Suetonius: The Twelve Caesars - Index BCD

Baiae, modern Baia, is on the Bay of Naples, and was named after Baius, supposedly buried there. It was a fashionable coastal resort, especially towards the end of the Roman Republic. To counter the frequent raids on Italy and the shipping routes for Rome’s grain supply, by Sextus Pompeius, Agrippa created a safe harbour from which to conduct a naval campaign against him. It was constructed from 37BC - 36BC and named the Portus Iulius in honour of Augustus who had taken the name Gaius Julius Caesar according to Julius Caesar’s will. Shortly after the successful conclusion of the war with Sextus, it was abandoned due to the piling up of silt. Nearby Misenum became the naval base for the Western Mediterranean. The port was located at the western end of the gulf of Naples and other than the waters of the bay, itself, consisted of three bodies of water in the area: Lake Lucrino, Lake Averno, and the natural inner and outer harbor behind Cape Misenum. Baiae was sacked by Muslim raiders in the 8th century and deserted due to malaria in 1500. Most of Baiae is now beneath the Bay of Naples, largely due to local volcanic activity.

BookTwoXVI Augustus created the Julian harbour, Portus Iulius, there.

BookTwoLXIV Augustus’ daughter Julia there.

BookThreeVI BookSixXXXI BookSixXXXIV Mentioned.

BookFourXIX Caligula constructed a bridge of boats over the bay to Puteoli.

BookSixXXVII Nero sailed the bay on pleasure cruises.

Balbillus, Tiberius Claudius was a Graeco-Egyptian astrologer and scholar. The son of astrologer Tiberius Claudius Thrasyllus, also known as Thrasyllus of Mendes and Princess Aka II of Commagene, his sister was Eunia, who married the Praetorian Prefect Naevius Sutorius Macro. He was born and raised in Alexandria, to which he returned during the reign of Caligula, returning to Rome under Claudius, of whom he had been a childhood friend. He accompanied Claudius on his expedition to Britain as an officer in the 20th legion (Legio XX Valeria Victrix) and was awarded a crown of honor. Appointed high priest at the Temple of Hermes in Alexandria and director of the Library, he lived there and in Rome. Nero, in 56AD appointed him Prefect of Egypt, where he stayed until 59AD. He returned to Rome under Vespasian. When he died, Vespasian dedicated the Balbillean Games, in honor of his memory, held at Ephesus from 79AD until well into the 3rd century.

BookSixXXXVI His interpretation of the appearance of a comet, during Nero’s reign.

Balbus, see Atius and Cornelius

Balearic Islands [the] are an archipelago in the western Mediterranean Sea, near the eastern coast of the Iberian Peninsula. The four largest islands are (from largest to smallest): Majorca, Minorca, Ibiza, and Formentera. The islands belonged, under the Empire, to the conventus of Carthago Nova (modern Cartagena), in the province of Hispania Tarraconensis, of which province they formed, the fourth district, under the government of a praefectus pro legato.

BookSevenX Mentioned, as a place of exile.

Basilides was a freedman of Vespasian who appeared miraculously to him in the Serapeum of Alexandria. Tacitus mentions a priest of the same name on Mount Carmel.

BookEightVII Mentioned.

Batavians. The Batavi were an ancient Germanic tribe, originally part of the Chatti, who lived around the Rhine delta, in the area of the modern Netherlands. The Batavi provided a contingent for the Emperor’s Horse Guard.

BookFourXLIII Caligula was warned by an oracle to supplement his Batavian Guards.

Bato, was the name of the leader of the Daesidiates tribe of Southern Pannonians, as well as the name of the leader of the Northern Breucian tribe who were both involved in the Illyrian revolt of 6AD. The former eventually executed the latter for treachery, and was himself finally besieged in his last refuge, Andetrium (Gornji Muc, a village 25km north of Split in Croatia) and captured.

BookThreeXX Tiberius settled the former leader in Ravenna.

Bauli, the modern Bacoli, was a village in Campania, located about 15km west of Naples, where wealthy Romans had their villas.

BookSixXXXIV Mentioned.

Beneventum, modern Benevento, is a town in Campania 50 km northeast of Naples. It is situated on a hill 130m above sea-level at the confluence of the Calore Irpino (or Beneventano) and Sabato. Under the Second Triumvirate its territory was portioned out by the Triumvirs to their veterans, and subsequently a fresh colony was established there by Augustus, who greatly enlarged its domain by the addition of the territory of Caudium (modern Montesarchio).

BookTwoXCVII Augustus intends to accompany Tiberius there in AD14, Tiberius being on his way to Illyricum, but is delayed by illness.

BookTwoXCVIII Augustus completes his journey there with Tiberius but falls ill again on the return journey.

BookSixXXXVI Nero discovers Vinicius’s conspiracy, oganised from there.

Berenice of Cilicia, or Julia Berenice (b. 28AD), was a member of the Jewish Herodian Dynasty, who ruled Judaea between 39BC and 92AD. She was the daughter of Herod Agrippa I, and sister of Herod Agrippa II. During the First Jewish-Roman War, she began an affair with the future emperor Titus. Her unpopularity in Rome compelled Titus to dismiss her on his accession as emperor in 79AD.

BookEightXXXII Mentioned.

Bessians, the Bessi were an independent Thracian tribe in the area ranging from Moesia to Mount Rhodope in southern Thrace, but are often mentioned as dwelling around Haemus, the mountain range that separates Moesia from Thrace, and from Mount Rhodope to the northern part of Hebrus.

BookTwoIII Augustus’ father fought them in a major battle.

Betriacum, or Bedriacum, was a Roman town on the Via Postumia about 35 kilometres east of modern Cremona.

BookSevenXXXII BookSevenXLV Otho’s army was defeated by Vitellius’s troops there on the 14th of April 69AD, in the first battle of Betriacum.

BookSevenL Marcus Antonius Primus, Vespasian’s general, encountered the Vitellian army between Betriacum and Cremona on the 24th October 69AD, and drove the Vitellian troops towards Cremona which he subsequently stormed and set ablaze.

BookEightV An omen of Vespasian’s victory was seen on the battlefield.

Bibulus Calpurnius, Marcus (d. 48BC) was the son in law of Marcus Porcius Cato Uticencis (Cato the Younger) He was elected consul for 60BC, supported by the optimates, conservative republicans in the Senate and opponents of Julius Caesar’s triumvirate. In 48BC he allied with Pompey against Caesar, commanding Pompey’s navy in the Adriatic.

BookOneIX His Edicts (not extant).

BookOneX BookOneXIX BookOneXXI He took second place to Julius Caesar as his co-consul.

BookOneXX So overwhelmed by Caesar that he withdrew from active Consulship.

BookOneXLIX On Caesar’s relationship with Nicomedes.

Bithynia was an ancient region, kingdom and Roman province in the northwest of Asia Minor, adjoining the Propontis, the Thracian Bosporus and the Euxine (today Black Sea).

BookOneII BookOneXLIX Julius Caesar on campaign there in 81BC.

BookOneXXXIX The sons of Bithynian princes performed a Pyrrhic dance during one of Caesar’s entertainments.

Bogudes, or Bogud. The Sons of Bocchus I (Sosus), Bocchus and his younger brother Bogud, jointly ruled Mauretania with Bocchus ruling east of the Mulucha River and his brother west. As enemies of the senatorial party, their title was recognized by Julius Caesar (49BC). During the African war they invaded Numidia and conquered Cirta, the capital of the kingdom of Juba. Dio Cassius says that Bocchus sent his sons to support Sextus Pompeius in Spain, while Bogud fought on the side of Caesar. After Caesar’s death Bocchus supported Octavian, and Bogud Antony. During Bogud’s absence in Spain, his brother seized the whole of Numidia, and was confirmed sole ruler by Octavian. After Bocchus’ death in 33BC, Numidia was made a Roman province.

BookOneLII Caesar reputedly had an affair with Bogud’s wife Eunoe.

Bona Dea, the Good Goddess, was the goddess associated with virginity and fertility in women. She was also associated with healing. She was regarded with great reverence by lower-class citizens, slaves and women, and was worshipped in her temple on the Aventine, though her secret rites were performed in the home of a prominent Roman magistrate. The rites were held on December 4, and men were excluded.

BookOneVI The festival was alleged to have been desecrated by Publius Clodius Pulcher in 62BC, who, it was claimed, secretly attended the ceremony at the house of the pontifex maximus, Julius Caesar, and there seduced Caesar’s wife Pompeia.

Bononia, modern Bologna, is the capital of the Emilia-Romagna region of modern Italy, north of Florence, between the Reno and Savena rivers. It lies at the northern foot of the Apennines, on the ancient Via Aemilia. Originally the Etruscan Felsina, it was occupied by the Gallic Boii in the 4th century BC and became a Roman colony and municipium (Bononia) c. 190BC. In 90BC, it acquired Roman citizenship, and in 43 BC was used as his base of operations against Decimus Brutus by Mark Antony, who settled colonists there,

BookTwoXVII Excused from rallying to his cause, by Augustus.

BookTwoXCVI Octavian (Augustus), Lepidus and Antony met at Bologna in Ocotber, 43BC, and formed the Second Triumvirate.

BookSixVII Nero delivered a plea on behalf of the citizens before Claudius in AD51.

Boter was a freedman of Claudius’s, who had an affair with Claudius’s wife Plautia Urgulanilla, and was the father of her daughter Claudia.

BookFiveXXVII Mentioned.

Bovillae was an ancient town on the Via Appia located c. 18km south-east of Rome. It was a colony of Alba Longa, and appears as one of the thirty cities of the Latin League. After the destruction of Alba Longa in 658BC the sacra were supposedly transferred to Bovillae, including the cult of Vesta and that of the gens Iulia. The existence of this hereditary worship led to an increase in its importance when the Julian house rose to power. In 16AD the family shrine was re-dedicated probably by the Augustales, an order of Roman priests instituted by Tiberius to maintain the cult of Augustus and the Iulii.

BookTwoC Augustus’ body carried there on its way to Rome.

Breuci, were an ancient people of Pannonia, of Illyrian origin, who lived along the river Sava. From 14 to 9BC Agrippa and then Tiberius subjugated all the territory between the Adriatic Sea and the rivers Sava and Drava, bringing the future provinces of Pannonia and Dalmatia under Roman rule.

BookThreeIX Defeated by Tiberius.

Britannicus, Tiberius Claudius Caesar, (41AD — 55AD) was the son of the Roman emperor Claudius and his third wife Valeria Messalina. He lived only months into his step-brother Nero’s reign, murdered just before his 14th birthday.

BookFiveXXVII Mentioned.

BookFiveXLIII Claudius apparently promised him recompense for having adopted Nero in order to secure the succession.

BookSixVI Messalina rightly saw Nero as a rival to her son Britannicus.

BookSixVII The young Nero tried to discredit him.

BookSixXXXIII His murder by Nero.

BookEightXXVII Titus was a friend and companion of his.

Britons, the Brittani at the time of the Roman invasion, were the Celtic peoples who inhabited Britain from the Iron Age to the Early Middle Ages. They spoke the Insular Celtic language known as British or Brythonic. They lived throughout Britain south of the Firth of Forth; after the 5th century Britons also migrated to continental Europe, where they established the settlements of Brittany in France and Britonia in what is now Galicia, Spain.

BookOneXLVII Britain was supposedly of interest to Caesar as a source of pearls.

BookOneLVIII Caesar’s caution in crossing to Britain (55/54BC).

BookFourXIX Caligula was interested in invading Britain.

BookFiveXVII Claudius’ brief campaign there in 43AD.

BookFiveXXI Claudius staged the surrender of the British kings.

BookSixXVIII Nero considered withdrawing from Britain.

BookSixXXXIX Camulodunum (Colchester) and Verulamium (St. Albans) were destroyed during Boudica’s (Boadicea) revolt of 60/61AD.

BookEightIV Vespasian participated in crucial early battles on the rivers Medway and Thames in 43AD. He was sent to reduce the south-west, penetrating the modern counties of Hampshire, Wiltshire, Dorset, Somerset, Devon and Cornwall with the probable objectives of securing the south coast harbours along with the tin mines of Cornwall and the silver and lead mines of Somerset. He marched from Noviomagus Reginorum (Chichester) to subdue the hostile Durotriges and Dumnonii tribes, captured twenty oppida (towns, or more probably hill forts, including Hod Hill and Maiden Castle in Dorset). He also invaded Vectis (the Isle of Wight), finally setting up a fortress and legionary headquarters at Isca Dumnoniorum (Exeter).

BookEightXXIX Titus was a military tribune in Britain c. 60AD - 63AD.

BookEightXLVI Sallustius Lucullus was Governor of Britain c. 89AD.

Brixellum, the modern Brescello, is located about 80km northwest of Bologna and about 25km northwest of Reggio Emilia.

BookSevenXXXII Otho’s base during his campaign against Vitellius.

Bructeri, were a tribe of northwestern Germany (Soester Börde), between the Lippe and Ems rivers south of the Teutoburg Forest, in present-day North Rhine-Westphalia, identifiable between 100BC and 350AD. They were part of the alliance, under Arminius, that defeated Varus and annihilated his three legions at the Battle of Teutoburg Forest in 9AD. Six years later, one of the generals serving under Germanicus, Lucius Stertinius, defeated them and re-captured the eagle standard of Legio XIX lost at the Teutoburg Forest. Refusing to bow to Roman rule, the Bructeri in 69AD - 70AD participated in the Batavian rebellion, their wise woman Veleda being the spiritual leader of the uprising.

BookThreeXIX A warrior of the tribe tried to assassinate Tiberius.

Brundisium, modern Brindisi, is a city in the Apulia region of Italy, the capital of the modern province of Brindisi, off the coast of the Adriatic Sea.

BookOneXXXIV BookOneLVIII Besieged by Caesar in 49BC.

BookTwoXVII Augustus’ troops mutinied there in 30BC.

Brutus Albinus, Decimus Junius (b. 85BC – 81BC, d. 42BC) was one of Julius Caesar’s assassins, but is not to be confused with the more famous Marcus Brutus. Decimus was a distant cousin of Caesar, His mother was Sempronia Tuditani, wife of the Decimus Junius Brutus who was consul in 77BC. He was adopted by Aulus Postumius Albinus. He was a legate in Caesar’s army during the Gallic wars and was given the command of the fleet in the war against the Veneti. When the Civil War broke out, he sided with Caesar, and was entrusted with naval operations, securing the capitulation of Massilia. In 44BC, he was made praetor peregrinus by Caesar and was destined to be the governor of Cisalpine Gaul in the following year. On the Ides of March (March 15), when Caesar decided not to attend the Senate meeting due to the concerns of his wife, he was persuaded to do so by Decimus Brutus, After Caesar was attacked by the first assassin, Decimus and the rest of the conspirators attacked and assassinated him. According to Nicolaus of Damascus, Decimus Brutus was the third to strike Caesar, stabbing him in the side. At the beginning of 43BC, he went to Gallia Cisalpina, the province assigned to him as pro-praetor, and levied his own troops. He then occupied Mutina, laying in provisions for a protracted siege. After Octavian’s relief of Mutina he fled to Italy, abandoning his legions. He attempted to reach Macedonia, where Marcus Junius Brutus and Gaius Cassius Longinus had stationed themselves but was executed en route by a Gallic chief loyal to Mark Antony, becoming the first of Caesar’s assassins to be killed.

BookOneLXXX A leader of the conspiracy.

BookOneLXXXI Convinces Caesar to attend the Senate meeting.

BookOneLXXXIII Named as a secondary heir in Caesar’s will.

BookTwoX Beseiged in Mutina.

Brutus, Lucius Junius the founder of the Roman Republic and traditionally one of the first consuls in 509BC. Brutus led the revolt that overthrew the last king, Lucius Tarquinius Superbus. The account is from Livy’s Ab urbe condita and deals with the history of Rome prior to reliable historical records (virtually all prior records were destroyed by the Gauls when they sacked Rome under Brennus c. 390BC. According to Livy, Brutus had a number of grievances against the king amongst them being Tarquin’s involvement in the murder of his brother.

BookOneLXXX Invoked by disaffected Romans, under Caesar’s rule.

Brutus, Marcus Junius, (early June 85BC – late October 42BC), often referred to simply as Brutus, was the son of Marcus Junius Brutus the Elder and Servilia Caepionis. His father was killed by Pompey the Great in dubious circumstances after he had taken part in the rebellion of Lepidus; his mother was the half-sister of Cato the Younger, and later became Julius Caesar’s mistress. Some sources refer to the possibility of Caesar being his real father. Brutus’ uncle, Quintus Servilius Caepio, adopted him in about 59BC, and Brutus was known officially for a time as Quintus Servilius Caepio Brutus before he reverted to using his birth-name. However, following Caesar’s assassination in 44BC, Brutus revived his adoptive name in order to illustrate his links to another famous tyrannicide, Gaius Servilius Ahala, from whom he was descended.

BookOneXXI Possibly engaged for a time to Julia, Caesar’s daughter.

BookOneXLIX His indirect comment on Caesar’s relationship with Nicomedes.

BookOneL His mother was Servilia.

BookOneLXXX BookSevenIII A leader of the conspiracy.

BookOneLXXXII Purportedly reproached by Caesar as Brutus attacked him.

BookOneLXXXV The populace tried to burn his house down after the assassination of Caesar.

BookTwoIX BookSixIII BookSevenXXXIII Defeated by the forces of Augustus (Octavian) and Mark Antony at Philippi.

BookTwoXIII Augustus sent Brutus’ head to Rome to be flung at the feet of Caesar’s statue.

BookTwoLXXXV He wrote a eulogy of Cato replied to by Augustus.

BookThreeLXI Described as ‘Last of the Romans’.

Burrus, Sextus Afranius (1AD - 62AD), Praetorian prefect, was advisor to Nero and, together with Seneca the Younger, influential in the early years of Nero’s reign. Agrippina the Younger chose him as Prefect in 51AD to secure her son Nero’s place as emperor after the death of Claudius. He acquiesced in Nero’s murder of Agrippina but died in 62AD, poisoned by Nero according to Suetonius.

BookSixXXXV Poisoned by Nero.

Byzantium was a city founded by Greek colonists from Megara in 667BC and named after their king Byzas. A trading city due to its strategic location at the Black Sea’s only entrance it was later renamed Constantinople (now Istanbul) and briefly became the imperial residence of the classical Roman Empire, and then subsequently the capital of the Byzantine Empire.

BookEightVIII Vespasian reduced Byzantium from free to provincial status.

Caecilius Pomponianus Atticus, Quintus (c. 109BC – c. 32BC) was a philosopher, celebrated editor, banker, and patron of letters with residences in both Rome and Athens. He is best remembered as the close friend of orator and philosopher Cicero.

BookThreeVII His granddaughter was Vipsania Agrippina.

Caecilius Metellus (Celer?), Quintus, tribune of the people.

BookOneXVI Mentioned.

BookOneLV Caesar wrote a speech for him.

Caecilius Metellus Macedonius, Quintus (c. 210BC – c. 115 BC) was a praetor in 148BC, consul in 143BC, proconsul of Hispania Citerior in 142BC and censor in 131BC. Under Metellus’ leadership Macedonia was reduced and became a Roman province. In a speech which he delivered at his appointment as censor, he proposed that matrimony be mandatory for all citizens, a speech which Augustus, a century later, read to the Senate and commended in a proclamation.

BookTwoLXXXIX Augustus recommended his speech on increasing the population.

Caecina Severus, Aulus was the son of the Aulus Caecina who was defended by Cicero (69BC) in a speech still extant. He took the side of Pompey in the civil wars, and published a violent tirade against Caesar, for which he was banished. He recanted in a work called Querelae, and by the intercession of his friends, above all, of Cicero, obtained pardon from Caesar. Caecina was regarded as an important authority on the Etruscan system of divination (Etrusca Disciplina), which he endeavoured to place on a scientific footing by harmonizing its theories with the doctrines of the Stoics.

BookOneLXXV His libel against Caesar.

Caecina Alienus, Aulus (d. 79AD) was quaestor of Hispania Baetica in 68AD. Galba appointed him to Upper Germany. Having been prosecuted for embezzling public money, Caecina joined Vitellius, crossed the Alps, but was defeated near Cremona by Suetonius Paulinus, Otho’s general. Subsequently Caecina defeated Otho at Bedriacum. After the overthrow of Vitellius, he supported Vespasian but was implicated, along with Eprius Marcellus, in a conspiracy against the Emperor, and was put to death by order of Titus.

BookEightXXXI Executed by Titus.

Caecus, see Claudius

Caenis, a freedwoman, the former slave and secretary of Antonia Minor (mother of the emperor Claudius), was the mistress of Vespasian. It is believed that she was born in Istria, in modern Croatia. Caenis was the Emperor’s wife in all but name until her death in 74AD.

BookEightIII Mistress and close companion of Vespasian.

BookEightXXI Her death mentioned.

BookEightXLIX Domitian’s arrogance towards her.

Caepio, see Fannius, Rustius, Servilius

Caesar, see Julius

Caesar, Gaius Julius (20BC - 4AD), most commonly known as Gaius Caesar was the oldest son of Agrippa and Julia the Elder. He was given the name Gaius Vipsanius Agrippa at birth, but when adopted by his maternal grandfather Augustus in 17BC, his name was changed to Gaius Julius Caesar. In 1BC he was made army commander in the East and made a peace treaty with Phraates V on an island in the river Euphrates. In 1AD, he was made Consul with Lucius Aemilius Paullus as his colleague. He married his relative, Livilla, daughter of Drusus the Elder and Antonia Minor. Gaius died in Lycia at the age of 24, after being wounded during a campaign in Artagira, Armenia.

BookTwoXXVI BookThreeX His coming of age in 5BC.

BookTwoXXIX The Basilica Paulli was fronted by a monumental gallery The Porticus of Gaius and Lucius, between it and the rest of the Forum. It was two stories high and dedicated in 2BC to the grandsons and heirs apparent of Augustus.

BookTwoXLIII Games held to honour Gaius and Lucius.

BookTwoLXIV Adopted by Augustus in 17BC. The symbolic sale involved touching a balance (libra) three times with a penny (as) in the presence of a praetor.

BookTwoLXV BookThreeXV His death took place at Limyra (three or four miles east of the modern Turkish village of Finike) in Lycia, in 4AD.

BookTwoLXVII The tutors and attendants on him took advantage of his illness and death to behave unacceptably and were punished by Augustus.

BookTwoXCIII He was praised by Augustus, for not offering prayers at the Temple in Jerusalem.

BookThreeXII He was cool towards Tiberius, when meeting him on Samos c. 1BC when Gaius was Governor of the East.

BookThreeXIII He eventually approved Tiberius’ recall to Rome in 2AD.

BookThreeXXIII BookFiveI Mentioned, after his death, in Augustus’ will.

BookSixV Nero’s father, Domitius, was on his staff in the East.

Caesar, Lucius Julius (17BC - 2AD), most commonly known as Lucius Caesar, was the second son of Agrippa and Julia the Elder. He was named Lucius Vipsanius Agrippa at birth, but when he was adopted by his maternal grandfather Augustus, his name was changed to Lucius Julius Caesar. In the year of his birth, Augustus adopted him and his brother Gaius Caesar. Lucius died in Gaul of an illness 18 months before the death of his brother.

BookTwoXXVI BookThreeX His coming of age in 2BC.

BookTwoXXIX The Basilica Paulli was fronted by a monumental gallery The Porticus of Gaius and Lucius, between it and the rest of the Forum. It was two stories high and dedicated in 2BC to the grandsons and heirs apparent of Augustus.

BookTwoXLIII Games held to honour Gaius and Lucius.

BookTwoLXIV Adopted by Augustus in 17BC. The symbolic sale involved touching a balance (libra) three times with a penny (as) in the presence of a praetor.

BookTwoLXV BookThreeXV His death at Marseilles (Massilia) on his way to Spain in 2AD.

BookThreeXXIII BookFiveI Mentioned, after his death, in Augustus’ will.

BookThreeLXX Tiberius composed an elegy on his death.

Caesar, Lucius Julius, V, was the son of Lucius Julius Caesar IV. Unlike his father on the outbreak of the civil war he chose to ally himself with the Pompeians against Caesar. In the early stages he was employed by both sides as a go-between bearing offers of negotiation which came to nothing. In 49BC he fled to Africa where he served as proquaestor to Cato in 46BC. After the Battle of Thapsus, he surrendered to Caesar, being killed not long after.

BookOneLXXV Killed, against Caesar’s wishes.

Caesar Strabo Vopiscus, Gaius Julius (c. 130BC – 87BC) was pontifex in 99BC; a quaestor in 96BC and an aedile in 90BC. Siding with Sulla, he was killed with his brother by partisans of Marius, fighting in the streets at the beginning of the Civil War.

BookFourLX His death by the sword. However Caesar’s father Gaius died a natural death as did Gaius Caesar, grandson of Augustus.

Caesarea, a large number of colonies and cities were founded in Augustus’ day bearing this name, for example Caesarea Maritima/Caesarea Palaestina the Roman provincial capital of Palestine, Caesarea Philippi (Banias) in the Golan Heights, Antiochia Caesaria (Antioch in Pisidia) in Turkey, Mauretanian Caesarea (Cherchell) in Algeria.

BookTwoLX Caesarea mentioned.

Caesarion, (47BC – 30BC) was reputedly the son of Julius Caesar by Cleopatra of Egypt. As Ptolemy XV Philopator Philometor Caesar, he was the last king of the Ptolemaic dynasty of Egypt, reigning jointly with his mother Cleopatra VII, from September 2, 44BC to August 23, 30BC, when he was killed on the orders of Octavian.

BookOneLII Caesar allowed Cleopatra to name the child after him.

BookTwoXVII He was executed by Augustus.

Caesetius Flavus, Lucius, a tribune of the people was deposed from office by Caesar in 44BC, after removing a royal emblem from Caesar’s statue.

BookOneLXXIX BookOneLXXX Mentioned.

Caesonia, Milonia, (d. 41AD) was the fourth and last wife of Caligula. Her younger half-brother was the Consul Gnaeus Domitius Corbulo. Her niece, Domitia Longina, married Domitian. In 41AD, Caligula was assassinated and Caesonia and her daughter Julia Drusilla murdered.

BookFourXXV Her marriage to Caligula.

BookFourXXXIII Threatened by Caligula.

BookFourXXXVIII Mentioned.

BookFourL Thought to have given Caligula a love-potion that drove him mad.

BookFourLIX Murdered after Caligula’s assassination.

Caesonius Priscus, Titus, was a Roman knight, otherwise unknown.

BookThreeXLII He was appointed by Tiberius to run the Office of Pleasures.

Calagurritani, were a people of Hispania Tarraconensis, inhabiting the province of Calahorra.

BookTwoXLIX A company of them formed part of Augustus’ bodyguard until Antony’s defeat.

Caligula, Gaius Julius Caesar Augustus Germanicus (12AD – 41AD), known as Caligula, was the third Roman Emperor, reigning from 16 March 37 until his assassination on 24 January 41AD. The young Gaius earned his nickname Caligula ‘little boot’, while accompanying his father Germanicus on military campaigns in Germany. Caligula was assassinated as the result of a conspiracy involving officers of the Praetorian Guard as well as members of the Senate and imperial court. The conspirators’ attempt to restore the Republic was thwarted when the Praetorian Guard declared Caligula’s uncle and second cousin once removed, Claudius, emperor in his place.

BookThreeLIV Mentioned, as a son of Germanicus.

BookThreeLXII Tiberius suspected him of conspiracy.

BookThreeLXXIII Suspicions that Caligula murdered Tiberius.

BookThreeLXXV Caligula absent from Rome at the time of Tiberius’ death.

BookThreeLXXVI Caligula was named as co-heir in Tiberius’ will.

BookFourI Suetonius’ life of Caligula follows.

BookFiveVII His promotion of Claudius.

BookFiveX BookSevenXXIX His assassination led to Claudius becoming Emperor.

BookFiveXI Claudius refused to allow his own accession date to be celebrated since it was also that of Caligula’s assassination.

BookFiveXX The sources of the Aqua Claudia were at the 38th milestone of the Via Sublacensis, the Anio Novus was taken from the river at the forty-second milestone. Caligula began the aqueducts in 38AD and Claudius completed them in 52AD.

BookFiveXXI Caligula’s Circus (completed by Nero, hence called Nero’s Circus) was built on the property of his mother Agrippina on the Ager Vaticanus (today’s Borgo district) and lies partly under the modern Vatican Piazza.

BookFiveXXVI He had married Lollia Paulina in 38AD.

BookFiveXXXVIII Claudius claimed to have feigned idiocy to survive Caligula’s reign.

BookSixVI Asked to name Nero at the purification ceremony.

BookSixVII Seneca dreamed that his pupil Nero was really Caligula.

BookSixXXX Nero envied him his extravagance.

BookSevenVI He appointed Galba to Upper Germany.

BookSevenVII Mentioned.

BookSevenXXXVII Vitellius’s father Lucius was the first to treat Caligula as a god.

BookSevenXXXIX Vitellius endeared himself to Caligula through his love of chariot-racing.

BookSevenLII Vitellius had a crippled thigh as a result of a chariot accident when Caligula was driving.

BookEightII Caligula was in Germany in late 39/40AD.

BookEightV His anger against Vespasian during the latter’s aedileship.

BookEightXXVI Titus was born in the year of Caligula’s death.

Callipides of Athens (Kallippides) was a celebrated tragic actor of the time of Alcibiades and Agesilaus. He was famous for his imitations of physical action.

BookThreeXXXVIII He was famous for his mime of a long-distance runner, running hard, but never moving.

Calpenus, Quintus, an ex-senator who fought in a gladiatorial contest.

BookOneXXXIX Mentioned.

Calpurnia Pisonis, the daughter of Lucius Calpurnius Piso Caesoninus, sister of Lucius Calpurnius Piso ‘the Pontifex’, was the third and last wife of Julius Caesar. Caesar and Calpurnia married in 59BC with no children resulting from the union. Following Caesar’s death on the Ides of March (March 15) of 44BC, Calpurnia delivered all Caesar’s personal papers, including will and notes, and most precious possessions to Mark Antony. She did not remarry.

BookOneXXI Her marriage to Caesar.

BookOneLXXXI Her dream anticipating his assassination.

Calpurnius Piso, Gaius. In 40AD, Caligula forced Piso’s wife, Livia Orestilla, to marry him, and accused Piso of adultery with her in order to establish cause for banishment. In 41 Claudius recalled Piso to Rome and made him his co-consul. Piso was a powerful senator under Nero and in 65AD led a plot to replace Nero that became known as the Pisonian Conspiracy. A freedman, Milichus, betrayed the plot and the conspirators were arrested, nineteen of them being put to death and thirteen exiled. Piso was ordered to commit suicide.

BookFourXXV Made to divorce Orestilla, by Caligula.

BookSixXXXVI His conspiracy against Nero.

Calpurnius Piso, Gnaeus, Governor of Spain according to Suetonius.

BookOneIX Conspires with Julius Caesar.

Calpurnius Piso, Gnaeus (c. 43BC - 20AD) was consul in 7BC; governor of Hispania, and proconsul of Africa. In AD17 Tiberius appointed him governor of Syria. Piso and Germanicus clashed on several occasions and, in AD19, Piso was driven to leave the province. On the death of Germanicus that year, Piso was suspected of poisoning him. Piso’s attempts to re-gain control of Syria immediately afterwards aroused public indignation, and Tiberius was forced to try him in the Senate. Piso was said to have committed suicide, though it was also rumoured that Tiberius, fearing disclosure of his own complicity, had him put to death.

BookThreeLII BookFourII Rumoured to have poisoned Germanicus.

BookFourIII Germanicus formally renounced his friendship with him.

BookSevenXXXVII Publius Vitellius was one of those who successfully prosecuted him for Germanicus’s murder.

Calpurnius Piso Caesoninus, Lucius was a statesman and the father-in-law of Julius Caesar through his daughter Calpurnia Pisonis. He also had a son, Lucius Calpurnius Piso, known as ‘the Pontifex’, who was Consul in 15BC.

BookOneXXI BookOneXXII His daughter’s marriage to Caesar.

BookOneLXXXIII Requested the reading of Caesar’s will.

Calpurnius Piso, Lucius, was an unidentified member of the most distinguished family of the Calpurnia gens.

BookThreeXLII A drinking companion of Tiberius, he was rewarded by him with the prefecture of Rome.

Calpurnius Piso, Frugi Licinianus, Lucius (38 - 69AD) was a son of the consul of 27AD Marcus Licinius Crassus Frugi, and Scribonia Crassi. He was Galba’s adopted son and heir, from January 10 to January 15, 69AD. He was appointed to strengthen Galba’s position when two legions in Germania Superior rebelled against him in support of their commander Aulus Vitellius. On Galba’s assassination, Licinianus fled to the temple of the Vestal Virgins’ claiming sanctuary. He was discovered by two soldiers, Statius Murcus of the Praetorian Guard and Sulpicius Florus, a British auxiliary granted Roman citizenship by Galba. They dragged him outside and killed him.

BookSevenXVII BookSevenXVIII BookSevenXXVIII Adopted by Galba.

BookSevenXXIX Otho sends soldiers to kill him.

Calvus, see Licinius

Camillus, see Furius

Campus Martius was a publicly owned area of ancient Rome about 2 square kilometres (490 acres) in extent. Before the founding of Rome the Campus Martius was a low-lying plain enclosed on the west by a bend of the Tiber River near Tiber Island, on the east by the Quirinal Hill, and on the southeast by the Capitoline Hill. It later became the place for comitia centuriata, civic meetings with weapons, and for the city’s militia. Pompey built the first stone theatre there in 55BC. When the Curia Hostilia burnt down in 52BC the theatre was sometimes used as a meeting place for the Senate. It was there that Julius Caesar was murdered in 44BC. The area was also used as the meeting ground for elections. Julius Caesar planned that the Saepta (enclosures used for elections) be placed there; they were later completed by Augustus. In 33BC Octavian dedicated the Porticus Octaviae, built from spoils of the Dalmatian War.


BookTwoXLIII Mentioned.

BookTwoLXXXIII Octavian (Augustus) used to exercise there.

BookTwoXCVII Augustus performed the lustrum, the sacrifical rite of purification after the census, there, on May 11th AD14.

BookTwoC Augustus was cremated there.

BookFourXXXIV Augustus moved statues of famous men there from the Capitol.

BookFiveI Drusus the Elder cremated there.

BookFiveXVIII The Diribitorium was a large building where the election votes were counted.

BookFiveXXI Claudius staged a mock siege there.

BookSixX Nero exercised there.

BookSixXII Nero built a wooden amphitheatre there in AD58.

BookSixXXVII The Lake had been dug for mock naval battles.

BookSixL Overlooked by the Pincian Hill.

BookSevenXLVI Vitellius made offerings to the shade of Nero there in 69AD.

Caninius Rebilus, Gaius was one of Julius Caesar’s legates in Gaul in 52/51BC. In 46BC he served in the Thapsus campaign then accompanied Caesar to Spain to fight at Munda. On the last day of December 45BC, the consul Quintus Fabius Maximus suddenly died and Caesar made Rebilus consul suffectus for the few remaining hours of the year.

BookSixXV Mentioned.

Cantabrians, Cantabria is a northern Spanish region bordering the Atlantic with Santander as its capital city. It is bordered on the east by the Basque Autonomous Community on the south by Castile and León on the west by the Principality of Asturias, and on the north by the Cantabrian Sea (Atlantic). The Cantabrian Wars (29BC - 19BC) completed the Roman conquest of the provinces of Cantabria, Asturias and León, and were the final stage of the conquest of Hispania.

BookTwoXX BookTwoXXI BookTwoLXXXI Augustus campaigned against them in person 26BC - 25BC establishing his base at Segisama (Burgos).

BookTwoXXIX Augustus vowed to build a temple to Jupiter Tonans following an incident on a night-march in Cantabria.

BookTwoLXXXV Augustus wrote thirteen chapters of an autobiography taking it up to the period of the Cantabrian War.

BookThreeIX Tiberius was a military tribune there in 25BC.

BookSevenVIII An omen of Galba’s rule witnessed there.

Canus was a flute-player during the reign of Galba.

BookSevenXII Galba rewarded but very modestly.

Canusium, the modern Canosa di Puglia, was an ancient city of Apulia, on the right bank of the Aufidus (Ofanto), about 12 miles from its mouth, and situated upon the Via Traiana, 85 miles east-north-east of Beneventum. Its importance was maintained by its trade in agricultural products and in Apulian wool, which was cleaned and dyed there.

BookSixXXX Nero’s carriage drivers wore clothes of wool from Canusium.

Capitol, the Capitoline Hill between the Forum and the Campus Martius, is one of the Seven Hills of Rome. The hill was the site of a temple for the Capitoline Triad, founded by Rome’s fifth king, Tarquin the Elder.

BookOneX BookFourXXXIV BookFiveXXII Mentioned.

BookOneXXXVII When Julius Caesar suffered an accident during his Gallic Triumph, supposedly indicating the wrath of Jupiter for his actions in the Civil Wars, he approached the hill and Jupiter’s temple on his knees as a way of averting the omen (nevertheless he was murdered six months later, and Brutus and his other assassins took refuge in the temple after the murder.).

BookOneLIV Caesar replaced gold on the Capitol with gilded bronze.

BookOneLXXIX BookTwoXCI BookSevenL The Temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus, also known as the Temple of Jupiter Capitolinus was the most important temple of Ancient Rome, located on the Capitoline Hill. The first Temple burned down in 83BC, during the civil wars under the dictatorship of Sulla. The new temple dedicated in 69BC was built to the same plan on the same foundations. Brutus and the other assassins locked themselves inside it after murdering Caesar. The second building burnt down during the course of fighting on the hill on December 19 in 69AD, when Vespasian’s troops battled to enter the city in the Year of the Four Emperors, Domitian narrowly escaping with his life.

BookTwoLVII New Year’s gifts for Augustus taken there annually.

BookTwoLIX BookTwoXCIV BookThreeI Mentioned.

BookFiveXLIV The Citadel was on the northern spur of the Capitoline.

BookEightVIII Vespasian restored the Capitol which was damaged in the struggle with Vitellius.

Cappadocia is a region in central Turkey. It maintained tributary independence from Rome until 17AD, when Tiberius reduced Cappadocia to a Roman province.

BookEightVIII Vespasian added legions to guard against barbarian incursions.

Capreae, modern Capri, is an island in the Tyrrhenian Sea off the Sorrentine Peninsula, on the south side of the Gulf of Naples. It has been a resort since the time of the Roman Republic. Tiberius built a series of villas on Capri, the most famous of which is the Villa Jovis, one of the best preserved Roman villas in Italy. In 27AD, Tiberius permanently moved to Capri, running the Empire from there until his death in 37AD.

BookTwoLXXII Augustus had a villa there.

BookTwoXCII Augustus exchanged Aenaria (Ischia) for Capri, with Naples.

BookTwoXCVIII Augustus spent the penultimate days of his life on Capreae.

BookThreeXL BookThreeXLI Tiberius moved to Capri in 26AD and permanently in AD27.

BookThreeXLIII BookSevenXXXVIII Tiberius’s lascivious antics there are described. The name Capreae probably derives from the Greek kapros, a wild-boar, rather than the Latin caper, a goat.

BookThreeLX BookThreeLXII Tiberius’s cruelty exhibited there.

BookThreeLXXIII Tiberius was on his way back there when he died in AD37.

BookThreeLXXIV The destruction of the lighthouse there by earthquake was a portent of Tiberius’ death.

BookFourX Tiberius summoned Caligula there in AD31.

Capua, the ancient town of Capua was situated where Santa Maria Capua Vetere now stands. The modern town of Capua was founded after the ancient one had been destroyed by the Saracens in 841AD. Julius Caesar as consul in 59BC succeeded in establishing a Roman colony under the name Julia Felix in connection with his agrarian law, and 20,000 Roman citizens were settled in the territory.

BookOneLXXXI A prophecy regarding Caesar’s assassination discovered by the colonists.

BookThreeXL BookFourLVII Tiberius dedicated a Temple of Capitoline Jupiter at Capua in 26AD.

Capys, in Greek mythology, was son of Assaracus, and father of Anchises and so grandfather of Aeneas. He founded the city of Capua.

BookOneLXXXI Mentioned, as the founder.

Carmel is a coastal mountain range in northern Israel stretching from the Mediterranean Sea towards the southeast. The city of Haifa is built on its slopes. Elijah, or Elias, the 9th century BC Jewish prophet is associated with sites at the northwestern and highest point of the range, presumed to once include an altar to Yahweh. In the fourth century BC, the neo-Platonic philosopher Iamblicus, in his life of Pythagoras, speaks of Mount Carmel as ‘most sacred of mountains access to which is forbidden to the profane’. Tacitus mentions an altar as erected there without temple or image: ‘tantum ara et reverentia’. Josephus speaks of it as an Essene stronghold.

BookEightV Vespasian consulted the ‘oracle’ there.

Carnulus, was an unknown victim of Tiberius’ persecutions.

BookThreeLXI Mentioned.

Carthage was a city located on the eastern side of Lake Tunis, Tunisia. According to Roman legend it was founded in 814BC by Phoenician colonists from Tyre under the leadership of Elissa (Queen Dido). It became a major power in the Mediterranean, and resulting rivalry with Syracuse and Rome led to several wars and mutual invasions.

BookFiveXLII Claudius wrote an eight-volume Carthaginian history.

Casca Brothers, Publius Servilius Casca (d. c. 42BC) and his brother Gaius Servilius Casca, a close friend of Caesar, both joined in his assassination. Casca struck the first blow. At the time Publius held the position of Tribune of the people. After the assassination he fled Rome, and his colleague as tribune, Publius Titius, deprived him of office. Casca joined Marcus Junius Brutus and Gaius Cassius, the leaders of the assassins. He seems to have died, probably by suicide, in the aftermath of their defeat at the Battle of Philippi.

BookOneLXXXII One of the brothers attacks Caesar.

Cassiope, modern Kassiopi, was a port on the north east coast of the island of Corfu. The town is said to have been founded during the reign of Pyrrhus, king of Epirus, in the 3rd Century BC, as a supply post during his war with Rome. After their conquest of the island in 230BC, the Romans visited the Temple of Zeus (Jupiter) there.

BookSixXXII Nero arrived there on his Greek trip. The connection of Jupiter with the name Cassius is also referenced in BookFourLVII.

Cassius Longinus, Gaius (before 85BC – October 42BC) was a Roman senator, a leading instigator of the plot to kill Julius Caesar and the brother in-law of Marcus Junius Brutus. He was an ally of the triumvir, Marcus Licinius Crassus. After Crassus was killed fighting the Parthians (53BC), he regrouped the remnants of the defeated Roman army and repelled Parthian attacks on Syria. He was made tribune (49BC) and served as a naval commander of Pompey’s fleet in the civil war with Caesar. Caesar pardoned him and appointed him legate, with the promise that he would be made governor of Syria in 44BC. Despite this, Cassius organized the conspiracy to assassinate Caesar. Six months later he withdrew to Syria and ousted the former governor, Publius Cornelius Dolabella. He appointed Herod governor of Coele-Syria (Lebanon). To gain much needed revenues for the civil war with Caesar’s heirs, Mark Antony and Octavian, he ordered procurators in Syria and Palestine, including Antipater, to collect heavy taxes. He joined forces with Brutus at Philippi, Macedonia (42BC), but committed suicide after the defeat.

BookOneLXXX BookSevenIII A leader of the conspiracy.

BookOneLXXXV The populace tried to burn his house down after the assassination of Caesar.

BookTwoIX BookSixIII BookSevenXXXIII Defeated by the forces of Augustus (Octavian) and Mark Antony at Philippi.

BookThreeLXI Described as ‘Last of the Romans’.

Cassius, Lucius. The individual referred to is unclear. It appears from the context that he is not to be confused with Lucius Cassius Longinus, the brother of Gaius the conspirator, who fought on Caesar’s side in the Civil Wars.

BookOneLXIII Caesar accepts his surrender.

Cassius Chaerea, Gaius, was a centurion in the army of Germanicus and served in the Praetorian Guard under the emperor Caligula, whom he assassinated. According to Tacitus, before his service in the Praetorians, he distinguished himself in helping to subdue the mutiny on the German frontier immediately after the death of Augustus. Shortly after the murder, he was sentenced to death, one of the few assassins to be actually condemned. Cassius requested to be executed with his own murder weapon.

BookFourLVI His plan to assassinate Caligula.

BookFourLVII Caligula warned against him by the oracle.

BookFourLVIII His murder of Caligula. His shout of ‘Do it!’ is a translation of ‘Hoc age!’ the ritual response to the axe-holder’s question at the sacrifice of ‘Agone?’ ‘Shall it be done’. His shout of Accept his gift’ is a translation of the ritual formula ‘Accipe ratum’ meaning ‘Receive the fulfilment (of your omen).’

Cassius Longinus, Gaius the jurist was Governor of Syria in 50AD. Charged by Nero he was banished in 66AD to Sardinia, but returned under Vespasian. He wrote ten books on civil law. Suetonius says he was blind at the time of his banishment.

BookSixXXXVII Charged by Nero.

Cassius Longinus, Lucius was the first husband of Caligula’s sister Julia Drusilla, marrying her in 33AD. He was consul in 30AD, and in early 37AD, was appointed by Tiberius as a commissioner. He was proconsul in Asia in 40AD. Caligula ordered Cassius to divorce Drusilla, so he could live incestuously with her. Caligula subsequently murdered Cassius, before his own assassination in 41AD, on the basis of an oracle indicating that ‘Cassius’ would assassinate him. Caligula was indeed assassinated by a Cassius, the tribune Cassius Chaerea.

BookFourXXIV The husband of Drusilla.

BookFourLVII His death ordered by Caligula on the basis of the oracle.

Cassius of Parma, Cassius Parmensis, was a minor poet, author of a Thyestes, and verses about Orpheus. He is probably not to be confused with one of Julius Caesar’s assassins of the same name.

BookTwoIV Sneers at Augustus’ ancestry.

Cassius Patavinus, a plebeian banished for desiring to kill Augustus.

BookTwoLI Mentioned.

Cassius Scaeva, Marcus, was a centurion in Caesar’s army at the Battle of Dyrrhachium, and later one of Caesar’s partisans.

BookOneLXVIII His bravery at Dyrachium.

Cassius Severus, Titus (d. 32AD) was a jurist whose eloquent opposition to the governmental order finally led to his banishment. Tacitus in his Annals called him: ‘A man of base origin and dubious ways, but a powerful pleader, who brought his exile on himself, by his persistent quarrelsomeness.’ He was exiled to Crete by Augustus (AD8?), and subsequently to the island of Seriphos by Tiberius (24AD). His works were proscribed but later re-published under Caligula.

BookTwoLVI His case (9BC) against Nonius Asprenas.

BookFourXVI Caligula reinstated his writings.

BookSevenXXXVI Used as a source by Suetonius.

Castor, see Pollux.

BookOneX BookThreeXX BookFourXXII BookSixI Mentioned.

BookSevenXXXII Castor’s place was twelve miles from Cremona according to Tacitus Histories 2.24, and was probably the site of a temple to the twins.

Castricius was a dependant of Augustus, and defended by him in court.

BookTwoLVI Mentioned.

Catilina, Lucius Sergius (108BC – 62BC) is best known for the Catiline (or Catilinarian) conspiracy, an attempt to overthrow the Republic, and in particular the power of the aristocratic Senate. Catiline fled Rome after Cicero’s denunciation of him, and died leading his rebel army at Pistoria (modern Pistoia).

BookOneXIV The conspiracy exposed.

BookOneXVII Caesar falsely indicted as a co-conspirator.

BookTwoIII Mentioned.

BookTwoXCIV Augustus was born on the day the conspiracy was debated in the Senate (23rd September, 63BC)

Cato the Elder, Marcus Portius (234BC – 149BC) was statesman and writer, commonly known as Cato the Censor, or the Elder, to distinguish him from his great-grandson, Cato the Younger. He successively held the offices of Cursus Honorum: Tribune (214BC), Quaestor (204BC), Aedile (199BC), Praetor (198BC), Consul (195BC) and finally Censor (184BC).

BookTwoLXXXVI Cato’s most important work, Origines, in seven books, related the history of the Italian towns, with special attention to Rome, from their legendary or historical foundation to his own day. The text as a whole is lost, but substantial fragments survive in quotations by later authors.

Cato Uticensis, Marcus Portius (95BC, Rome – April 46BC, Utica), commonly known as Cato the Younger (Cato Minor) to distinguish him from his great-grandfather (Cato the Elder), was a politician and statesman in the late Roman Republic, and a follower of the Stoic philosophy. He is remembered for his legendary stubbornness and tenacity (especially in his lengthy conflict with Gaius Julius Caesar), as well as his immunity to bribes, his moral integrity, and his famous distaste for the ubiquitous corruption of the period.

BookOneXIV His speech against the Catiline conspirators in 63BC.

BookOneXIX He accepted bribery as valid to defend the Constitution, according to Suetonius.

BookOneXX Imprisoned by Caesar after Cato’s attempt at a filibuster.

BookOneXXX His threats to impeach Caesar.

BookOneLIII His comment on Caesar’s sobriety.

BookTwoXIII Marcus Favonius’ imitation of him in everything.

BookTwoLXXXV Brutus wrote a eulogy of Cato replied to by Augustus.

BookTwoLXXXVII An expression of Augustus referring to this Cato.

Catullus, see Valerius

Catulus Lutatius, Quintus (c. 120 – 61BC), sometimes called Capitolinus, was the son of Quintus Lutatius Catulus. He inherited his father’s hatred of Marius, and was a consistent though moderate supporter of the aristocracy. In 78 he was consul with Marcus Aemilius Lepidus. He consistently opposed Julius Caesar, whom he endeavoured to implicate in the Catilinarian conspiracy. Catulus held the office of censor, but soon resigned, being unable to agree with his colleague Crassus.

BookOneXV Caesar accused him of embezzlement during the reconstruction of the temple on the Capitol, and proposed to obliterate his name from the inscription and deprive him of the office of commissioner for its restoration. Catulus’ supporters rallied, and Caesar dropped the charge.

BookTwoXCIV An omen relating to Augustus. Catulus re-dedicated the Capitoline temple in 65BC, Augustus was born in 63, and Catulus died in 61. So if this Catulus is intended, the story only makes sense if he had the dream some time after 63 and before his death, and that in the infant Octavius he saw a likeness to the older boy of the dream.

BookSevenII BookSevenIII Galba was his great-grandson, his mother Mummia Achaica being the grand-daughter of Catulus.

Celadus, was a freedman of Augustus.

BookTwoLXVII Mentioned.

Ceraunian Mountains, are a coastal mountain range in southwestern Albania. The range extends approximately 100 km along the coast in a northwesterly direction from the Greek border to the Strait of Otranto. The highest peak is Çika (2012m). In some places the mountains slope down directly to the sea.

BookTwoXVII Augustus’ met with a storm at sea along the coast in 30BC.

Ceres, was the Roman goddess of harvest, fertility, marriage, sacred law, and the cycle of life and death. She was equivalent to the Greek Demeter, who with her daughter Persephone was a central figure in the Eleusinian Mysteries, celebrated at Elusis near Athens, which predated the Olympian pantheon.

BookTwoXCIII Augustus had been initiated in the Mysteris at Eleusis (after Actium, and he returned to Greece in 20BC, when he had the rites celebrated out of season).

BookFiveXXV Claudius attempted to transfer the Eleusinian rites to Rome.

BookSixXII The priestesses of Demeter viewed the athletics contest at Olympia in Elis.

BookSixXXXIV Nero did not dare participate in the rites after his mother’s execution.

Cerrinius, Gallus, was a Roman Senator, who went blind and was dissuaded by a visit from Augustus from starving himself to death.

BookTwoLIII Mentioned.

Cerylus was a wealthy freedman who changed his name to Laches and claimed to be freeborn in order to avoid death duties.

BookEightXXIII Mocked by Vespasian.

Cestius Gallus was an unknown member of the Cestia gens. Possibly he was a relation of Gaius Gallus Camerinus, who was Senator and Consul in 35AD.

BookThreeXLII He was a licentious senator at the time of Tiberius.

Charicles was a Greek physician. Some of his works may have been known to Galen.

BookThreeLXXII Physician to Tiberius.

Chatti were an ancient Germanic tribe whose homeland was near the upper Weser. They settled in central and northern Hesse and southern Lower Saxony, along the upper reaches of the Weser River and in the valleys and mountains of the Eder, Fulda and Weser River regions.

BookSevenXLIX Vitellius consulted a prophetess of the tribe.

BookEightXLII Domitian campaigned against the Chatti in 82/83AD.

Chios is the fifth largest of the Greek islands, situated in the Aegean Sea, five miles off the coast of Asia Minor. The island is separated from Turkey by the Chios Strait. After its Roman re-conquest in 85BC, Chios became part of the province of Asia. The area is earthquake-prone, witness the great quake of 1881AD.

BookThreeVIII Tiberius acted as advocate in Rome for the citizens after a devastating earthquake.

Cilicia was the commonly used name of the south coastal region of Asia Minor south of the central Anatolian plateau. It existed as a political entity from Hittite times into the Byzantine Empire. Cilicia extends inland from the southeastern coast of modern Turkey, due north and northeast of the island of Cyprus. Ancient Cilicia was naturally split into Cilicia Trachea (Rugged Cilicia) and Cilicia Pedias to the east, divided by the Lamas Su.

BookOneIII The young Julius Caesar campaigned there.

BookOneVIII Legions conscripted for the campaign there, garrisoned in the Latin colonies.

BookEightVIII Vespasian reduced Trachean Cilicia from free to provincial status.

Christians were early followers of Jesus of Nazareth, the religion reaching Rome as an obscure offshoot of Judaism.

BookSixXVI Nero clamped down on the new superstition of Christianity from AD64.

Chrestus appears to have instigated trouble in Rome, caused by the Jews. This may be a reference to early Christianity

BookFiveXXV Mentioned.

Cicero, see Tullius

Cimbri. The Cimbri were a tribe from Northern Europe (possibly Jutland), who, together with the Teutones and the Ambrones threatened the RomanRepublic in the late 2nd century BC. They were annihilated at the Battle of Vercellae, at the confluence of the Sesia River with the Po River, in 101BC.

BookOneXI Defeated by Marius.

BookFourLI Their advance into Italy.

Cinaria, Cinarus, or Zinari, the modern Kinaros, is an islet located in the northern part of the Dodecanese, to the east of Kalymnos and Leros and to the west of Amorgos. It is 17 miles from Aigiali on Amorgos, and together with the neighbouring islet Levitha forms the geographical boundary between the island complexes of the Cyclades and the Dodecanese. The islet’s name is also that of the globe artichoke (kinara) which may have grown there (see the Greek myth of Cynara).

BookThreeLVI Xeno, a Greek companion, exiled there by Tiberius.

Cincinnatus, Lucius Quinctius (519BC – 438BC) served as consul in 460BC and dictator in 458BC and 439BC. An invasion caused him to serve Rome as dictator, an office which he immediately resigned after completing his task of defeating the tribes of the Aequians, Sabinians and Volscians. His relinquishment of office at the end of the crisis has often been cited as an example of outstanding civic virtue, and modesty.

BookFourXXXV Caligula deprived his descendants of the emblem of the family.

Circeii: Monte Circeo or Cape Circeo is a mountain promontory that marks the southwestern limit of the former Pontine Marshes, and is associated with an oracular Temple of Circe, the sorceress mentioned in Homer. It is located on the southwest coast about 100km south/southeast of Rome, near San Felice Circeo, on the coast between Anzio and Terracina. At the northern end of the Gulf of Gaeta, Circei was founded as a Roman colony at an early date probably c. 390BC. At the beginning of the imperial period, the city was located on the eastern shores of the Lago di Paola, this did not, however, mean the abandonment of the eastern end of the promontory, on which stand the remains of several villas. A rock inscription near San Felice, speaks of this part of the promonturium Veneris (‘promontory of Venus’; the only case of the use of this name) as belonging to the city of Circei. The town only acquired municipal rights after the Social War, and was a seaside resort. For its villas Cicero compares it with Antium, and probably Tiberius and Domitian possessed villas there.

BookTwoXVI Lepidus was exiled for life there.

BookThreeLXXII Tiberius halted there for a while during his last illness.

Circus Maximus, was the ancient Roman stadium situated in the valley between the Aventine and Palatine hills, with a capacity of over a quarter of the city’s population (of a million people).

BookOneXXXIX BookFourXXVI Mentioned.

BookFourXVIII Caligula presented Games there. The Gelotian House was presumably a house previously owned by an unknown Gelotus, or possibly Gelos.

BookSixXXV Nero’s triumphal procession passed through it on his return from Greece in 67AD.

BookSixXXVII Nero held public banquets there.

Civica Cerealis was governor of Asia under Domitian.

BookEightXLVI Executed for plotting rebellion shortly before AD90.

Claudia (b. 20AD) was the daughter of Boter a freedman of Claudius, conceived illegitimately while her mother Urgulanilla was still married to Claudius.

BookFiveXXVII Claudius repudiated her.

Claudia Antonia (c. 30AD – 66AD) was the daughter of Claudius and his second wife Aelia Paetina. In 43AD she married Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus. She married Messalina’s half-brother Faustus Cornelius Sulla Felix in 47AD. In 58/59AD, Faustus Sulla was exiled, and later murdered in 62AD on the orders of Nero. Nero subsequently charged Claudia with conspiracy and executed her.

BookFiveXXVII Mentioned.

BookFiveXXIX Her husband Gnaeus was executed on Claudius’s orders.

BookSixXXXV Executed on Nero’s orders.

Claudia, or Clodia Pulchra (b. c. 56BC) was the daughter of Fulvia and her first husband Publius Clodius Pulcher. She was the stepdaughter of Mark Antony, whom Fulvia later married. Octavian married Clodia in 43BC, divorcing her to later marry Scribonia. His marriage with Clodia was never consummated.

BookTwoLXII Marriage to Octavian.

Claudia Augusta was the daughter of Nero by Poppaea Sabina. She died at three months old in 63AD.

BookSixXXXV She died in infancy.

Claudia, was one of the five daughters, named Claudia, of Appius Claudius Caecus, and a sister of Publius Claudius Pulcher.

BookThreeII Noted as a ‘bad’ Claudian.

Claudia Quinta was probably the sister of the Appius Claudius Pulcher who was consul in 212BC, and the granddaughter of Appius Claudius Caecus. Around 205BC the statue of the Cult of Cybele was moved from Pessinus to Rome. Claudia re-floated the boat carrying the sacred image, dragging it from the shoal in the Tiber where it was stranded. The Temple of Cybele was then established on the Palatine.

BookThreeII Mentioned as a ‘good’ Claudian.

Claudius, Tiberius Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus (10BC – 54AD) was named Tiberius Claudius Drusus to 4AD, then Tiberius Claudius Nero Germanicus until his accession. He was the fourth Roman Emperor ruling from 41AD to his death. Born in Lugdunum in Gaul (modern Lyon) to Drusus the Elder and Antonia Minor, and brother to Germanicus, he was the first Roman emperor to be born outside Italy. Claudius proved an able administrator and a great builder of public works. His reign saw an expansion of the empire, including the conquest of Britain.

BookFourXV Caligula awarded him joint consulship with himself on Caligula’s accession in 37AD.

BookFourXXI He completed the aqueduct near Tibur started by Caligula.

BookFourXXIII Caligula preserved him as a laughing-stock.

BookFourXLIX Claudius supposedly disposed of a chest of poisonous materials left behind by Caligula.

BookFiveI Suetonius’ life of Claudius follows.

BookFiveXXX The most recently suggested diagnoses of Claudius’s disabilities include cerebral palsy, Tourette syndrome, and dyspraxia.

BookSixVI BookSixVII Claudius when Emperor adopted Nero, in AD50, to secure the succession.

BookSixVIII His death and Nero’s succession.

BookSixIX Nero gave his eulogy and announced his deification.

BookSixXVIII Nero considered withdrawing from Britain but changed his mind in deference to his adoptive father Claudius’s achievement.

BookSixXXXIII BookSixXXXIX Nero’s involvement in his murder.

BookSixXXXV Nero had his daughter Claudia Antonia executed.

BookSevenVII His promotion of Galba.

BookSevenXIV Galba reversed his decision on the duration of law terms.

BookSevenXXIV Camillus’s Dalmation revolt against him in 42AD.

BookSevenXXXVII Vitellius’s father Lucius ran the Empire while Claudius was campaigning in Britain in 43AD. He curried favour with Claudius as well as his wife Messalina and his freedmen.

BookSevenXXXIX Vitellius endeared himself to Claudius through his love of dice.

BookEightIV Vespasian was appointed to military command under him.

BookEightIX Vespasian completed his shrine on the Caelian Hill.

BookEightXXV The length of Claudius’s reign (13 years) plus Nero’s (14 years) equates to that of Vespasian’s (10) plus Titus’s (2) and Domitian’s (15), twenty seven years in total.

BookEightXXVII His freedman Narcissus.

BookEightXL His premature celebration of the Secular Games.

Claudius, Atta, otherwise Appius Claudius Sabinus Inregillensis or Regillensis, was the semi-legendary founder of the Claudii. Born in the Sabine territories, he favoured peace with Rome, and moved with a group of followers to the City. Claudius became consul of Rome in 495BC. His harsh enforcement of debt laws forced a secession of the plebs in 494BC - 493BC. His sons were Appius Claudius Sabinus, Consul in 471BC and Gaius Claudius Sabinus, Consul in 460BC.

BookThreeI Head of the Claudians c. 500BC.

Claudius Caecus, Appius (c. 340BC - 273BC) was the son of Gaius Claudius Crassus, dictator in 337BC. He was a censor in 312BC although he had not previously been consul. As censor, he built the Appian Way between Rome and Capua, as well as Rome’s first aqueduct the Aqua Appia. He also published the first list of legal procedures and a legal calendar. He cultivated literature and rhetoric, and instituted reforms in Latin orthography. He later served as consul twice, in 307BC and 296BC. In 292BC and 285BC he was Dictator. In 280BC, when blind, he spoke against Cineas, an envoy of King Pyrrhus of Epirus, declaring that Rome would never surrender. This is the first recorded political speech in Latin, and the source of the saying ‘every man is the architect of his own fate.’ His younger brother was Appius Claudius Caudex, and his sons included Publius Claudius Pulcher and the first Tiberius Claudius Nero, thus making him the common ancestor of the Emperor Tiberius through the maternal and paternal lines respectively.

BookThreeII A ‘good’ Claudian.

BookThreeIII Mentioned as the joint ancestor of Tiberius’ paternal and maternal lines.

BookFiveXXIV He allowed the grandsons of freedmen to become Senators.

Claudius Caudex, Appius was the brother of Appius Claudius Caecus, their father being Gaius Claudius Crassus. He served as consul in 264BC, and drew Rome into conflict with Carthage over possession of Sicily. He fought successfully against the Carthaginians and Syracusans for Sicily, defeating both. This dispute was one of the immediate causes of the First Punic War.

BookThreeII A ‘good’ Claudian.

Claudius Crassus Sabinus Inregillenis, Appius, was a decemvir of the Roman Republic. His father was Appius Claudius Sabinus, Consul in 471BC. Claudius Crassus was involved in the civil war between the decemvirs and the senate, which ended in defeat for the decemvirs, while the consulship and tribunate were reestablished. Appius’ decemviral code survived the overthrow of the decemvirs in 449BC. He was claimed to have been murdered or committed suicide as a consequence of his lust for Verginia, the daughter of Lucius Verginius, a respected centurion (the story is told in Livy 3:44-58)

BookThreeII A ‘bad’ Claudian.

Claudius Marcellus, Marcus, see Marcellus

Claudius Marcellus Aeserninus, Marcus was son of the Marcus Claudius Marcellus Aeserninus who was consul in 22BC. He married Asinia, the daughter of Gaius Asinius Pollio, who was consul in 40BC. When a boy he broke his leg while acting in the Trojan games before Augustus, a circumstance of which his grandfather, Asinius Pollio, complained so loudly that the custom was abolished. He was trained by his grandfather in oratory, and in 20AD was one of those whom Gnaeus Calpurnius Piso requested to undertake his defence on the charge of having poisoned Germanicus, but he declined the office

BookTwoXLIII His injury mentioned.

Claudius Nero, Tiberius was the fourth son of Appius Claudius Caecus, and the paternal ancestor of the Emperor Tiberius.

BookThreeIII Mentioned as an ancestor of Tiberius.

Claudius (Appius) Pulcher, Publius (d. c. 249BC) was the second son of Appius Claudius Caecus. He was the first of the Claudii to be given the cognomen ‘Pulcher’ (handsome). He was curule aedile in 253 and consul in 249BC, when he commanded a Roman fleet during the First Punic War. He lost the Battle of Drepana against the Carthaginians after ignoring an adverse omen whereby the sacred chickens refused to eat. He was recalled to Rome and ordered to appoint a dictator; his nomination of his subordinate Marcus Claudius Glycias was overruled. He was tried for incompetence and impiety, and was fined, dying soon afterwards, possibly by suicide. He was a maternal ancestor of the Emperor Tiberius.

BookThreeII A ‘bad’ Claudian.

BookThreeIII Mentioned as an ancestor of Tiberius.

Claudius Pulcher, Appius (d. c. 130BC) was consul in 143BC. He defeated the Salassi, but was refused a triumph by the senate, and triumphed at his own expense. When one of the tribunes attempted to drag him from his chariot, his sister Claudia, one of the sacred Vestal Virgins, accompanied him to the Capitol. He held the censorship, with Quintus Fulvius Nobilior, probably in 136BC. He allied with Tiberius Gracchus who married his daughter Claudia. Appius backed Tiberius’ land reform bill and in 133BC with Tiberius and Tiberius’ brother, Gaius Gracchus, was chosen commissioner for the division of land. He died shortly after Tiberius Gracchus, probably in 130BC. He was one of the Salii, an augur, and princeps senatus, and his wife was named Antistia.

BookThreeII His triumph.

Claudius Russus, Appius, was consul in 268BC, with Publius Sempronius Sophus. They celebrated a triumph for their victory over the Picenians, atAncona, in Picenum, the region on the Adriatic coastal plain which is now known as the southern Marche.

BookThreeII A ‘bad’ Claudian.

Claudius Tiberius Nero, Gaius, was praetor in 212BC. In 207BC he was elected consul with Marcus Livius Salinator, and with his colleague he led the army that defeated the Carthaginians at the Battel of the Metaurus River, killing their commander, Hannibal’s brother Hasdrubal. He was censor with Marcus Livius Salinator in 204BC.

BookThreeII A ‘good’ Claudian.

Clemens was a former slave of Agrippa Postumus, the grandson of Augustus, who was executed when Tiberius came to power. Clemens pretended to be Postumus, and gained a significant band of followers, but was captured and executed by Tiberius.

BookThreeXXV Mentioned.

Clemens, see also Arrecinus and Flavius

Cleopatra VII, (Late 69BC – August 12, 30BC) was the last person to rule Egypt as pharaoh – after her death Egypt became a Roman province. She was a member of the Ptolemaic dynasty, and originally ruled jointly with her father Ptolemy XII Auletes and later with her brothers, Ptolemy XIII and Ptolemy XIV, whom she also married, but eventually became sole ruler. As pharaoh, she consummated a liaison with Gaius Julius Caesar that solidified her grip on the throne. She later elevated her son with Caesar, Caesarion, to co-ruler in name. After Caesar's assassination in 44BC, she aligned with Mark Antony in opposition to Caesar's legal heir, Gaius Julius Caesar Octavian, (later known as Augustus). After losing the Battle of Actium to Octavian's forces, Antony committed suicide. Cleopatra followed suit, according to tradition killing herself by means of an asp bite on August 12, 30BC.

BookOneXXXV BookOneLII Her alliance with Caesar.

BookTwoXVII Her children by Antony and Caesar, and her suicide.

BookTwoLXIX She married Mark Antony, according to the Egyptian rite, it was said, the fact supporting his calling her his ‘wife’

BookSixIII Mentioned.

Cleopatra Selene II (40BC - 6AD), also known as Cleopatra VIII of Egypt was a Ptolemaic Princess and the only daughter of Cleopatra VII of Egypt and the triumvir Mark Antony. In late 34BC, she was made ruler of Cyrenaica and Libya. Between 26BC and 20BC, Augustus arranged her marriage with King Juba II of Numidia in Rome.

BookFourXXVI Mother of Ptolemy of Mauretania.

Clitumnus, the River Clitunno, rises from a spring near the Via Flaminia, the road from Rome to Ariminum (Rimini), near the town of Campello sul Clitunno, between Spoleto and Trevi: the area was celebrated by the Romans for its beauty. There was originally a pagan shrine with prophetic oracle dedicated to the river god Clitumnus.

BookFourXLIII Caligula visited the shrine.

Clodianus was a subaltern involved in the assassination of Domitian in 96AD.

BookEightLIII Mentioned.

Clodius Pulcher, Publius (c. 92BC - 53BC) was born Publius Claudius Pulcher but became known as Publius Clodius after his controversial adoption into the plebeian family of Fontei in 59BC. He was a politician known for his populist tactics. He passed several significant laws (the Leges Clodiae) but is chiefly remembered as a politican for his feuds with Titus Annius Milo and Marcus Tullius Cicero and for his introduction of the grain dole.

BookOneVI His alleged seduction of Caesar’s wife Pompeia led to their divorce. Caesar supported him politically and Clodius was acquitted of charges of immorality.

BookOneXX Favoured by Caesar as an opponent of Cicero.

BookOneXXVI Assassinated by, or died in a street fight with, Milo’s supporters in late 53 or early 52BC. The Senate then voted that Caesar (still in Gaul) be removed from power in favor of Pompey, but the Tribunes were able to block the decree.

BookOneLXXIV Caesar submitted no evidence against him on charges of adultery and sacrilege.

BookTwoLXII His daughter Claudia, by his wife Fulvia, married Octavian in 43BC.

BookThreeII His adoption in 59BC. Cicero was driven from the City in 59/58.

BookEightXLV The specific law is not recorded, but may have been one of the Leges Clodiae.

Clodius Macer, Lucius, was a legatus in Africa under Nero. He rebelled in May 68AD, cutting off the food supply to Rome. Although encouraged by Galba, Macer created an additional legion, raising suspicion that he harbored imperial ambitions, and in October of 68 Galba had him killed.

BookSevenXI Mentioned as a rival to Galba.

Clodius Pollio was a man of praetorian rank lampooned by Nero in a verse entitled Luscio (The One-Eyed Man).

BookEightXXXVII Mentioned with regard to Domitian.

Clodius Thrasea Paetus, Publius (d. 66AD) was a stoic philosopher and consul in 56AD, and one of the keepers of the Sibylline books. He opposed Nero and was forced to retire from public life in AD63. He was subsequently driven to suicide in AD66. He was a friend and relative of the poet Persius.

BookSixXXXVII Driven to suicide by Nero.

BookEightXLVI His eulogy by Junius Rusticus.

Clunia, or Colonia Clunia Sulpicia, was a Roman city located on Alto de Castro, in the modern province of Burgos in Spain. The city was formally re-founded ex novo during the reign of Tiberius as part of the Roman plan to pacify the region after the Cantabrian Wars. During Galba’s reign, Clunia was effectively the capital of the Empire.

BookSevenIX The temple of Jupiter there.

Cluvius Rufus, Marcus, was consul suffectus in 45AD, during the reign of Claudius. He had been involved in the conspiracy to assassinate Caligula. In 69AD, Cluvius was governor of Hispania. On the death of Galba, Cluvius first swore allegiance to Otho, but soon afterwards became a partisan of Vitellius. He was an important historian whose writing and testimony, though now lost, were a source for Suetonius and others.

BookSixXXI He introduced Nero’s singing performance on stage.

Codeta, Lesser. The Codeta was a district on the right bank of the Tiber, so called because of the common horsetail (equisetum arvense) which grew there. The Lesser Codeta (Codeta Minor) is mentioned only in Suetonius, as that part of the Campus Martius in which Caesar constructed a lake for his mock naval battle, used in his triumph in 46BC. It may have been sited opposite the Codeta.

BookOneXXXIX BookThreeLXXII Mentioned.

Colonia, Claudia Ara Agrippinensium, modern Cologne, lies on the River Rhine. One of the oldest cities in Germany, having been founded by the Ubii in the year 38BC, it was acknowledged as a colony by the Rome in 50AD.

BookSevenXLV Vitellius sent Otho’s dagger with which he had committed suicide to the Temple of Mars at Colonia Agrippinensium.

Columbus was a gladiator, one of the murmillones, whom Caligula disliked.

BookFourLV Caligula had him poisoned for winning a contest.

Commagene was a small kingdom, located in modern south-central Turkey, with its capital at Samosata (modern Samsat, near the Euphrates). The Kingdom maintained its independence until 17AD, when it was made a Roman province by Tiberius. It reemerged as an independent kingdom when Antiochus IV of Commagene was reinstated to the throne by order of Caligula, then deprived by that same Emperor, then restored a couple of years later by Claudius. This re-emergent Kingdom lasted until 72AD, when Vespasian finally made it a part of the Roman Empire.

BookEightVIII Vespasian reduced Commagene from free to provincial status.

Compitalia, a festival celebrated once a year in honor of the Lares Compitales, household deities of the crossroads to which sacrifices were offered at the places where two or more ways meet. The word comes from the Latin compitum, a cross-roads.

BookTwoXXXI Revived by Augustus. As Augustus was now the pater patriae, the Lares of the emperor became the Lares of the State. Augustus set up Lares or Penates at places where two or more ways met and instituted an order of priests to attend to their worship. These priests were chosen from the libertini, people who had been legally freed from slavery, and were called Augustales.

Confluentes, the site of modern Koblentz, is at the confluence of the Rhine with the Moselle. In 55BC Roman troops commanded by Julius Caesar reached the Rhine and built a bridge between Koblenz and Andernach. About 9 BC, the ‘Castellum apud Confluentes’, the fort at the confluence of the rivers, was one of the military posts established by Drusus the Elder. Remains of a large bridge built in 49AD by the Romans are still visible. The Romans built two castles as protection for the bridge, one in 9AD and another in the 2nd century, the latter being destroyed by the Franks in 259. The site of thevillage of Ambivartium (elsewhere Ambiatinus) is not known, but may have been one of the temple sites nearby.

BookFourVIII It was claimed that Caligula was born near there.

Corduba, the modern Córdoba, is a city in Andalusia southern Spain. Córdoba was conquered by the Romans in 206BC. In 169BC the Roman consul Marcus Claudius Marcellus founded a Latin colony alongside the pre-existing Iberian settlement. At the time of Julius Caesar, Córdoba was the capital of the Roman province of Hispania Ulterior Baetica. Seneca the Elder, Seneca the Younger, and Lucan came from there. In the reorganization of the Empire in 14BC, when Hispania was reorganised into three Imperial provinces, Baetica was governed by a proconsul who had formerly been a praetor, and was regarded as highly secure.

BookTwoLI Mentioned.

Cordus, see Cremutius

Corfinium was a city in Ancient Italy, on the eastern side of the Apennines, due east of Rome. It was near the modern Corfinio, in the province of L'Aquila (Abruzzo region).

BookOneXXXIV Surrendered to Caesar in 49BC.

BookSixII Lucius Domitius Ahenobarbus the consul of 54BC was taken prisoner there and then released.

Corinth was a city-state, on the Isthmus of Corinth, the narrow stretch of land that joins the Peloponnese to the mainland of Greece. To the west lies the Gulf of Corinth, to the east the Saronic Gulf. Corinth is about 48 miles southwest of Athens. The Romans under Lucius Mummius destroyed Corinth following a siege in 146BC. Julius Caesar refounded the city as Colonia laus Iulia Corinthiensis in 44BC shortly before his assassination. Under the Romans, it became the seat of government for Southern Greece or Achaia. Corinthian bronze, also called Corinthian brass or æs Corinthiacum, was a highly valuable metal alloy in classical antiquity, thought to be an alloy of copper with gold or silver (or both), although it has also been contended that it was simply a very high grade of bronze, manufactured in Corinth. Antique bronze items found in the ruins of Corinth were prized by Roman collectors.

BookTwoLXX Augustus’s love of Corinthian bronzes.

BookThreeXXXIV Tiberius seeks to set a ceiling on the price of Corinthian bronzes.

BookSevenIII Sacked by Mummius in 146BC.

Cornelia (wife of Caesar, d. c. 69BC) The daughter of Lucius Cornelius Cinna, she married Julius Caesar, by whom she had a daughter, Julia.

BookOneI Married to Julius Caesar.

BookOneVI Caesar delivered her funeral eulogy.

Cornelia was a head of the Vestal Virgins who broke her vows under Domitian and whom he had executed.

BookEightXLIV Mentioned.

Cornelius, see Scipio and Sulla

Cornelius, was a centurion in the army of Octavian in 43BC, sent to Rome to demand the consulship for their general.

BookTwoXXVI Mentioned.

Cornelius Balbus, Lucius (called Maior the Elder to distinguish him from his nephew) was born in Gades early in the last century BC. He served in Hispania, and citizenship was conferred on him and his family by Pompey. He accompanied Pompey on his return to Rome, in 71BC. He also gained the friendship of Julius Caesar, had much to do with the formation of the First Triumvirate, and was one of Rome’s chief financiers. He accompanied Caesar when propraetor to Hispania (61BC), and to Gaul (58BC) as chief engineer (praefectus fabrum). With Oppius, he managed Caesar’s affairs at Rome, and became Caesar’s private secretary. After Caesar’s murder in 44BC, Balbus successful gained favour with Octavian; in 43/42 BC he was praetor, and in 40BC became the first naturalised Roman citizen to attain the consulship. The year of his death is not known. Balbus kept a diary of the chief events in his own and Caesar's life (Ephemeris), which has been lost. He ensured that Caesar’s Commentaries on the Gallic war were completed; and accordingly the 8th book of the Commentarii de Bello Gallico (which was probably written by his friend Hirtius at his instigation) is dedicated to him.

BookOneLXXVIII BookOneLXXXI Mentioned.

BookTwoXXIX BookTwoXLV The Theatre of Balbus in the Campus Martius was built by him and completed in 13BC.

Cornelius Cinna, Lucius (the consul, d. 84 BC) was a four-time consul of the Roman Republic, serving consecutive terms from 87BC to 84BC, and a member of the ancient Roman Cinna family of the Cornelii gens.

BookOneI Father-in-law of Julius Caesar who married his daughter Cornelia.

BookOneV Caesar spoke in favour of his return from exile, following his support for Lepidus’ civil insurgency.

BookFourLX Mentioned.

Cornelius Cinna, Lucius was the son of the consul of the same name. His sister, Cornelia Cinna minor, was the first wife of Julius Caesar. In 78BC, he allied himself with Marcus Aemilius Lepidus, after whose death he went into exile, in Spain. Caesar recalled him and as dictator promoted him to the praetorship. After Caesar’s death Cinna did not claim a Roman province to govern to which he was entitled. Cicero praised him for this act of self restraint. In 32BC he served as a suffect consul. After 47BC, Cinna married Pompeia Magna, the daughter of Pompey and his third wife Mucia Tertia.

BookOneLXXXV The poet Helvius Cinna mistaken for him, and killed.

Cornelius Dolabella, Gnaeus was a consul in 81BC, with Marcus Tullius Decula, during the dictatorship of Sulla; though the consulships of that year were only nominal. He was a praetor in 81BC and proconsul in 80BC.

BookOneIV BookOneLV Accused of extortion by Julius Caesar in 77BC.

BookOneXLIX On Caesar’s relationship with Nicomedes.

Cornelius Dolabella, Gnaeus is possibly the Dolabella who was related to Galba and so confined by Otho in 70AD at Aquinum (Aquino, nearCassino). He returned to Rome but was denounced by a close friend Plancus Varus. He had married a former wife of Vitellius, namely Petronia. Partly influenced by Triaria his sister-in-law, Vitellius subsequently had him executed at Interamnium (Terni). (See Tacitus, Histories, i.88, ii.63).

BookSevenXII Galba treated him as a rival.

Cornelius Dolabella, Publius (70BC - 43BC), came of a plebian family within the patrician gens Cornelia. He married Cicero’s daughter Tullia Ciceronis. In the civil wars he at first took the side of Pompey, but afterwards went over to Julius Caesar, fought in Illyricum, and was present at the Battle of Pharsalus.

BookOneXXXVI His loss of a fleet off Illyricum.

Cornelius Fuscus, as procurator of Illyricum, was a supporter of Vespasian in 69AD. He was prefect of the Praetorian Guard, under Domitian, from 81 until his death in 87, when he was ambushed with the fifth legion, Legio V Alaudae, during an expedition into Dacia, at the First Battle of Tapae. The legion was annihilated, and Fuscus killed. Tapae, in modern Romania, was an outpost guarding Sarmisegetuza, the main Dacian centre.

BookEightXLII Mentioned.

Cornelius Gallus, Gaius (c. 70BC - 26BC) was poet, orator and politician, In 29BC, he led a campaign to subdue a revolt in Thebes, and subsequently erected a monument in Philae to glorify his accomplishments. Gallus’ conduct brought him into disgrace with the emperor, and a new prefect was appointed. After his recall, Gallus put an end to his life. He wrote four books of elegies chiefly on his mistress Lycoris (a poetical name for Cytheris, a notorious actress), in which he took for his model Euphorion of Chalcis; he also translated some of this author's works into Latin. In 1978 a papyrus was found at Qasr Ibrim, in Egyptian Nubia, containing nine lines by Gallus, arguably the oldest surviving MS of Latin poetry

BookTwoLXVI A friend who fell out of favour.

Cornelius Laco was prefect of the Praetorian Guard, under Galba from 68AD until his death in 69AD. Laco had replaced Tigellinus on Galba’s accession. When Otho was proclaimed emperor, Laco was banished to an island where he was later murdered on Otho’s orders.

BookSevenXIV Mentioned.

Cornelius Nepos (c. 100BC – 24BC) was a Roman biographer. He was born at Hostilia, a village in Cisalpine Gaul not far from Verona. His Gallic origin is attested by Ausonius, and Pliny the Elder calls him Padi accola ('a dweller on the River Po, (Natural History III.22). He was a friend of Catullus, who dedicates his poems to him (I.3), and Cicero. Eusebius places him in the fourth year of the reign of Augustus, which is supposed to be when he began to attract critical acclaim by his writing. Pliny notes he died in the reign of Augustus (Natural History IX.39, X.23).

BookOneLV A letter of Cicero’s to him.

BookTwoLXXVII Quoted regarding Augustus’ abstemiousness.

Cornelius Phagites, pursued Caesar and was bribed by him when Ceasr was in hiding from Sulla.

BookOneLXXIV Caesar did not seek retribution.

Cornelius Sabinus, was a military tribune of the praetorian guard and with Cassius Chaerea, a main co-conspirator against Caligula. On the execution of Chaerea by Claudius, Sabinus voluntarily committed suicide,

BookFourLVIII His part in the murder of Caligula.

Cornelius Scipio Salvito, Publius, (The nickname Salvito means ‘Hail’, probably interpreted as ‘Hail-fellow-well-met’ for his ingratiating manner) was a member of the Cornelia gens and a relative of Scipio Africanus, the Roman general who defeated Salvito supposedly married Pompey’s great-granddaughter Scribonia as her second husband, and became an an ally of his. During the Civil War between Pompey and Caesar, Salvito aided Pompey’s ally, King Juba I of Numidia. After Juba’s defeat, Salvito was pardoned and he and his family returned to Rome. In 41/40BC, he was forced to divorce his wife Scribonia so that her uncle Sextus Pompeius could ally with the Julian family. Salvito never remarried, he may have been consul in 35BC and died soon afterwards.

BookOneLIX Caesar’s mockery of him.

Cornificius, Lucius was the accuser of Marcus Junius Brutus in the court which tried the murderers of Julius Caesar. In 38BC Octavian gave him the command of a fleet against Sextus Pompeius during which he distinguished himself in battle off Sicily. In 36BC he managed to extricate a section of the army from a dangerous situation and unite them with Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa at Mylae. For these services he was rewarded with the consulship in 35BC.

BookTwoXXIX He restored a Temple of Diana on the Aventine near the Baths of Sura, after which it was known as the Temple of Diana Cornificia.

Corvinus, see Statilius and Valerius

Cosa was founded under Roman influence in southwestern Tuscany in 273BC, perhaps on land confiscated from the Etruscans. Sited 140 kilometres northwest of Rome on the Tyrrhenian Sea coast, on a hill near the modern town of Ansedonia, Cosa seems to have prospered until it was sacked in the 60's BC, perhaps by pirates. This led to a re-foundation under Augustus. Cosa appears to have been affected by an earthquake in 51BC, which occasioned the reconstruction of the republican Basilica as an Odeon under the supervision of Lucius Titinius Glaucus Lucretianus, who also worked on the Capitoline temple; however, as early as 80BC, Cosa seems to have been almost deserted.

BookEightII Vespasian’s maternal grandmother Tertulla had an estate there, on which Vespasian was raised.

Cosmus, was a slave of Augustus punished for insulting him.

BookTwoLXVII Mentioned.

Cossutia (dates not known) Of a wealthy equestrian family, she was betrothed to Julius Caesar who broke off the engagement to marry Cornelia.

BookOneI Mentioned.

Cotiso, King of the Getae, was a Dacian king who ruled the mountains between Banat and Oltenia (modern-day Romania). Florus wrote that Cotiso and his armies used to mount raids in the south when the Danube froze. He was defeated by Gnaeus Cornelius Lentulus.

BookTwoLXIII Antony’s claim that he had been betrothed to Julia.

Cottius I, Marcus Julius Cottius, was king of the Ligurian tribes inhabiting the Cottian Alps. He was the son and successor of King Donnus, who opposed but later made peace with Julius Caesar. Cottius initially maintained his independence in the face of Augustus’ effort to subdue the Alpine tribes, but submitted when Augustus named him prefect of the dozen tribes in his region. Cottius later honored his patron with a triumphal arch in his capital of Segusio (modern Susa, Italy).

BookThreeXXXVII Mentioned, as an ally.

Cottius II, Marcus Julius Cottius, the son of Cottius I, was granted the title of king by Claudius. On his death, Nero annexed his kingdom as theprovince of Alpes Cottiae.

BookSixXVIII Mentioned.

Crassus, see Licinius

Cremona is a city in Lombardy, on the left bank of the Po River in the heart of the Pianura Padana (Po Valley). It was on the main road connectingGenoa to Aquileia, the Via Postumia. The city’s prosperity continued to increase until 69AD, when it was destroyed in the Second Battle of Betriacum by the troops of Vespasian.

BookEightVII Vitellius’s army was routed at Betriacum, 35 kilometres from Cremona.

Cremutius Cordus, Aulus (d. 25AD) was a Roman historian. He was forced by Sejanus, praetorian prefect under Tiberius, to take his life after being accused accused by Satrius Secundus of having eulogized Brutus and spoken of Cassius as the last of the Romans, which was considered an offence under the lex majestatis, and the Senate thereby ordered the burning of his writings. He starved himself to death, but his daughter Marcia was instrumental in saving his work, published again under Caligula. Apart from Suetonius he is mentioned by Tacitus, Quintilian, Seneca and Dio Cassius. The survival of his work prompted Tacitus to deride ‘the foolishness of those who believe that the powers-that-be can destroy today’s history for tomorrow’

BookTwoXXXV Quoted.

BookFourXVI Caligula reinstated his writings.

Cunobelinus (late 1st century BC - c. 40AD) was a king in pre-Roman Britain, known from passing mentions by Suetonius and Dio Cassius, and from inscribed coins. He appears to have controlled a substantial portion of south-eastern England. He had three sons, Adminius, Togodumnus and Caratacus, and a brother, Epaticcus.

BookFourXLIV The father of Adminius.

Curio, Gaius Scribonius, the Elder (d. 53BC) statesman and orator was nicknamed Burbulieus (after an actor) for the way he moved his body while speaking. He was consul in 76BC with Gnaeus Octavius. After his consulship, he was Governor of Macedonia and successfully fought the Dardani and the Moesians, for which he won a military triumph. He was the first Roman general to penetrate to the Danube. In 57BC, he was Pontifex Maximus. A friend of Cicero, he supported him during the Catiline Conspiracy. Curio spoke in favor of Publius Clodius Pulcher when he was on trial for violating the rites of Bona Dea. He became an opponent of Julius Caesar and wrote a political dialogue against him.

BookOneIX His Orations.

BookOneXLIX On Caesar’s relationship with Nicomedes.

BookOneL Reproached Pompey for divorcing Mucia.

BookOneLII Referred to Caesar’s reputation for vice.

Curio, Gaius Scribonus the Younger (d. 49BC), was the son of Gaius Scribonius Curio the Elder. He was a friend to Pompey, Julius Caesar, Mark Antony and Cicero. He was known as a distinguished orator. Curio was praetor in 49BC. While fighting under Caesar, he was sent to Africa to oppose King Juba I of Numidia (a supporter of Pompey). Although he won the Battle of Utica (49BC) he was eventually defeated by Juba, with aid from Attius Varus, at the Second Battle of the Bagradas River and fought to his death, with the army, rather than attempting to flee.

BookOneXXIX Bribed by Caesar in 50BC to elicit his support.

BookOneXXXVI His death at the Second Battle of the Bagradas River.

BookOneL Reproached Pompey for divorcing Mucia.

Curiuso, Quintus, a senator, who would eventually become one of Cicero’s chief informants, warned Cicero, apparently via Curius’ mistress Fulvia, of the threat to his life from the Catiline conspirators.

BookOneXVII He was awarded a bounty for first revealing the Catiline conspiracy, which Caesar caused to be revoked.

Curtian Pool, the Lacus Curtius is a hole in the ground in the Roman Forum, now more or less paved over, but once a chasm. The associated story appears in Livy: vii.6. Rome, faced a danger which an oracle stated would be overcome, if the City hurled into the pool what it held most dear. Marcus Curtius plunged into it in full armour on his horse, the earth closed over him, and Rome was saved.

BookTwoLVII Tributes to Augustus’ welfare thrown in annually.

BookSevenXX Galba was killed beside the pool in 69AD.

Cutiliae, or Aquae Cutiliae, is a mineral spring in Italy, near the modern Cittaducale, 9 miles east of Rieti (Reate). There are remains of the baths frequented by Vespasian and Titus.

BookEightXXIV Mentioned.

Cybele was the Phrygian deification of the Earth Mother. As with Greek Gaia or her Minoan equivalent, Cybele embodied the fertile Earth, a goddess of caverns and mountains, nature and wild life (especially lions and bees).

BookTwoLXVII Her eunuch priests.

BookThreeII Her worship brought to Rome c. 204BC.

BookSevenXXXI Her festival in Rome was from March 24th to 30th.

Cynegirus was the son of Euphorion, and brother of Aeschylus the playwright.

BookOneLXVIII His heroics in pursuit of the Persians after Marathon (480BC), where his hand was severed, while boarding a Persian ship.

Cyrus the Great (c. 576BC – 530BC), also known as Cyrus II or Cyrus of Persia, was the first Zoroastrian Persian emperor. He was the founder of the Persian Empire under the Achaemenid dynasty, which embraced all previous civilized states of the ancient Near East, and eventually conquered most of Southwest Asia Minor and much of Central Asia, from Egypt and the Hellespont in the west to the Indus River in the east. He died in battle, fighting the Massagetae along the Syr Darya in December 530BC.

BookOneLXXXVII Xenophon’s CyropaediaThe Education of Cyrus’ is a partly fictional biography of Cyrus.

Cyzicus was an ancient town of Mysia in Anatolia, on the shoreward side of the present peninsula of Kapu-Dagh (Arctonnesus), which is said to have been originally an island in the Sea of Marmara, and artificially connected with the mainland in historic times. Cyzicus was held for the Romans against Mithridates VI of Pontus, and its siege was raised by Lucullus, the loyalty of the city being rewarded by an extension of territory and other privileges. The Romans favoured it and recognized its municipal independence. Under Tiberius it was incorporated with the empire, but remained the capital of Mysia, afterwards of Hellespontus.

BookThreeXXXVII The citizens were stripped of their freedom by Tiberius after an outrage against Roman citizens.

Dacians, an Indo-European people, the ancient inhabitants of Dacia (located in the area in and around the Carpathian mountains and east of there to the Black Sea) The Dacian kingdom reached its maximum extent under king Burebista (r. 82BC - 44BC). The capital of the kingdom was the city of Argedava situated close to the river Danube.

BookOneXLIV Caesar’s plans to push back their advances into Pontus.

BookTwoVIII Caesar’s incipent campaign of 45BC.

BookTwoXXI Under Augustus they often raided over the frozen Danube during the winter, attacking the Roman cities in Moesia.

BookThreeXLI The Dacians and Sarmatians allowed to overrun Moesia c. 34AD.

BookEightXLII Domitian campaigned against the Dacians in 84AD - 86AD.

Dalmatians, [the] were an Illyrian tribe the Dalmatae who lived along the eastern Adriatic coast in the 1st millennium BC. The area was part of the Illyrian Kingdom between the 4th century BC and the Illyrian Wars (220BC, 168BC) when the Roman Republic established its protectorate south of the river Neretva. The name Dalmatia came to define a coastal area of the eastern Adriatic between the Krka and Neretva rivers. The Roman province of Illyricum was formally established around 32BC - 27BC. In 9AD the Dalmatians raised the last in a series of revolts together with the Pannonians, which was finally crushed, and in 10AD Illyricum was split into two provinces, Pannonia and Dalmatia, which covered all of the Dinaric Alps and most of the eastern Adriatic coast.

BookTwoXX BookTwoXXI Augustus campaigned against them in person 35BC - 33BC.

BookTwoXXII Augustus celebrated his victories in Dalmatia in his triple-triumph of 29BC.

BookThreeIX Legions under Tiberius defeated the Dalmatians and secured the border at the Danube (Donau) in his campaigns of 11BC - 9BC.

BookFiveXIII Furius Camillus Scribonianus, Dalmatia’s governor, attempted civil rebellion in 42AD.

BookSevenXXXII Otho drew on troops from Dalmatia in 69AD.

Dareus was a Parthian hostage at the court of Caligula.

BookFourXIX He accompanied Caligula to Baiae.

Datus was an actor in Atellan farce, who taunted Nero.

BookSixXXXIX Banished by Nero.

Demetrius the Cynic was a philosopher from Corinth, who lived in Rome during the reigns of Caligula, Nero and Vespasian. He was an intimate friend of Seneca.

BookEightXIII Mentioned.

Demochares was one of Sextus Pompey’s admirals.

BookTwoXVI Mentioned, commanding off Sicily c. 36BC.

Dertosa, modern Tortosa, is in the province of Tarragona, in Catalonia, by the Ebre River.

BookSevenX Mentioned.

Diana was the virgin goddess of wild creatures, the hunt and the moon, equivalent to the Greek Artemis.

BookTwoXXIX A Temple of Diana on the Aventine near the Baths of Sura, was restored by Lucius Cornificius and therafter known as the Temple of Diana Cornificia.

Dido, or Elissa, was the legendary Phoenician founder (possibly 8th Century BC) and first Queen of Carthage (in modern-day Tunisia). She fled there from Tyre (in modern Lebanon) on the Mediterranean coast about 50 miles south of modern Beirut. She is a major character in Virgil’s Aeneid.

BookSixXXXI Nero was persuaded by tales of a treasure she brought from Tyre to Africa.

Didyma was an ancient Ionian sanctuary, the modern Didim, on the Aegean coast of western Turkey, 76 miles from the city of Aydın, containing a temple and oracle of Apollo, the Didymaion.

BookFourXXI Mentioned.

Diodorus was a famous lyre-player.

BookEightXIX Vespasian rewarded him.

Diogenes of Rhodes, was a Greek grammarian.

BookThreeXXXII Mentioned.

Diomedes was a steward to Augustus mocked for cowardice, though putting Augustus in danger.

BookTwoLXVII Mentioned.

Dionysius, was a son of Areus the Alexandrian philosopher.

BookTwoLXXXIX Augustus studied under him.

Dioscurides, was a Greek master gem-engraver.

BookTwoL He cut Augustus’ later seal-ring, showing the Emperor’s head.

Dolabella, see Cornelius

Domitia Lepida the Elder (c. 19BC - 59AD), or simply Domitia, was the oldest child of Antonia the Elder and Lucius Domitius Ahenobarbus (consul 16BC). She married the consul Decimus Haterius Agrippa, who died in 32AD a victim of Tiberius. In 33AD Domitia married the wealthy, and influential Gaius Sallustius Crispus Passienus, adopted grandson and biological great-great nephew of the historian Sallust. In 59AD her nephew Nero poisoned her.

BookSixV Mentioned.

BookSixXXXIV Nero brought about her murder.

Domitia Lepida the Younger (c. 10BC - 54AD), or simply Lepida, was the younger daughter of Antonia the Elder and Lucius Domitius Ahenobarbus (consul 16BC). Her first husband was her cousin, the consul Marcus Valerius Messalla Barbatus. Lepida married Barbatus probably around 15AD. They had a son Marcus Valerius Messala Corvinus (consul 58AD) and a daughter Valeria Messalina who became Empress and third wife to Claudius. Lepida's second husband was Faustus Cornelius Sulla. At the beginning of the reign of her son-in-law, Claudius, Lepida was given in marriage to Appius Junius Silanus. Agrippina the Younger arranged the execution of Lepida sometime before the poisoning of Claudius.

BookSixV Accused of incest with her brother.

BookSixVI Responsible for raising Nero, her nephew.

BookSixVII Nero testified against her in court.

Domitia Longina (b. 50AD - 55AD, d. 126AD - 130AD), later Domitia Augusta, was the youngest daughter of the general and consul Gnaeus Domitius Corbulo. Domitia divorced her first husband Lucius Aelius Lamia in order to marry the future Emperor Domitian in 71AD. The marriage produced a son, who died young in 82AD. She became Empress of Rome on Domitian’s accession in 81AD, and remained so until his assassination in 96AD.

BookEightXXXV There were rumours of her having been intimate with Titus.

BookEightXXXVII BookEightXLVI BookEightXLVIII Her marriage with Domitian.

BookEightXXXIX Her son by Domitian.

BookEightL Her involvement in the conspiracy against Domitian.

Domitian, Titus Flavius Domitianus (24th October 51AD – 18th September 96AD), was Emperor from 81AD to 96AD. Domitian was the third and last emperor of the Flavian dynasty. He saw himself as a new Augustus, an enlightened despot destined to guide the Roman Empire into a new era of brilliance. Religious, military, and cultural propaganda fostered a cult of personality, and by nominating himself perpetual censor, he sought to control public and private morals. As a consequence, Domitian was popular with the people and army but considered a tyrant by members of the Roman Senate. His reign ended in 96AD when he was assassinated by court officials He was succeeded by his advisor Nerva.

BookEightI His assassination considered justified.

BookEightIII His birth mentioned.

BookEightXXXIV His continuous plotting against his brother Titus.

BookEightXXXVII Suetonius’ life of Domitian follows.

Domitian the Younger was a son of Flavius Clemens who had two sons both named Titus Flavius, born c. 88AD and c. 90AD, who were educated by Quintilian. Domitian named them as his heirs, changing their former names and calling the one Vespasian and the other Domitian.

BookEightLI Mentioned.

Domitilla, see Flavia

Domitius Ahenobarbus, Gnaeus (d. 104BC) was consul in 122BC. He was the son of a Gnaeus Domitius Ahenobarbus who was consul in 162BC, and the father of Gnaeus Domitius Ahenobarbus, consul in 96BC. He and Quintus Fabius Maximus Allobrogicus conquered the Allobroges and the Arverni, near Vindalium, at the confluence of the Sulga and Rhone. He travelled on an elephant in procession through the province, and was honored with a triumph in 120BC. As censor in 115BC, he expelled twenty-two senators from the senate. He is most famous for constructing the Via Domitia (c. 118BC), connecting Rome to the provinces in Spain. He was also elected Pontifex.

BookSixII Mentioned.

Domitius Ahenobarbus, Gnaeus (d. 88BC) was tribune of the people in 104BC and Pontifex Maximus in 103BC. He was the son of Gnaeus Domitius Ahenobarbus the consul of 122BC. He was the great-great-great-grandfather of the Emperor Nero. He was elected consul in 96BC and Censor in 92BC with Lucius Licinius Crassus the orator, with whom he was frequently at odds. His son was Lucius Domitius Ahenobarbus, consul in 54BC.

BookSixII Mentioned.

Domitius Ahenobarbus, Gnaeus, the great-grandfather of the Emperor Nero, was captured with his father, Lucius, at Corfinium in 49BC, and was present at Pharsalia in 48BC, but took no further part in the war. He did not return to Italy until 46BC, when he was pardoned by Julius Caesar. He followed Brutus into Macedonia after Caesar’s death, and was condemned by the Lex Pedia in 43BC as one of the murderers. After Philippi in 42BC, Ahenobarbus conducted the war independently of Sextus Pompeius, and with a fleet of seventy ships and two legions plundered the coasts of the Ionian Sea. In 40BC he joined Mark Antony and Ahenobarbus accompanied Antony on his ill-fated invasion of Parthia in 36BC; and governed Bithynia, until c. 35BC. Consul in 32BC, with Gaius Sosius, Ahenobarbus fled from Rome to Antony at Ephesus, where he tried in vain, to diminish Cleopatra’s influence. The soldiers offered him command; but he defected to Augustus shortly before Actium in 31BC, though suffering from a fever, from which he died, without taking part in the battle.

BookTwoXVII Allowed by Augustus to join Mark Antony. Suetonius calls him Titus Domitius in the text.

BookSixIII His career described.

BookSixIV He was the father of Lucius Domitius Ahenobarbus the consul of 16BC.

Domitius Ahenobarbus, Gnaeus (17BC - 40AD) was the only son of Antonia the Elder and Lucius Domitius Ahenobarbus (consul 16BC). His only siblings were Domitia (aunt of Nero) and Domitia Lepida, mother of the Empress Valeria Messalina, third wife of the Emperor Claudius. He was the father of the Emperor Nero. Domitius was Consul in 32AD and appointed by Tiberius as a commissioner in early 37AD. He died of oedema at Pyrgi. In Domitius’ will, Nero inherited one third of his estate, but Caligula, who was also mentioned in the will, took Nero’s inheritance for himself. When Claudius became Emperor, Nero’s inheritance was restored. Domitius’ widow Agrippina later married her widowed uncle Claudius.

BookSixV His career described.

BookSixVI His comment regarding Nero.

BookSixIX Nero honoured his memory.

BookSixXXVIII BookSevenV Mentioned.

BookSevenVI BookSevenXXXVII Consul in 32AD the year before Galba was consul, along with Aulus Vitellius, Vitellius’s uncle.

BookSevenXXV Otho born during his consulate.

Domitius Ahenobarbus, Lucius was the founder of the Ahenobarbi clan. According to legend, Castor and Pollux announced to one of their ancestors the victory of the Romans over the Latin League at the battle of Lake Regillus (c. 498BC), and, to confirm the truth of what they said, they stroked his black hair and beard, which immediately became red.

BookSixI Mentioned.

Domitius Ahenobarbus, Lucius consul 54BC, was the son of Gnaeus Domitius Ahenobarbus the consul of 96BC. He took an active part in opposing Julius Caesar and initially Pompey, and in 59BC was accused, at the instigation of Caesar, of being an accomplice to the pretended conspiracy against Pompey’s life. He was killed after the Battle of Pharsalus in 48BC, in which he commanded the left wing against Publius Sulla. According to Cicero’s assertion in the second Philippic, Mark Antony himself struck the blow that killed him. Lucan makes Lucius Domitius Ahenobarbus a significant character in book seven of the Pharsalia (he is there called ‘Domitius’) as the only known senator who died supporting Pompey at Pharsalus, and thus a symbol of the dying republic. He was Nero’s great-great-grandfather. He was the father of Gnaeus Domitius Ahenobarbus the consul of 32BC.

BookOneXXIII Demanded an official enquiry into Caesar’s conduct.

BookOneXXIV He failed, 56BC, in his attempt to be made consul for 55BC, being outmanoeuvred by the First Triumvirate, but succeeded in his attempt for 54BC.

BookOneXXXIV Captured and released by Caesar at Corfinium in 49BC.

BookSixII His career described.

BookSixIII Mentioned.

Domitius Ahenobarbus, Lucius was the son of the consul of 32BC Gnaeus Domitius Ahenobarbus and of Aemilia Lepida. His mother was a paternal relative of Lepidus. His paternal grandmother was Porcia Catonis (sister to Cato the Younger). As a young man Lucius was a renowned and devoted charioteer. He was betrothed in 36BC, at the meeting of Octavian and Mark Antony at Tarentum, to Antonia the Elder, the daughter of the latter by Octavia. He was aedile in 22BC, and consul in 16BC. After his consulship, he commanded the army in Germany, crossed the Elbe, and set up an altar to Augustus. He also built a walkway, called the pontes longi, over the marshes between the Rhine and the Ems. For these achievements he received the insignia of a triumph. He died in 25AD. He was the paternal grandfather of the Emperor Nero and the maternal grandfather of Valeria Messalina, third wife of the Emperor Claudius.

BookSixIV BookSixV His career described.

Domitius Calvinus, Gnaeus, was twice consul (in 53BC and 40BC) and a loyal partisan of Caesar and Octavian. He fought for Caesar during the Civil War and at Pharsalus commanded the centre. He subsequently became Governor of Asia. He tried to oppose the invasion of Pharnaces, but suffered a crushing defeat at the battle of Nicopolis in Armenia (December 48BC). He was awarded the honor of a second consulship in 40BC and was sent by Octavian as Governor to Hispania, where he remained for three years (39BC - 36BC), and is known to have been still alive in 20BC.

BookOneXXXVI His defeat at Nicopolis.

Doryphorus was a freedman of Nero’s.

BookSixXXIX Mentioned.

BookSixXXXV Poisoned by Nero.

Drausus was a chieftain of the Senones c. 283BC, killed by Livius Drusus in single combat.

BookThreeIII The source of the cognomen Drusus.

Druids were apparently a priestly class in Gaul and other parts of Celtic Western Europe during the Iron Age. Following the invasion of Gaul by theRoman Empire, the druids were suppressed and disappeared from the written record by the 2nd century, although there may have been late survivals in the British Isles. Graeco-Roman accounts of the Druids, imply that they performed human sacrifice, believed in a form of reincarnation, and held a high position in Gaulish society.

BookFiveXXV Their rites banned by Claudius.

Drusilla, see Julia, Livia

Drusus, see Livius Drusus, the first of that name.

Drusus, see LiviusDrusus the grandfather of Tiberius.

Drusus, Claudius, was the son of the Emperor Claudius and Plautia Urgulanilla. He died in his teens, choked by a pear, shortly after being betrothed to Sejanus’s daughter, Junilla.

BookFiveXXVII Mentioned.

Drusus Julius Caesar (7AD – 33AD), was a son of Germanicus and Agrippina the Elder. He was brother to Emperor Caligula, nephew to Emperor Claudius. Drusus married Aemilia Lepida, daughter of Marcus Aemilius Lepidus, his second cousin. In 36AD, she was charged with adultery with a slave and committed suicide. Drusus was later accused of plotting against Tiberius. He was imprisoned in 30AD, a year after his mother Agrippina the Elder and his brother, Nero Caesar, were arrested and exiled. He starved to death in prison in 33AD, reduced to chewing the stuffing of his bed

BookThreeLIV BookThreeLXI BookThreeLXIV BookFourVIIPersecuted and starved to death by Tiberius.

BookThreeLXV Tiberius had nevertheless envisioned him becoming commander-in-chief in the event of Sejanus usurping power in 31AD.

BookFourXII Caligula supposedly became augur in his place, and wished to avenge his death.

BookFiveIX Claudius was charged with erecting a statue to him and his brother.

BookSevenXXIV He had been betrothed at one time to Otho’s sister.

Drusus, Nero Claudius Germanicus, (38BC - 9BC), born Decimus Claudius Drusus also called Drusus, Drusus I, Nero Drusus, or Drusus the Elder was the stepson of Augustus, brother of Tiberius, paternal grandfather of Caligula, father of Claudius, and maternal great-grandfather of Nero. He was the youngest son of Livia Drusilla from her marriage to Tiberius Nero. Drusus married Antonia Minor, the daughter of Mark Antony and Augustus sister, Octavia Minor. Their children were Germanicus, Claudius, and a daughter Livilla. After his death, Antonia never remarried, though she outlived him by nearly five decades. In 13BC, Drusus was sent to govern Gaul to quell rioting. He was made praetor urbanus for 11BC. Thereafter, though briefly atRome, he campaigned in Germany. He was elected Consul for 9BC. He died on campaign after a fall from a horse, lingering on for a month after the accident, by which point Tiberius had joined him. Drusus’ body was brought back to Rome, and his ashes deposited in the Mausoleum of Augustus.

BookTwoLXXI Gambles with Augustus and others.

BookThreeIV Brother of Tiberius, his father being Tiberius Nero.

BookThreeXX Tiberius re-dedicated the Temple of Concord, and the Temple of Castor and Pollux, in both their names.

BookThreeL Tiberius’ disloyalty to him.

BookFourI The father of Germanicus.

BookFiveI The father of Claudius. Suetonius gives a brief biography,

BookFiveXI Claudius instituted Games in his honour.

BookFiveXLV His tomb was struck by lightning, presaging Claudius’s death.

Nero Claudius Drusus, later adopted as Drusus Julius Caesar (13BC - 23AD), calle Drusus the Younger, was the only child of Tiberius and his first wife, Vipsania Agrippina. In 14AD, after the death of Augustus, Drusus suppressed a mutiny in Pannonia. In 15AD he became consul. He governed Illyricum from 17AD - 20AD. In 21AD he was again consul, while in 22AD he received tribunicia potestas (tribunician power), a distinction reserved solely for the emperor or his immediate successor. Drusus married his paternal cousin Livilla in 4AD. Their daughter Julia was born shortly after. Their son Tiberius Gemellus (his twin brother Germanicus Gemellus died in infancy) was born in 19AD. By 23AD Drusus, who made no secret of his antipathy towards Sejanus, looked likely to succeed Tiberius as emperor. Sources concur that with Livilla as his accomplice Sejanous poisoned her husband Drusus. Sejanus then (25AD) sought to marry Livilla but Tiberius forbade it. Sejanus fell in 31AD. By the end of the year Livilla too had died, supposedly starved to death by her mother, Antonia the Younger.

BookTwoXCIX His daughter Julia was ill at the time of Augustus’ death.

BookTwoC He delivered one of the two eulogies for Augustus at the funeral.

BookTwoCI He was named as an heir of the second degree in Augustus’ will.

BookThreeVII BookThreeX BookThreeXV Son of Tiberius and Agrippina.

BookThreeXXIII He finished reading Augustus’ will to the Senate.

BookThreeXXV He actively assisted Tiberius his father as Emperor.

BookThreeXXXIX BookThreeLXII His death in 23AD.

BookThreeLIV BookThreeLV His son Tiberius Gemellus.

BookThreeLXXVI Gemellus was named as co-heir in Tiberius’ will.

BookFiveXXIX His daughter Julia Drusi was executed on Claudius’s orders.

BookSevenXXXVIII Vitellius was born during his consulship in 15AD.

Drusus, Gaius, unidentified. Possibly the reference is to Drusus the Younger, and his eulogy from the Rostra at Augustus’ funeral.

BookTwoXCIV Referenced.

Dyrrhacium (or Dyrrhachium) is the Albanian city of Dürres (Durazzo in Italian), founded in 625BC as Epidamnus by the Corcyreans, the inhabitants of Corfu. The Romans seized the city in the third century BC and renamed it Dyrrhacium. The city has since then been under Byzantine, Venetian, Ottoman and Italian rule, before becoming an important city in independent Albania. The Battle of Dyrrachium on 10 July 48BC, was a battle during Caesar’s civil war near Dyrrachium. It was fought between Julius Caesar’s veteran legions and the Roman army led by Gnaeus Pompey with the backing of the majority of the Senate. Though forced to retreat from Dyrrachium, Caesar subsequently defeated Pompey at Pharsalus.

BookOneXXXV BookOneXXXVI Caesar’s defeat there.

BookOneLVIII Caesar’s bravery there.

BookOneLXVIII Pompey amazed at the food eaten by Caesar’s troops, and their powers of endurance.