François de Chateaubriand

Mémoires d’Outre-Tombe: Index X



c. 430 - c. 355BC The Athenian historian was a disciple of Socrates before leaving Athens to join the Greek force (the Ten Thousand) in the service of Cyrus the Younger of Persia. They served at the disastrous battle of Cunaxa (401 BC). When Cyrus was killed, the Ten Thousand were forced to flee or surrender to the Persians. They retreated by fighting their way through an unknown and hostile land, harried by Tissaphernes. After the Greek generals had been treacherously killed by the Persians, Xenophon was chosen as one of the leaders of the heroic retreat. He tells the story in the most celebrated of his works, the Anabasis. After his return he was in the service of Sparta. He accompanied Agesilaus II on the campaign that ended (394 BC) in victory over the Athenians and Thebans at Coronea. The Athenians passed a sentence of banishment on him. Sparta gave him an estate at Scillus in the region of Elis, where he spent his time writing.

BkXXI:Chap8:Sec1 Mentioned.

BkXXX:Chap11:Sec2 His Cyropedia, a biography of Cyrus the Great.

Ximena Gomez

The wife of the Cid, she appears in the Spanish Romanceros or epic ballads concerning El Cid.

BkVIII:Chap3:Sec1 Mentioned.

Ximénès de Cisneros

1436-1517. Spanish priest, statesman, Regent, and Grand Inquisitor, he studied in Rome, and on his return to Spain was appointed confessor to Queen Isabella of Castile. In 1507 the pope invested him with the dignity of a cardinal, and at the same time he was appointed Grand Inquisitor, being the third to hold that office in Spain. Two years later he invaded North Africa in order to forcibly introduce Christianity. It is said that he succeeded in conquering the city of Oran by employing Jewish spies. On his return to Spain he founded the University of Alcalá de Henares, with the establishment of which is connected the publication of the first polyglot Bible. He was dismissed from the government service by Charles V. in 1517.

BkXXX:Chap11:Sec1 Mentioned.