A French statesman and Peer of France, he joined the July Monarchy during the Revolution of 1830 and was made Minister of the Interior, where his main task was to prevent any troubles during the trial of the former ministers of Charles X. Afterwards, he was alternatively Minister of the Interior and Minister of Education in different cabinets. After 1839, he became Intendent of the Civil List, and created the Museum of Versailles. After the 1848 Revolution, he defended the actions of the July Monarchy, and acted as executor of the will of Louis-Philippe. After the fall of the Second French Empire in 1870, he rallied to the ‘conservative republican’ ideas of his friend Adolphe Thiers, and thus considerably eased the voting-in by the centre right of the constitutional laws of 1875, establishing a Republic in France.
BkXXVIII:Chap7:Sec1 Rallied to Chateaubriand in 1825.
BkXXXV:Chap3:Sec1 Minister of the Interieur on several occasions between 1830-1839. He telegraphed the Prefect of the Charente on the 5th of June demanding Berryer’s arrest at Angoulême. The Duchesse de Berry meanwhile took refuge at Nantes.
A commune of the Loiret département in France, the town is located about 110 km south of Paris and 70km east of Orléans, on the River Loing, at the heart of the region known as the Gâtinais.
BkXXXVIII:Chap2:Sec1 Jan the Blind’s embalmed heart and entrails were housed in the Dominican Abbey at Montargis where his sister Queen Maria of France was entombed. His body however was taken to Luxembourg.
Montauban, Arthur de
d.1479 Magistrate and Prelate, belonged to one of the great families of Brittany. To satisfy a private grudge against Gilles, brother of Duke Francis II of Brittany, he intrigued to such good purpose that Gilles was arraigned for treason, and finally assassinated in prison in 1450. When his duplicity was discovered he was deprived of his office of bailli of Cotentin and banished. He then turned monk, and through the support of his brother, John de Montauban (1412-1466), Louis XI’s favourite, obtained the archbishopric of Bordeaux in 1468. He died in Paris on the 9th of March 1479.
Montbel, Guillaume-Isidore, Comte de
1787-1861. An Enthusiastic royalist, he was mayor of Toulouse and deputy of Haute-Garonne in 1827. In the Polignac ministry from August to November 1829 he functioned as Secretary of State at the Department of Ecclesiastical Affairs and State Education; he was then Minister of the Interior and finally Finance Minister. Condemned to civil ‘death’ and perpetual detention at the time of the prosecution of the ministers of Charles X in 1830, he was amnestied in 1837.
BkXXXI:Chap5:Sec1 Joined the Cabinet in 1829.
BkXL:Chap7:Sec1 Acting as courier for the Duchess to and from Prague in September 1833.
Formerly Le Houssay it is located in the Eure-et-Loire department, south of Chartres.
BkII:Chap9:Sec1 BkIII:Chap1:Sec1 BkIII:Chap2:Sec1 Chateaubriand writes this chapter there. During the summer of 1817, when the Chateaubriands were literally homeless, they stayed with friends or family members in the country. From 2nd July to 3rd August he stayed at Montboissier where Madame de Chateaubriand was gravely ill. The chateau belonged to Pauline de Montboissier, the Comtesse de Colbert-Montboissier.
BkIII:Chap7:Sec1 Chateaubriand left Montboissier in the autumn of 1817.
BkXIV:Chap1:Sec1 Mentioned as a place where part of the Memoirs was written.
BkXXV:Chap2:Sec1 Previously purchased by Courtois, a deputy.
Montboissier Beaufort Canillac, Charles-Philippe-Simon, Baron de
1750-1802. He was Deputy in 1789 for Chartres to the States-General, where the voted for the abolition of feudal rights. He Emigrated. He was son-in-law to Malesherbes.
BkIX:Chap8:Sec1 BkIX:Chap15:Sec1 Chateaubriand’s brother became his aide-de-camp. Chateaubriand may be confusing him here though with his uncle, Comte Philippe-Claude de Montboissier (1712-1797), the elderly Marshal, who commanded the Light Brigade.
Montboissier, Françoise-Pauline de Lamoignon de Malesherbes, Baronne de
Montboucher, Comte de
Captain of Dragoons in 1789.
BkXII:Chap5:Sec1 The Montboucher family line.
Montcalm, Armande-Marie de Vignerot du Plessis-Richelieu, Marquise de
1777-1832. Daughter of the Duc de Fronsac she married Hippolyte de Montcalm, separating from him shortly afterwards. Her half-brother the Duc de Richelieu was nominated as First Minister under the Restoration. She was a friend of Chateaubriand’s.
BkXXII:Chap10:Sec1 In Paris in 1814.
BkXXV:Chap13:Sec1 She encouraged him to seek a reconciliation.
Montcalm-Gozon, Louis-Joseph de, Marquis de Saint-Véran
1712-1759. A veteran of the War of the Polish Succession and the War of the Austrian Succession, he was sent (1756) to defend Canada in the French and Indian Wars. His position was subordinate to that of the Marquis de Vaudreuil de Cavagnal, governor of New France, and protests to the home authorities against the dishonesty of the provincial administration and the evil consequences of divided command were without avail. Montcalm's capture of Fort Ontario at Oswego (1756) restored control of Lake Ontario to France, and he besieged and captured (1757) Fort William Henry on Lake George. This victory was marred by the massacre of English prisoners by his Native American allies, although Montcalm finally restored order at the risk of his life. In 1758 he concentrated a force of 3,800 at Ticonderoga and successfully withstood an attack by a large British force under Gen. James Abercrombie. In 1759, still handicapped by Vaudreuil's interference, Montcalm successfully defended Quebec against the siege of Gen. James Wolfe until the strategy of the English effected an open engagement. The British were victorious (Sept. 13, 1759), but both Wolfe and Montcalm were killed.
Montebello, Duc de, see Lannes
Montenotte, Battle of
12th of April 1796. At the head of 45,000 starving troops, Napoleon Bonaparte moved into Lombardy and found himself between a large Piedmontese army under General Baron Colli (25,000) and an Austrian force of 35,000 under Jean Pierre Beaulieu. Moving between them, he took 10,000 men and smashed through a small force of 4500 troops on Beaulieu’s right at Montenotte, near Savona.
The town at the confluence of the Seine and Yonne, is south-east of Paris.
BkXXII:Chap9:Sec1 Napoleon fighting there in 1814. He had captured shakos thrown into the Seine so they could be seen in Paris.
Between Rome and Radicofani.
Montespan, Françoise-Athénaïs de Rochecouart, Marquise de
BkIV:Chap3:Sec1 She and her sisters were noted beauties.
Montesquieu, Charles de Secondat, Baron de
1689-1755. French jurist and political philosopher, he was councillor (1714) of the parlement of Bordeaux and its president (1716–28). He gained a seat in the French Academy in 1728. His Persian Letters (1721) brought him immediate fame. Supposedly written by Persian travellers in Europe and their friends, they satirized and criticized French institutions. In 1734 he produced a scientific historical study of the rise and fall of Rome, Considérations sur les causes de la grandeur des Romains et de leur décadence. His greatest work, The Spirit of the Law (1748), is a comparative study of three types of government—republic, monarchy, and despotism—and shows John Locke’s influence. Its main theories are that climate and circumstances determine the form of governments and that the powers of government should be separated and balanced in order to guarantee the freedom of the individual. Written with brilliance of style, it had great historical importance and influenced the formation of the American Constitution.
BkXIV:Chap7:Sec1 His familiarity with the Vatican buildings. He visited Rome in 1729.
BkXVIII:Chap6:Sec1 His Defence of The Spirit of the Law, against the criticism it had attracted, was published in 1750. The book was still put on the proscribed list by the Church in 1751.
BkXVIII:Chap8:Sec2 His Temple of Gnidus of 1725, a short novel of a sensuous turn written for the licentious society of the Regency epoch.
BkXXVIII:Chap10:Sec1 As a model of 18th century style.
BkXXXIX:Chap13:Sec1 See Lettres persanes, XXXI and CXLI. Anais appears in the latter.
Montesquiou-Fezensac, Anne-Elisabeth-Pierre, Comte de
1764-1834. Grand Chamberlain to Napoleon who made him a Baron.
Montesquiou-Fezensac, Anatole, Comte then Marquis de
1788-1878. Aide de camp to Napoleon in 1814, he entered the service of the Duc d’Orleans, as aide de camp in 1816, then from 1823 as knight of honour to the Duchess. A poet, he translated Petrarch. He was a Deputy 1834-1841, and then a Peer of France.
BkXXXIII:Chap5:Sec1 Makes an approach to Chateaubriand in 1830.
Montesquiou-Fezensac, François-Xavier-Marc-Antoine, Abbé then Duc de
1756-1832. Appointed to the States General of 1789, he chaired the Parliament of the 4th-18th January 1790. He emigrated to England then to America in September 1792. He returned to France after 9th Thermidor and was one of the agents of Louis XVIII. A Member of the Royalist Committee of Paris, he was exiled for a time to Menton. Under the first Restoration, he was named Minister of the Interior (May 13 1814 - March 19 1815). Under the second Restoration, he had the title of minister of State. He left manuscripts on the history of Louis XV and of Louis XVI.
BkXXII:Chap17:Sec1 A Member of the Provisional Government in 1814.
BkXXII:Chap 24:Sec1 Minister of the Interior 1814-5.
BkXXIII:Chap5:Sec1 In London during the Hundred Days.
Montfort, Comte de, See Jérôme Bonaparte
Montfort, Jean, Comte de
1339-1399. Jean V of Brittany, known as the Conqueror, was duke of Brittany, from 1345 to his death. He was son of Duke John IV and Joanna of Flanders. The first part of his rule was marred by the Breton War of Succession, fought against his cousin Joanna of Dreux and her husband Charles of Blois. In 1364, John V won an important victory against the House of Blois in the battle of Auray, with the help of the English army. His rival Charles was killed in battle and Joanna forced to sign the Treaty of Guérande. In the terms of the treaty, Joanna gave up her rights to Brittany and recognized John V as sole master of the duchy. Surprisingly, John V declared himself a vassal to king Charles V of France, not to Edward III of England who helped him to become duke. Nevertheless, the French exerted pressure over Brittany and the local nobles and forced John V into exile between 1373 and 1379.
Montfort, Simon de
c1160-1218. Count of Montfort and Earl of Leicester. A participant in the Fourth Crusade (1202–4), he did not join in the sack of Constantinople, but instead proceeded to Syria. He later led the crusade against the Albigenses. Capable, ambitious, and fanatically religious, he commanded the Crusaders who remained in S France after the taking (1209) of Carcassone and, with papal approval, was elected viscount of Béziers and of Carcassone by the armies. In 1211 he attacked the remaining territories of Raymond VI of Toulouse and overran all but Toulouse and Montauban. Pope Innocent III attempted to make him recognize Peter II of Aragón as overlord, but in 1213 Simon defeated Peter and Raymond at Muret. He was proclaimed lord of Toulouse and Montauban by the Crusaders (1215), and his title was confirmed by the pope at the Lateran Council. Raymond recaptured (1217) some of his territories, and Simon renewed the warfare; he was killed while besieging Toulouse. Through his mother he claimed the English earldom of Leicester, to which his right was intermittently recognized by King John. His son, also Simon de Montfort, was the leader of the English barons.
Montgascon, Clément Acher, Baron de
A Royalist volunteer from Toulouse he was in service with the Dauphin from 1814 to at least 1830. He was made a Baron in 1827.
BkXXXII:Chap12:Sec1 At Saint-Cloud in July 1830.
Montgelas, Maximilien-Josef Garnerin, Graf von
1759-1838. A Bavarian statesman, from a noble family in Savoy, in the field of internal politics he may be regarded as the most successful German politician of the early 19th century. He created the first modern constitution for Bavaria in 1808, and reinstituted the civil service on ethical lines, creating a group of servants loyal only to the crown and kingdom of Bavaria. His enemies persuaded the king to dismiss him in 1817, and he spent the remainder of his life as a member of the Bavarian House of Lords.
BkXXVI:Chap8:Sec1 Mentioned, as a progressive (though he was not a parliamentarian).
Montholon, Charles-Tristan, Marquis de
1783-1853. Followed Bonaparte throughout his career, and became an aid-de-camp to the Emperor. He and his wife went to St Helena and remained there until Napoleon’s death in 1821. Montholon had to spend many years in Belgium; and in 1840 acted as ‘chief of staff’ in the absurd ‘expedition’ conducted by Louis Napoleon from London to Boulogne. He was condemned to imprisonment at Ham, but was released in 1847; he then retired to England and published the Récits de la captivité de Napoleon à Ste Hélène. In 1849 he became one of the deputies for the Legislative Assembly under the Second French Republic.
BkXXIV:Chap11:Sec1 He transmitted Napoleon’s complaints about conditions on St Helena to England.
BkXXIV:Chap14:Sec1 See Mémoires pour servir IV.
Montholon, Albine Hélène (de Vassal), previously Madame Roger, Comtesse de
1779 or 1780-1848. Wife of above (1812). She left Memoirs.
BkXXIV:Chap10:Sec1 She accompanied her husband to St Helena.
1754-1828. Poet and tragedian, he is representative of Italian neo-Classical literature.
Preface:Sect3. Mentioned by Chateaubriand.
BkXL:Chap1:Sec1 He was born in Ferrara.
Montléar, Monsieur then Prince of
He married Marie-Christina of Saxony in 1800.
Montlhéry lay on the strategically important road from Paris to Orléans. It was an old Gaulish site, called Mons Aetricus by the Romans. Under the Merovingians it was owned by the church in Rheims, and in 768 it was given to the abbey of St. Denis in Paris. It is famous for its castle, of which only the tower remains today.
BkXVIII:Chap3Sec3 Mentioned as a typical ancient tower site of France, local to Paris, therefore a humdrum site to visit!
Montlosier, François Dominique de Reynaud, Comte de
1755-1838. He was returned in 1791 to the Constituent Assembly, where he sat on the Royalist side, and he emigrated on its dissolution in September 1791, joining the emigrant army at Coblenz. After Valmy, he withdrew to Hamburg, and then London. In his Courrier de Londres, he advocated moderation and the abandonment by the exiles of any idea of revenge. He was recalled to Paris in 1801. The Courrier was soon suppressed, nevertheless, its editor being compensated by a comfortable sinecure in the ministry of foreign affairs. Next year he sold his pen to the government to edit the violent anti-English Bulletin de Paris. At Napoleon's request he undertook an account of the ancient monarchy of France, which was rejected because of the stress laid on the feudal limitations of royal authority. His views were no more acceptable to Louis XVIII than they had been to the emperor, and he devoted himself to agriculture until he was roused by the clerical and reactionary policy of Charles X. His anti-clerical Memoire a consulter sur un systems religieux, politique (1826) rapidly passed through eight editions. He had no part in the revolution of 1830, but supported Louis Philippe’s government and entered the House of Peers in 1832. Ecclesiastical burial was denied him because he had refused to abjure his anti-clerical writings.
BkX:Chap5:Sec1 The Courrier mentioned.
BkXI:Chap2:Sec2 His celebrated phrase uttered on 7th January 1791 in the Assembly regarding the refractory Bishops: ‘If you took away their cross of gold, they would still possess a cross of wood, and it is a cross of wood that saved the world.’
BkXXVIII:Chap11:Sec1 His attacks on the Jesuits 1825-1826, which made him a spokesman for the anti-clerical liberal left. He owned the Château de Randanne (at Aurières in the Puy-de-Dôme, Auvergne), from which he writes.
Montlouet, Francois-Jean-Raphaël de Brunes, Marquis de
1728-1787. He was Commissioner for the States of Brittany.
Montluc, Blaise de Lasseran-Massencôme, Seigneur de,
c.1502–1577. Marshal of France, he was a Gasçon soldier of fortune who fought in the Italian Wars and the Wars of Religion. His famous Commentaires (1592), which King Henry IV called ‘the soldier’s bible,’ constitute an admirable military history.
BkIV:Chap6:Sec1 Chateaubriand mentions his regrets regarding his son. Montluc was wounded and disfigured in 1570. His second son had died in Madeira in 1566.
A town north of Troyes it is in the Marne.
BkXXII:Chap9:Sec1 Napoleon fighting there in 1814.
Montmirel or Monmirail
Chateaubriand’s chef during the London Embassy in 1822, who supposedly invented the Chateaubriand steak, named after his master, or alternatively the Chateaubriant steak named after his native town.
BkXXVIII:Chap1:Sec1 In Paris in 1823.
BkXXXVI:Chap4:Sec1 Mentioned in 1833.
In the Val d'Oise department of northern France, a suburb north of Paris, J. J. Rousseau lived there (1756–62), first at the nearby ‘Hermitage’ a cottage on the estate of his friend, Madame Louise de Lalive d’Epinay, and after his quarrel with her, in Montmorency itself. Rousseau lived at the cottage during 1756-1757.
Montmorency, Anne de, Constable of France
1493-1567. Named, it is said, after his godmother Anne of Brittany, was the first to attain the ducal title (1551). He was made a Marshal (1522) by Francis I, was captured with Francis at Pavia (1525), helped negotiate (1526) Francis’ release, and soon after the king’s return received the governorship of Languedoc, which remained in his family until 1632. He was made constable in 1538. His enemies at court and his policy of peace with Holy Roman Emperor Charles V finally led to his disgrace (1541), which lasted until Francis’ death (1547). King Henry II restored him to a degree of favour limited by the influence of François and Charles de Guise. He took Metz from the Spanish (1552) and was captured (1557) by Emmanuel Philibert of Savoy at Saint-Quentin, but was soon released. Dismissed by Francis II, he was restored to office by Catherine de’ Medici. He joined the Guises in the Wars of Religion, was captured at Dreux (1562), and was killed in the siege of St. Denis.
Montmorency, Anne-Louise-Caroline de Gouyon-Matignon, Baronne de
1774-1846. Grand-daughter of the Baron de Bretueil, she was the daughter of the Comte de Gacé, Louis-Charles-Auguste de Goyon-Matignon, and Madame de Matignon. She married Anne-Charles-François de Montmorency (1768-1846), Marquis de Fosseux, Premier Baron de France, Premier Baron Chrétien, Prince d’Aigrenons, Peer of France.
BkIX:Chap8:Sec1 Chateaubriand met her in 1792.
Montmorency-Laval, Anne-Pierre-Adrien de, Duc de Laval
1768-1837. He married, 1788, his cousin Bonne-Charlotte de Montmorency-Luxembourg. He was at the court of Louis XVI in 1785. He emigrated during the Revolution and enlisted in the Princes’ army as his father’s aide-de-camp, returning to France in 1800. Named marshal in 1814, he was successively Ambassador to Madrid, Rome (1822-1828), Vienna (1828-1829), and London in September 1829, after refusing the Foreign Ministry. He was an admirer of Madame Récamier and friend of Madame de Staël.
BkXIII:Chap10:Sec1 Mentioned, in 1802.
BkXXII:Chap 23:Sec1 An avowed Royalist.
BkXXVIII:Chap16:Sec1 Chateaubriand was appointed Ambassador to Rome on the 2nd June 1828, the Duc de Laval was appointed to Vienna on the 11th of June.
BkXXX:Chap10:Sec1 BkXXXI:Chap1:Sec1 Laval was appointed Foreign Minister on the 24th April 1829, and this was known in Rome on the 7th of May, meanwhile Laval turned down the post and Portalis was appointed.
BkXXX:Chap11:Sec1 His involvement in the Treaty of Trinitá dei Monti.
BkXXXI:Chap3:Sec1 Chateaubriand recommends him for the Rome Embassy in 1829.
Montmorency, Charlotte de, see Condé
Niece of François.
Montmorency, François, Duc de, marshal of France
Montmorency, Henri II, Duc de
1595-1632. He succeeded his father as governor of Languedoc in 1608 and became grand admiral in 1612. Duke de Montmorency from 1614, he campaigned against the Huguenots in 1620 and took part in the sieges of Montauban and Montpellier. Marshal of France from December 1630, he joined the faction of Gaston, Duke d’Orléans, and tried to raise Languedoc against Cardinal de Richelieu. After he was defeated in battle at Castelnaudary (Sept. 1, 1632) and taken prisoner, he was tried before the Parlement of Toulouse and, despite the pleas of several prominent persons, was executed as a traitor.
BkXIV:Chap2:Sec5 Chateaubriand quotes from Michaud (1821).
BkXIX:Chap7:Sec1 The drinking of his blood by his supporters.
Montmorency-Laval, Mathieu-Jean-Félicité, Vicomte then Duc de
1767-1826. A French politician, he served with his father, the Vicomte de Laval, in America, and returned to France imbued with democratic opinions. He was governor of Compiègne when he was returned as deputy to the States-general in 1789, where he joined the Third Estate. He moved the abolition of coats-of-arms on June 19, 1790. The dissolution of the Constituent Assembly in September 1791 set him free to join Lückner’s army on the frontier early in the next year. After the revolution of the 20th of August he abandoned his revolutionary principles; and he took no part in politics under the Empire. At the Restoration he was promoted maréchal de camp, and accompanied Louis XVIII to Ghent during the Hundred Days. At the second restoration, in 1815, he was made a peer of France, and two years later received the title of viscount. He adopted strong reactionary and ultra-montane views, and became minister of foreign affairs under Villèle in December 1821. He recommended armed intervention in Spain, to restore Ferdinand VII, at the Congress of Verona in October 1822, but he resigned his post in December, being compensated by the title of duke and the cross of the Legion of Honour in the next year. He was elected to the French Academy in 1825, though he appears to have had small qualifications for the honour, and in the next year became tutor to the six-year-old Henri, duke of Bordeaux (afterwards known as the Comte de Chambord). He died two months after receiving this last appointment, on the 24th of March 1826. He was a type of the Christian knight in modern times.
BkV:Chap10:Sec1 He attacked aristocratic privileges in the National Assembly on 4th August 1789.
BkXXII:Chap 23:Sec1 An avowed Royalist.
BkXXV:Chap13:Sec1 He writes to Chateaubriand, who had been given the post of Plenipotentiary Minister to Berlin in the second half of November 1820.
Foreign Minister from December 14th 1821. Chateaubriand writes to him from the London Embassy.
BkXXVII:Chap5:Sec1 His refusal to negotiate with England over the Spanish colonies in South America.
Montmorin, Gustave-Auguste de
Brother of Pauline de Beaumont, he drowned in 1793, near Mauritius.
Montmorin, Calixte de
1772-1794. Son of Armand-Marc, he was guillotined May 1794.
Montmorin, Comte de
He was the commander of a cavalry unit of Musketeers in 1792.
Montmorin-Saint-Hérem, Armand-Marc, Comte de
1746-1792. Foreign Minister 1787-1791 under Louis XIV, he was the father of Pauline de Beaumont. He had been commandant for the King in Brittany from 1784 to 1787. He was a devoted admirer of Jacques Necker, whose influence at court he helped maintain. He retired when Necker was dismissed, but on Necker’s recall again resumed his office. He worked closely with Mirabeau whose death in April 1791 was a severe blow to Montmorin, the difficulty of whose position was enormously increased after the flight of the royal family to Varennes, to which he was not privy. He was forced to resign office, but still continued to advise Louis, and was one of the inner circle of the king's friends, called by the revolutionists ‘the Austrian Committee.’ In June 1792 his papers were seized at the foreign office, without anything incriminating being discovered; in July he was denounced, and after August 10 was proscribed. He took refuge in the house of a washerwoman, but was discovered, taken before the Legislative Assembly, and imprisoned in the Abbaye, where he perished in the September Massacres. His relative, Louis Victor Henri, Marquis de Montmorin de Saint Herem, head of the senior branch of the family, also perished in the massacre.
BkV:Chap14:Sec1 His house a fashionable meeting place.
BkXVI:Chap1:Sec1 The house built on the Rue Plumet is now 27 Rue Oudinot, it held the nonciature of Cardinal Caprara.
Montmorin, Françoise de Tanes, Comtesse de
1742-1794. The wife of Armand, she was guillotined May 1794.
Montolieu, Jeanne Pauline Isabelle Polier de Bottens de Crousaz, Baronne de
1751-1832. A prolific writer, adaptor and translator, her translation of Swiss Family Robinson by Wyss was well-known. She adapted Jane Austen’s Sense and Sensibility among other texts.
The ancient university (founded 1220) town in southern France, six miles from the Mediterranean coast, it is the capital of the Languedoc-Roussillon region. The original name was Monspessulanus, perhaps meaning ‘the bare hill’. It came to prominence in the 10th century as a trade city, and had a rich Jewish, Muslim, and Cathar culture. It later became a Protestant stronghold and was besieged by Louis XIII.
BkXIV:Chap2:Sec4 Chateaubriand was there in 1802.
Montpensier, Louis Antoine Philippe d’Orléans, Duc de
1775-1807. He was the younger brother of Louis-Philippe.
Montrond, Casimir, Comte de
1768-1843. A French diplomatic agent, he was the son of a military officer; his mother, Anglique Marie d’Arlus, comtesse de Montrond (d. 1827), was a royalist writer, said to be the author of the Troubadour barnois, a song which has the refrain ‘Louis, le fils de Henri, Est prisonnier dans Paris’. He was the confidant and political agent of Talleyrand, and his inside knowledge of politics enabled him to make a large fortune on the Bourse. In 1809 he was disgraced for some imprudent comments on the imperial system, and exiled from Paris. He returned to France at the first Bourbon restoration, and during the Hundred Days was entrusted with a mission to Vienna to convert Talleyrand to Napoleon’s interests, to see Metternich and Nesselrode, and to bring back, if possible, Marie Louise and the King of Rome. On Talleyrand’s fall he accompanied him to Valencay and continued to help with his intrigues. He followed Talleyrand to London in 1832, but returned to Paris some time before his death.
BkXXIII:Chap11:Sec1 His intrigues in Ghent in 1815.
The Montrouge Plain lay within the current XIVth Arrondissement. Like Montparnasse to the north or Montsouris to the east, it was an area containing quarries, used as catacombs and to provide hiding places, storage etc over the centuries. From 1785 to 1786, in 15 months, millions of bones and rotting corpses were transported from the unsanitary city cemetery in Les Halles to the catacombs, in huge carts at night across the city.
BkXXXV:Chap16:Sec1 BkXXXVI:Chap1:Sec1 Mentioned. The Barrière du Maine was on the site of the existing Place Bienvenue. The Moulin Janséniste was a name given to the Moulin des Trois-Cornets on the Chemin de Vanves (Rue Raymond Losserand) because of its proximity to the Oratoriens College. The Pavillon de Lauzun was between Boulevard St Jacques and Rue Jean-Dolent, formerly Rue de Biron. The ruined mill was the so-called Moulin des Frères de la Charité, since it served as a rendezvouz for walkers from the Jesuit College of Louis le Grand. The cemetery was that of Montparnasse brought into service in July 1824.
Monvel, (Jacques-Marie Boutet)
1745-1812. An Actor, he debuted in 1770. Secretly left Paris for Sweden about 1781, and became reader to the king, a post which he held for several years. At the Revolution he returned to Paris, embraced its principles with ardour, and in 1791, joined the theatre in the Rue Richelieu (the rival of the Comédie Francaise), which, under Talma, with Dugazon, his sister Mme Vestris, Grandmesnil and Mme Desgarcins, was soon to become the Théatre de la République. After the Revolution Monvel returned to the reconstituted Comédie Française with all his old companions, but retired in 1807. He wrote six plays and a historical novel.
BkIV:Chap11:Sec1 Actor at the Théâtre-Français.
BkXLII:Chap3:Sec1 His comic opera (music by Nicolas Dalayrac) Ambroise, premiered at the Théâtre-Italien on 21st January 1793.
1779-1852. The Irish poet who composed new verses to traditional tunes, and published ten volumes of his Irish Melodies was a friend of Lord Byron, and published Byron’s journals after his death.
BkXII:Chap3:Sec1 Mentioned as a recognised living poet in 1822.
Morand, Charles Antoine Louis Alexis, Comte
1771-1835. A Napoleonic General he fought in Italy, Egypt, Prussia and Austria. He was Governor of Hamburg 1810-1812. He campaigned in Russia and was wounded at Borodino. His support for Napoleon carried on to Waterloo. He was subsequently exiled to Poland, and condemned later to death, but acquitted and re-instated in 1819.
A gentleman of the neighbourhood of Combourg.
Morbihan is a département in the northwest of France named after the Morbihan (small sea in Breton), the enclosed sea that is the principal feature of the coastline. It was one of the original 83 departments created during the French Revolution on March 4, 1790, from part of the former province of Brittany.
The name Morea (Greek: Μωρέας) was used to refer to the Peloponnese peninsula in southern Greece during the Middle Ages and the early modern period. The name was also used to refer to a Byzantine province in the region, known as the Despotate of Morea.
BkVIII:Chap4:Sec2 The short-lived insurrection there in 1770, incited by the Russians, against the Ottoman Empire which held the region. Greeks then fled to Florida.
BkXVIII:Chap3Sec2 Chateaubriand’s passport issued by the Pasha.
BkXXIII:Chap8:Sec1 An example of French influence.
BkXXXIX:Chap5:Sec1 Its churches.
d.1812. Son of Julie de Bedée, Madame Moreau, and a cousin of Chateaubriand’s. He married and became a tobacco-bonder in Fougères.
BkIV:Chap2:Sec1 BkIV:Chap3:Sec2 Julie-Angélique de Bedée married Jean-François Moreau, Procureur of the High Court of Brittany and Municipal Magistrate of Rennes, in 1744. Annibal was their son. He met the young Chateaubriand in Paris in 1786.
BkIV:Chap8:Sec1 He was not in Paris in 1787 when Chateaubriand stayed there.
Moreau, Jean-Victor-Marie, General
1763-1813. A French Breton general in the Revolutionary Wars who despite his successes on the Rhine and in Germany (1796–97), was dismissed for withholding compromising information about General Pichegru after the coup of 18 Fructidor (1797); he was later reinstated (Apr. 1799) at the head of the French army in Italy. After helping Napoleon in the coup of 18 Brumaire he was given command (1800) in Germany and routed the Austrians at Hohenlinden. At the conclusion of the war Moreau began to oppose Bonaparte. Informed of the royalist Cadoudal plot of 1804, he neither joined nor revealed it; after its discovery he was arrested and sentenced to imprisonment for two years. The sentence was commuted to exile, which he spent in Spain and America. Returning to Europe in 1813, he assisted the allies as an adviser in their war against Napoleon, but was killed fighting against France at the Battle of Dresden.
Preface:Sect1 Chateaubriand mentions meeting him.
BkV:Chap7:Sec1 Provost of the law school at Rennes in 1789.
BkXVI:Chap1:Sec1 He was arrested on the 15th February 1804.
BkXIX:Chap12:Sec1 A quotation from him. The Battle of Tourcoing (1794) established Moreau's military fame, and in 1795 he was given the command of the Army of the Rhine-and-Moselle, with which he crossed the Rhine and advanced into Germany. He was at first completely successful and won several victories and penetrated to the Tsar, but at last had to retreat before the Archduke Charles of Austria. However, the skill he displayed in conducting his retreat—which was considered a model for such operations—greatly enhanced his own reputation, the more so as he managed to bring back with him more than 5000 prisoners.
BkXIX:Chap18:Sec2 Apparently opposed to Napoleon on the latter’s return to France from Egypt.
BkXX:Chap1:Sec1 His ill luck.
BkXX:Chap10:Sec1 His civilised attitude to war.
BkXX:Chap11:Sec1 His involvement in anti-Bonaparte sentiment. His death at Dresden.
BkXXII:Chap4:Sec1 Returned from America to die at Dresden.
BkXXII:Chap15:Sec1 A great general of the Republic.
BkXXII:Chap 20:Sec3 His comment on Bonaparte’s character.
BkXXIV:Chap7:Sec1 His victory at Hohenlinden paved the way for later achievements.
BkXXXVII:Chap10:Sec1 In Prague in 1813 at the Tsar’s headquarters.
The wife of Jean-Victor, she was called La Maréchale Moreau.
BkXXVIII:Chap18:Sec1 She joined her husband in America.
Moreau de Saint-Méry, Médéric-Louis-Élie
1750-1819. The Deputy representing Martinique, he became President of the Paris electors. He emigrated to the United States after the 10th of August 1792.
BkV:Chap9:Sec1 He was one of those who met and harangued the King at the Hôtel de Ville on the 17th July 1789.
Morellet, Abbé André
1727-1819. Encyclopaedist and critic.
BkXVIII:Chap8:Sec2 Chateaubriand met him in 1811.
BkXIX:Chap11:Sec1 His pamphlets in 1795.
BkXXV:Chap2:Sec1 His reception of La Monarchie selon la Charte.
1643-1680. b. at Bargemont in the Diocese of Frejus, France, 25 March, 1643, d. at Paris, 10 July, 1680. Roman Catholic priest and scholar. Author of a Grand dictionnaire historique. Translated as Louis Moreri’s Great Historical, Geographical and Poetical Dictionary; Being a Curious Miscellany of Sacred and Profane History, printed for Henry Rhodes, Luke Meredith, John Harris, and Thomas Newborough in London in 1694.
BkI:Chap1:Sec3 A source of information regarding Chateaubriand’s family.
Morice, Dom Pierre-Hyacinthe
Eighteenth century historian. Author of the Histoire ecclésiastique et civile de Bretagne (1750 )
BkI:Chap1:Sec3 A source of information regarding Chateaubriand’s family.
Mormoran (or Monmuran or Morman)
There was a Breton family (and château of that name) between Fougères, Dol and Rennes, from which Chateaubriand claimed descent.
Mornay-Duplessis, Charlotte Arbeleste de
1550-1606. The wife of Philippe de Mornay (1549-1623), she married him in 1576 at Sedan.
BkXXXII:Chap7:Sec1 Her Memoirs were issued in 1824. The reference is perhaps to his flight through the Porte Saint-Denis at the time of the Massacre in 1572.
Morosini, Michele, Doge
1308-1382. He was Doge of Venice in 1382.
BkXXXIX:Chap7:Sec1 His tomb in Santi Giovanni e Paolo, Venice.
The three daughters of Gabriel de Rochechouart, Duc de Mortemart: Gabrielle, Marquise de Thiange: Francoise-Athénaïs, Marquise de Montespan: Marie-Gabrielle, Abbess of Fontevrault.
Mortemart, Victurnien-Bonaventure-Victor de Rochecouart, Marquis de
1753-1823. Colonel of the Navarre Regiment. Lieutenant-General in 1815, and Member of the Chamber of Peers alongside Chateaubriand.
BkIV:Chap4:Sec1 Chateaubriand first encountered him in 1786.
BkV:Chap15:Sec1 He left his regiment because of his promotion to Field-Marshal in March 1790. He subsequently quit his post by September 1791.
BkIX:Chap9:Sec1 Leading the Navarre Regiment’s émigré officers in 1792.
Mortemart, Casimir-Louis-Victurnien de Rochechouart, Duc de
1787-1875. Having served Napoleon, Louis XVIII appointed him Colonel of the Cent Suisses and Peer of France (1814). After Ghent he commanded the Paris National Guard. A General in 1828 he succeeded La Ferronays as Ambassador to St Petersburg (1831-1833).
BkXXXII:Chap6:Sec1 At Saint-Cloud on the 29th of July 1830.
BkXXXII:Chap10:Sec1 Chateaubriand meets him at the Luxembourg Palace on the 30th of July.
BkXXXII:Chap11:Sec1 Mentioned on the 30th of July.
Mortier, Édouard-Adolphe-Casimir-Joseph, Marshal of France, Duke of Treviso
1768-1835. A Napoleonic General he had fought in the French revolutionary wars. He distinguished himself under Napoleon in Germany and Spain, and led the Young Guard into battle at Borodino. He joined Napoleon on his return from exile, but illness stopped him having any hand in the 100 Days’ Campaign. He subsequently served at Marshal Ney’s court martial. After the second restoration he was for a time in disgrace, but in 1819 was readmitted to the Chamber of Peers. In 1830-1831 he was Ambassador of France at St Petersburg, and in 1834-1835 minister of war and president of the council of ministers. In 1835, while accompanying Louis Philippe to a review, marshal Mortier and eleven others were killed by the bomb aimed at the king by Fieschi.
BkXXI:Chap4:Sec2 Appointed Governor of Moscow in 1812.
BkXXII:Chap9:Sec1 Defending Paris in 1814.
BkXXII:Chap12:Sec1 He accepted the surrender of Paris in 1814.
BkXXIII:Chap4:Sec1 Escorted the King from Lille to the border in 1815.
Morus, Sir Thomas More
1478-1535. He was a Renaissance English author and Catholic martyr.
The Scottish mainland, over the sound from Mull, is much mentioned in the Ossian legends.
BkIII:Chap8:Sec1 The women of the legends.
The capital of Russia on the River Moskva, it was the centre of the Muscovy Principality from the 13th century. In 1712-13 the capital was transferred to St Petersburg. The city was invaded by Napoleon and destroyed by fire in 1812.
BkIV:Chap1:Sec2 The Battle of the Moskowa, September 7th 1812, was the largest single-day battle of the Napoleonic Wars, involving nearly a quarter of a million soldiers. It was fought by the Grande Armée under Napoleon and the Russian army of Alexander near the village of Borodino, west of the town of Mozhaysk. The battle ended with inconclusive tactical results for both armies, and only strategic considerations forced the Russians to withdraw.
Napoleon’s Russian Campaign of 1812.
BkXIX:Chap16:Sec3 BkXXI:Chap4:Sec2 The retreat from Moscow. Poklonnaya Gora or the Hill of Salutation is, at 171.5 metres, one of the highest spots in Moscow. Its two summits used to be separated by the Setun River, until one of the summits was razed in 1987. Historically, the hill had strategic importance, as it commanded the best view of the Russian capital. In 1812, it was the spot where Napoleon in vain expected the keys to the Kremlin to be brought to him by obedient Russians. The name ‘Poklonnaya’ derives from ‘poklon’ or ‘bow’, a Russian gesture of respect to a person or object of high reverence. The Peterskoi (Petrovsky) Palace was built for Peter the Great, by Kazakov, in 1775–82, on the road to St Petersburg just north of Moscow. The giant bell standing on display in the Moscow Kremlin is actually the last of the four bells which bore the nickname Tsar-Kolokol or Tsar-Bell. In 1730, Empress Anna Ioanovna gave the order to re-cast the remains of the third Tsar-Bell, with the addition of 32 tons of new metal, bringing the weight to 220 tons. It was damaged by fire and never rang.
BkXXI:Chap7:Sec1 The cross from Ivan the Great’s bell-tower (built on the site of St John Climacus-beneath-the-bells) was removed by Napoleon’s troops.
A town in the Sigmaringen district of Baden-Württemberg, Germany.
BkXXXVI:Chap5:Sec1 Chateaubriand there in 1833.
Motteville, Françoise Bertaut de
c1621-1689. A French memoir writer, she was the daughter of Pierre Bertaut, a gentleman of the king’s chamber. After the death of her husband, she was summoned to court in 1642. Her chief work is her Mémoires, which are in effect a history of Anne of Austria
Mouchy, Duc de, see Noailles
The capital of the Allier department, central France, on the Allier River was formerly the capital of the duchy of Bourbonnais (c.10th-16th century). The dukes resided at Moulins from the mid-14th century, though the city did not become capital of the duchy until the late 15th cent. The duchy was confiscated by the French crown in 1527. In 1566, Charles IX held an assembly at Moulins where important administrative and legal reforms were adopted.
BkXXII:Chap 20:Sec1 Napoleon passed through in his way to Elba in 1814.
Mounier, Claude Edouard Phillippe, Baron
1784-1843. Former secretary to Napoleon, he became a Peer at the Restoration (1819). In 1820/21 he was Director General of Police.
Mozart, Wolfgang Amadeus
1756-1791. The Austrian composer was born in Salzburg. After a precocious musical childhood he went on to produce many of the greatest works of the Classical repertoire. He fused the German and Italianate styles of composition.
BkXVIII:Chap3Sec4 He wrote a set of piano variations (K265, 1778) on this eighteenth century French folk song for children, which has the tune of ‘Twinkle, twinkle little star’.
A mufti or imam present when Napoleon visited the Great Pyramid in 1798.
An aide-de-camp of Napoleon’s, killed at Arcola.
Müller, Johannes von
1752-1859. Swiss Historian, author of a History of Switzerland (1786-1795).
A city of southeast Germany on the Isar River, near the Bavarian Alps southeast of Augsburg, it was founded in 1158. In 1806 the city was made capital of the kingdom of Bavaria. Under the kings Louis I (1825–48), Maximilian II (1848–64), and Louis II (1864–86), Munich became a cultural and artistic centre.
BkXX:Chap5:Sec1 Napoleon entered the city on the 20th October 1805.
Munich, Christopher, Count of
1687-1777. A German General in the Russian Army.
Munster, Peace of
Munster in Germany was capital of the Prussian province of Westphalia, and formerly the capital of an important bishopric. It lies in a sandy plain on the Dortmund-Ems canal. The Thirty Years’ War, during which Munster suffered much from the Protestant armies, was terminated by the Treaty of Westphalia, sometimes called the Peace of Munster, because it was signed there on the 24th of October 1648.
A cluster of small islands connected by bridges in the Venice Lagoon, it has been the centre of the glassmaking industry since 1291 when the furnaces were moved there to reduce the risk of fire.
BkXXXIX:Chap10:Sec1 Chateaubriand visits in 1833.
Murat, Chevalier de, of the Order of Malta
1767-1815. Marshal of France, and King of Naples 1808-1814. He served in Napoleon’s campaigns in Italy (1796-97), and Egypt (1798-99), and fought at Marengo (1800) and Austerlitz (1805). In Naples he carried out reforms, and treated with the Austrians after Napoleon’s defeat in 1813, but was unable to regain his kingdom. He was defeated at Tolentino and executed.
BkIX:Chap6:Sec2 A member of the new King’s Guard in 1792.
BkXVI:Chap1:Sec1 With Napoleon at the Tuileries in March 1804.
BkXVI:Chap2:Sec3 BkXVI:Chap5:Sec1 Governor-general of Paris in 1804, at the time of the execution of the Duc d’Enghien. Chateaubriand considers him innocent of anything more than transmitting orders onwards.
BkXIX:Chap1:Sec1 King of Naples from 1808.
BkXIX:Chap9:Sec3 Murat was with Napoleon in Paris in May 1795.
BkXIX:Chap16:Sec2 His achievements in the East.
BkXX:Chap5:Sec3 On March 15th 1806, Murat was appointed Grand Duke of Berg (a medieval territory in today’s North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany, roughly located between the rivers Rhine, Ruhr and Sieg) and Cleves (a state of the Holy Roman Empire in present North Rhine-Westphalia, and the Netherlands including parts of Limburg, Noord-Brabant and Gelderland. Its territory was situated on both sides of the river Rhine, around its capital Cleves.
BkXXII:Chap8:Sec1 He writes to the Pope in April 1814.
BkXXIII:Chap13:Sec1 During the Hundred Days, he realized that the European Powers, meeting as the Congress of Vienna, had the intention to remove him and give back the Kingdom of Naples to its pre-Napoleonic rulers. Murat deserted his new allies, and, after issuing a proclamation to the Italian patriots in Rimini, moved north to fight against the Austrians to strengthen his rule in Italy by military means. He was defeated by Frederick Bianchi, a general of Francis I of Austria, in the Battle of Tolentino (May 2- May 3, 1815). He fled to Corsica after Napoleon’s fall. During an attempt to regain Naples through an insurrection in Calabria, he was arrested by the forces of his rival, Ferdinand IV of Naples, and was eventually executed by firing squad. Chateaubriand covered this in a section removed from the definitive edition of the Memoirs.
BkXXV:Chap5:Sec1 He came originally from Cahors, hence was ‘a southerner’.
Murat, Caroline Bonaparte, Madame
1782-1839. Wife of Murat, she became Queen of Naples.
Murat, Napoléon-Charles-Lucien, Prince
Murillo, Bartolomé Estéban
1617?-1682. Spanish religious and portrait painter, he was born in Seville, where most of his life was spent.
BkXXII:Chap3:Sec1 Paintings of his looted, restored in Paris, now in Madrid.
The nine Muses are the virgin daughters of Jupiter and Mnemosyne (Memory). They are the patronesses of the arts: Clio (History), Melpomene (Tragedy), Thalia (Comedy), Euterpe (Lyric Poetry), Terpsichore (Dance), Calliope (Epic Poetry), Erato (Love Poetry), Urania (Astronomy), and Polyhymnia (Sacred Song).
BkI:Chap1:Sec8 The Muse mentioned, as the goddess of poetry.
BkII:Chap7:Sec2 An invocation to Terpsichore, and Polyhymnia, that is Dance and Sacred Song.
BkXVIII:Chap1:Sec1 The Muses of Greece.
BkXLII:Chap6:Sec1 Called the Aonides from Mount Helicon in Aonia, an earlier name for Boeotia, and the Maeonides from Maeonia where Homer was reputedly born.
Shi’te Muslims, they followed Ali, the closest relative of Muhammad, as Muhammad's successor.
The Battle of Mycale was one of the two major battles that ended the Persian invasion of Greece, during the Greco-Persian Wars. The battle took place on or about August 27, 479 BC on the slopes of Mount Mycale, in mainland Ionia opposite the island of Samos. During the Greek War of Independence, Samos bore a conspicuous part, setting up a revolutionary government. It was in the strait between the island and Mount Mycale that Canaris set fire to and blew up a Turkish frigate, in the presence of the army that had been assembled for the invasion of the island, a success that led to the abandonment of the enterprise, and Samos held its own to the end of the war.