Index OP

Ocean, Oceanos

The river encircling the world. The Ocean, personified as a sea-god, son of Earth and Air, and husband of Tethys his sister. Oceanus and Tethys are also the Titan and Titaness ruling the planet Venus. Some say from his waters all living things originated and Tethys produced all his children.

Bk IV:548-592 The encircling sea.

Bk X:133-197 The father of Perse.

Bk X:503-574 Bk XI:1-50 Bk XI:150-224 Bk XI:593-640

Bk XII:1-35 Bk XXIV:1-56 Hades lies beyond the River of Ocean. (Perhaps beyond the Pillars of Hercules in the Atlantic.)

Bk XIX:361-47 The eastern sea from which the sun rises in western Greece.

Bk XX:56-119 Beyond its mouth is the region where the Furies live.

Bk XXII:160-199 Bk XXIII:205-246 Bk XXIII:300-372 Dawn rises from Ocean’s streams.


A Phaeacian.

Bk VIII:104-151 He competes in the Games.

Odysseus (Ulysses)

The son of Laertes (son of Arceisius), husband of Penelope, and hero of the Odyssey.

Bk I:1-21 The subject of Poseidon’s hostility.

Bk I:44-95 Bk V:1-42 Athene pleads for him to be allowed to return home from the island of Ogygia where Calypso detains him. He has been noted for his sacrifices to Zeus and the gods at Troy.

Bk I:96-155 Bk IV:625-674 Bk IV:675-720 Bk IV:795-847 Bk XX:345-394 His palace on Ithaca, his servants, his rack of spears.

Bk I:156-212 Bk II:1-34 Bk II:35-84 Bk II:260-295 Bk II:382-434

Bk III:51-101 Bk III:313-355 Bk III:356-403 Bk IV:113-154

Bk XV:1-55 Bk XV:56-119 Bk XV:222-270 His son is Telemachus who resembles him.

Bk I:213-251 Bk I:325-364 Bk I:365-420 Bk II:296-336 Bk XVII:61-106 Bk XVIII:206-283 He has vanished, seemingly without trace, on the way back from Troy.

Bk I:252-305 His weaponry: helmet shield, twin spears, poison tipped bronze-headed arrows. The revenge he will take on the suitors if he returns.

Bk II:85-128 Penelope assumes he is dead.

Bk II:129-176 Halitherses prophesies his return.

Bk II:177-223 Eurymachus claims he is dead.

Bk II:223-259 He is described as ‘divine’ and ‘faultless’. He left Mentor in charge of his house.

Bk II:337-381 His store room in the palace, and his nurse Eurycleia.

Bk III:102-147 A friend and ally of Nestor, he was supreme in counsel.

Bk III:148-200 Separated from Nestor on the return journey.

Bk III:201-252 He is cherished by Athene.

Bk IV:59-112 Menelaus mourns his absence.

Bk IV:220-289 Helen and Menelaus tell of his exploits at Troy.

Bk IV:290-350 A friend of Menelaus at Troy.

Bk IV:548-592 Proteus says he is imprisoned on Calypso’s isle.

Bk IV:721-766 His sacred line descended from Arceisius.

Bk V:43-91 He is captive on Calypso’s isle, but Zeus orders her to release him.

Bk V:148-191 Calypso tells him to build a raft, and leave.

Bk V:192-261 He builds the raft.

Bk V:262-312 Bk V:313-387 He is caught in a storm sent by Poseidon and helped by Leucothea, the White Goddess.

Bk V:388-450 He tries to reach the land.

Bk V:451-493 Bk VI:1-47 He comes ashore on Phaeacia and sleeps in a bed of leaves.

Bk VI:110-148 Bk VI:198-250 Bk VI:251-315 He wakes and meets Nausicaa.

Bk VI:316-33 He prays to Athene.

Bk VII:1-77 Bk VII:78-132 Athene guides him to Alcinous’ palace.

Bk VII:133-181 Bk VII:182-239 He comes to Arete and Alcinous as a suppliant.

Bk VII:240-297 He recounts his arrival to Arete and Alcinous.

Bk VII:298-347 He spends the night in the palace of Alcinous.

Bk VIII:1-61 He attends the gathering of Phaeacians.

Bk VIII:62-103 Moved when the bard sings of his quarrel with Achilles.

Bk VIII:152-198 Bk VIII:199-255 He competes in the games, throwing the discus. He asserts his prowess.

Bk VIII:367-415 He receives gifts, and an apology from Euryalus.

Bk VIII:469-520 He praises the bard, Demodocus, and asks him to sing.

Bk VIII:521-585 He is moved by the tale of the Wooden Horse.

Bk IX:1-62 He begins to relate his voyage from Troy. The Cicones.

Bk IX:152-192 Bk IX:193-255 He reaches Sicily and the Cyclops’ cave.

Bk IX:360-412 Bk IX:413-479 He blinds the Cyclops and escapes from the cave tied underneath a ram.

Bk IX:480-525 He flees from Polyphemus.

Bk IX:526-566 Polyphemus prays to his father Poseidon to oppose Odysseus’ homecoming.

Bk X:1-55 Aeolus gives him gifts including the bag of winds.

Bk X:56-102 He is driven back to Aeolia when his crew open the bag of winds. He subsequently reaches the land of Laestrygonians.

Bk X:103-132 He escapes from the Laestrygonians.

Bk X:133-197 He investigates Circe’s island.

Bk X:251-301 He is helped by Hermes.

Bk X:302-347 He evades Circe’s magic spell, with the magic plant moly.

Bk X:348-399 He persuades Circe to free his crew.

Bk X:400-448 He gathers his men together in Circe’s hall.

Bk X:449-502 Bk X:503-574 Circe advises him that he must visit the House of Hades, and tells him what to do there.

Bk XI:1-50 He summons the spirits of the dead.

Bk XI:51-89 He speaks with the ghost of Elpenor.

Bk XI:90-149 Teiresias prophesies his homecoming, the slaying of the Suitors, his old age and death.

Bk XI:150-224 He speaks with his mother Anticleia’s ghost.

Bk XI:333-384 Alcinous asks him to continue his narration.

Bk XI:385-464 He speaks with the ghost of Agamemnon.

Bk XI:465-540 He speaks with the ghost of Achilles.

Bk XI:541-592 Bk XI:593-640 He speaks with the ghosts of Ajax and Heracles.

Bk XII:1-35 He returns to Circe’s island.

Bk XII:36-110 Bk XII:111-164 Circe advises him on his route.

Bk XII:165-200 He passes the Sirens’ island.

Bk XII:201-259 He passes Charybdis and Scylla.

Bk XII:260-319 He argues for not landing on Thrinacia.

Bk XII:320-373 Odysseus discovers his men have stolen Helios’ cattle.

Bk XII:374-453 Zeus punishes him for the theft, and he is driven ashore alone on Ogygia.

Bk XIII:1-52 He asks Alcinous for leave to travel home.

Bk XIII:53-95 He journeys home to Ithaca.

Bk XIII:96-158 The Phaeacians land him on the island.

Bk XIII:159-215 Waking on Ithaca, he fails to recognise it.

Bk XIII:216-255 He meets Athene disguised as a shepherd boy.

Bk XIII:256-310 He tries to deceive Athene as to who he is.

Bk XIII:311-365 Odysseus complains about Athene’s neglect of him.

Bk XIII:366-415 He asks Athene’s help.

Bk XIII:416-440 Athene disguises him as an old beggar.

Bk XIV:1-47 Odysseus finds Eumaeus the swineherd where Athene had said.

Bk XIV:48-108 Eumaeus describes the Suitors’ ravages to him.

Bk XIV:109-164 Bk XX:172-239 Odysseus ‘prophesies’ his own homecoming.

Bk XIV:165-234 Bk XIV:293-359 He pretends to be a Cretan and to have visited Egypt, Phoenicia and Thesprotia.

Bk XIV:360-408 He fails to convince Eumaeus that he is still alive.

Bk XIV:409-456 Eumaeus provides him with supper.

Bk XIV:457-506 He invents a story of himself at Troy.

Bk XV:120-182 Telemachus wishes him home in Ithaca.

Bk XV:301-350 He tests Eumaeus’ hospitality.

Bk XV:351-40 He enquires about his parents.

Bk XV:403-492 He listens to Eumaeus’ tale.

Bk XV:493-557 His lineage represents the royal line of Ithaca.

Bk XVI:1-59 He tries to give up his seat to Telemachus.

Bk XVI:60-111 He expresses his wish to deal with the Suitors.

Bk XVI:112-153 He is an only son with an only son.

Bk XVI:154-212 He reveals his identity to Telemachus.

Bk XVI:213-257 He explains his arrival, and asks about the Suitors.

Bk XVI:258-320 He and Telemachus make plans.

Bk XVI:321-39 News of his son’s return spreads.

Bk XVI:393-451 He once saved the life of Antinous’ father.

Bk XVI:452-481 Eumaeus returns to him and his son with news.

Bk XVII:1-60 He elects to go as a beggar to the palace.

Bk XVII:107-165 Theoclymenus prophesies his return.

Bk XVII:166-203 He sets out for the palace.

Bk XVII:204-253 Melanthius attacks and abuses him.

Bk XVII:254-289 Odysseus reaches the palace.

Bk XVII:290-327 The death of his hound, Argus.

Bk XVII:328-395 Bk XVII:396-461 He begs among the Suitors.

Bk XVII:462-504 Antinous hurls a stool at him.

Bk XVII:505-550 Penelope summons him to see her.

Bk XVII:551-606 He declines to see Penelope until later.

Bk XVIII:1-49 He responds to Irus the beggar’s challenge.

Bk XVIII:50-116 He defeats Irus.

Bk XVIII:117-157 He warns Amphinomus.

Bk XVIII:284-339 He threatens the maids with reprisals.

Bk XVIII:340-393 He responds to Eurymachus’ taunts.

Bk XVIII:394-428 He avoids Eurymachus’ attack on him.

Bk XIX:1-52 He and Telemachus hide the weapons.

Bk XIX:53-99 Melantho abuses him again.

Bk XIX:100-163 Penelope questions him.

Bk XIX:164-219 Odysseus give Penelope a false history of himself.

Bk XIX:220-307 He prophesies his own return.

Bk XIX:308-360 He asks for an old woman to wash his feet.

Bk XIX:361-47 Eurycleia, the old nurse, recognises him.

Bk XIX:476-507 He enjoins Eurycleia to secrecy.

Bk XIX:554-604 He assures Penelope that Odysseus will soon return.

Bk XX:1-55 Athene visits him in sleep to encourage him.

Bk XX:56-119 He seeks omens from Zeus.

Bk XX:120-171 He is delighted by the omens sent him.

Bk XX:240-298 He sits among the Suitors.

Bk XX:299-344 Ctesippus throws an ox-hoof at him.

Bk XXI:1-79 Penelope brings out his bow.

Bk XXI:80-135 Antinous met him when Antinous was a child.

Bk XXI:136-185 Penelope, his wife.

Bk XXI:186-244 He reveals his identity to Eumaeus and Philoetius.

Bk XXI:245-310 Bk XXI:311-358 He seeks to string the great bow.

Bk XXI:359-403 He strings the bow and succeeds with the test.

Bk XXII:1-67 He kills Antinous.

Bk XXII:68-115 He kills Eurymachus.

Bk XXII:116-159 He slaughters others of the Suitors.

Bk XXII:160-199 He orders his men to capture Melanthius.

Bk XXII:200-240 He welcomes the help of Athene, disguised as Mentor.

Bk XXII:241-309 He fights with the Suitors, wounding Demoptolemus, Eurydamas, and Agelaus.

Bk XXII:310-377 He kills Leodes and spares Phemius and Medon.

Bk XXII:378-432 He gives his orders to Eurycleia.

Bk XXII:433-501 He purges the palace, and sends for Penelope.

Bk XXIII:1-84 Eurycleia reveals his identity to Penelope.

Bk XXIII:85-140 He meets with Penelope who is uncertain of his identity.

Bk XXIII:141-204 Tested by Penelope he reveals the secret of their marriage-bed.

Bk XXIII:205-246 He and Penelope weep together.

Bk XXIII:247-299 He tells Penelope of Teiresias’ prophecy.

Bk XXIII:300-372 He tells Penelope the tale of his wanderings.

Bk XXIV:98-204 The ghost of Agamemnon praises his good fortune.

Bk XXIV:205-30 He tests his father’s ability to recognise him.

Bk XXIV:302-355 He makes himself known to Laertes.

Bk XXIV:356-411 He makes himself known to Dolius.

Bk XXIV:412-462 The Ithacans gather to discuss revenge on Odysseus.

Bk XXIV:463-501 He leads his men against the approaching Ithacans.

Bk XXIV:502-54 He obeys Athene’s order to end the conflict.

Oedipus, Oidipodes

King of Thebes. He killed his own father Laius, and married his mother, Jocaste.

Bk XI:225-332 Jocaste’s ghost appears to Odysseus.


The father of Leodes.

Bk XXI:136-185 Mentioned.


The island home of Calypso the Nymph. (Possibly Malta, see Ernle Bradford’s ‘Ulysses Found’, despite Malta being part of a cluster of islands.)

Bk I:44-95 Odysseus is detained there.

Bk VI:149-197 Bk VII:240-297 Odysseus drifts for eighteen days between Ogygia (Malta?) and Phaeacia (Corfu?). Including the days of departure and arrival, his journey takes twenty days.

Bk XII:374-453 Odysseus is washed ashore there.

Bk XXIII:300-372 Odysseus tells the tale.


Tha father of Amphiaraus.

Bk XV:222-270 Mentioned.


The mountain in northern Thessaly supposed to be the home of the gods.

Bk I:22-43 Bk II:35-84 Bk IV:59-112 Bk VI:1-47 Bk VI:149-197 Bk XII:320-373 Bk XIV:360-408 Bk XV:493-557 Bk XVIII:158-205

Bk XIX:1-52 Bk XXIV:302-355 The home of Zeus, and the assembly halls for the gods. It is described as free from wind, rain and snow, and shines with radiant light.

Bk I:96-155 Bk XXIV:463-501 Athene descends from there.

Bk X:302-347 Hermes returns there.

Bk XI:225-332 Assaulted by Otus and Ephialtes.

Bk XV:1-55 Bk XX:1-55 Athene returns there.

Bk XX:56-119 Aphrodite goes there to ask Zeus to grant joyful marriage to the daughters of Pandareus.

Bk XXIII:85-140 Bk XXIII:141-204 The gods are called the Olympians.


The father of Phrontis.

Bk III:253-312 Mentioned.


The son of Peisenor and father of Eurycleia.

Bk I:421-444 Bk II:337-381 Bk XX:120-171 Mentioned.


A city of the Minyans in Phocis, in east-central Greece.

Bk XI:225-332 Iasus and Amphion(2) were kings there.

Bk XI:385-464 Agamemnon’s ghost asks if his son is perhaps still alive there.


The son of Agamemnon and Clytaemnestra, who returned from exile to avenge his father’s murder.

Bk I:22-43 Bk I:252-305 Bk III:148-200 Bk III:253-312

Bk IV:512-547 Killed Aegisthus in revenge. Called the ‘far-famed’.

Bk XI:385-464 Agamemnon’s ghost asks Odysseus if he knows whether his son is still alive.


A hunter from Boeotian Hyria, renowned for his beauty. He was loved by Eos and killed by Artemis, perhaps unintentionally, while swimming near Ortygia to escape the scorpion Apollo sent to attack him. The brightest constellation in the sky, it is an area of star formation in a nearby arm of the Galaxy centred on M42 the Orion Nebula, which marks Orion’s sword. He is depicted as brandishing a club and shield at Taurus the Bull. He was stung to death by a scorpion, and now rises when Scorpio sets and vice versa. His two dogs are Canis Major, which contains Sirius the brightest star in the sky after the sun, and Canis Minor, which contains the star Procyon, forming an equilateral triangle with Sirius and Betelgeuse the red giant in Orion.

Bk V:92-147 The gods were jealous of Eos, the Dawn, and her love for him.

Bk V:262-312 Visible on the opposite side of the sky from the Great Bear.

Bk XI:225-332 His height and handsomeness.

Bk XI:541-592 Odysseus meets his ghost in Hades.


The father of Ctesius.

Bk XV:403-492 Mentioned.


The son of Idomeneus, King of Crete.

Bk XIII:256-310 Odysseus pretends to have killed him.


The father of Diocles.

Bk III:464-497 Bk XV:183-221 Mentioned.

Bk XXI:1-79 His house was in Messene.

Ortygie, Ortygia

A small islet close to Delos, where Leto gave birth to Artemis and Apollo. There was a second Ortygia off the coast of Sicily, on which Syracuse was founded. The two were probably linked by the worship of Artemis.

Bk V:92-147 The scene of Orion’s death.

Bk XV:403-492 Mentioned.


A mountain in Thessaly in Northern Greece.

Bk XI:225-332 Ephialtes and Otus piled Mount Pelion on Ossa.


The giant son of Iphimedeia and Poseidon, who made war on the gods.

Bk XI:225-332 With his brother he piled Mount Pelion on Ossa. They were killed by Apollo.


A god of medicine.

Bk IV:220-289 A god in Egypt (Thoth), and in Greece. Apollo later had the epithet of Paeon the Healer, taken from the earlier god.


The ‘Maiden’. An epithet of Athene.

Bk I:96-155 Bk I:252-305 Bk I:325-364 Bk II:382-434 Bk III:1-50

Bk III:51-101 Bk III:201-252 Bk III:356-403 Bk IV:220-289

Bk IV:795-847 Bk VI:198-250 Bk VI:316-33 Bk VIII:1-61 Bk XI:541-592 Bk XIII:159-215 Bk XIII:216-255 Bk XIII:256-310 Bk XIII:366-415 Bk Bk XV:1-55 Bk XVI:258-320 Bk XIX:1-52 Bk XX:345-394

Bk XXIII:141-204 Bk XXIV:502-54 Athene.


The son of Merops and father of Aedon, who stole the golden mastiff and was punished for his crime.

Bk XIX:508-553 His daughter Aedon became the nightingale.

Bk XX:56-119 His orphaned daughters Merope and Cleothera, were blessed and protected by goddesses, but the Harpies snatched them away and handed them over to the Furies.


A city and region in Phocis.

Bk XI:541-592 Leto travelled through it to Delphi.


A city on the island of Cyprus, sacred to Aphrodite.

Bk VIII:256-366 Aphrodite flees there.


A mountain in Phocis sacred to Apollo and the Muses. Delphi is at its foot where the oracle of Apollo and his temple were situated. Themis held the oracle in ancient times.

Bk XIX:361-47 Bk XXI:186-244 Bk XXIV:302-355 Odysseus hunted there with Autolycus’ sons, and was wounded by a wild boar.


Achilles’ beloved friend, whose death, at the hands of Hector, caused Achilles to re-enter the fight against the Trojans.

Bk III:102-147 Killed at Troy.

Bk XI:465-540 Bk XXIV:1-56 His ghost accompanies Achilles’ ghost in the Underworld.

Bk XXIV:57-97 His ashes are mixed with those of Achilles.


A loyal Ithacan friend of Telemachus. The son of Clytius.

Bk XV:493-557 Bk XVII:1-60 He takes command of the ship, and agrees to look after Theoclymenus.

Bk XVII:61-106 He leads Theoclymenus to meet Telemachus.

Bk XX:345-394 Theoclymenus finds sanctuary with him.


Son of Ixion. King of the Lapithae in Thessaly and friend of Theseus. He married Hippodameia, the daughter of Butes.

Bk XI:593-640 Odysseus would have wished to meet his ghost in Hades.

Bk XXI:245-310 Eurytion the Centaur attempted to rape Hippodameia at her wedding feast.


A suitor. The son of Polyctor.

Bk XVIII:284-339 His gift to Penelope.

Bk XXII:241-309 Killed by the cowherd Philoetius.

Peisenor (1)

The father of Ops.

Bk I:421-444 Bk II:337-381 Bk XX:120-171 Mentioned.

Peisenor (2)

The herald of the assembly in Ithaca.

Bk II:35-84 He gives the speaker’s staff to Telemachus.


One of Nestor’s sons.

Bk III:1-50 He greets the travellers.

Bk III:356-403 He is unmarried, and a spearsman. He sleeps beside the guest Telemachus in the echoing portico.

Bk III:404-463 He helps his father with the sacrifice.

Bk III:464-497 He acts as charioteer to Telemachus on the journey to Sparta.

Bk IV:1-58 Bk IV:59-112 They arrive in Sparta.

Bk IV:155-219 Peisistratus explains to Menelaus who they are. He weeps for his dead brother Antilochus.

Bk IV:290-350 Bk XV:1-55 He sleeps alongside Telemachus in Menelaus’ portico.

Bk XV:120-182 He stows away the gifts, and queries the meaning of the omen.

Bk XV:183-221 He returns to Pylos after dropping Telemachus by his ship.


The father of the Pelasgian people, apparently a name for the pre-Hellenic inhabitants of Northern Greece and Macedonia as far as Thrace. Mythologically Pelasgus was the son of Phoroneus.

Bk XIX:164-219 They are one of the races inhabiting Crete.


The father of Achilles by Thetis.

Bk V:262-312 Bk VIII:62-103 Bk XI:541-592 Bk XXIV:1-56 Mentioned.

Bk XI:465-540 The ghost of Achilles asks Odysseus for news of him.


King of Iolcus. Son of Poseidon and Tyro, brother of Neleus.

Bk XI:225-332 He seized the throne of Iolcus from his half-brother Aeson.


A mountain in Thessaly in Northern Greece.

Bk XI:225-332 Ephialtes and Otus piled Mount Pelion on Ossa.


The wife of Odysseus, and daughter of Icarius and the Naiad Periboa.

(See J. R. Spencer Stanhope’s painting – Penelope – The De Morgan Foundation)

Bk I:213-251 Bk II:260-295 The mother of Telemachus. Athene stresses the nobility of Penelope’s own line.

Bk I:325-364 She complains at the bard’s sad song of the return from Troy, but is rebuked by Telemachus.

Bk IV:59-112 Menelaus imagines she must be grieving for Odysseus.

Bk IV:675-720 She learns of Telemachus’ departure.

Bk IV:721-766 Bk IV:767-794 She prays to Athene to save Telemachus.

Bk IV:795-847 Athene sends a phantom of her sister Iphthime, to Penelope.

Bk V:192-261 Odysseus acknowledges Calypso’s superiority of form, but longs to return to Penelope.

Bk XI:51-89 Elpenor’s ghost mentions her implying that she is still alive.

Bk XI:385-464 Agamemnon praises her virtues.

Bk XIII:366-415 Athene portrays Penelope’s loyalty during Odysseus’ absence.

Bk XIV:1-47 Eumaeus built his hut and yard without her knowledge.

Bk XIV:165-234 Like Eumaeus she desires Odysseus’ return.

Bk XIV:360-408 She summons Eumaeus to the palace whenever there is news of Odysseus.

Bk XIV:409-456 Eumaeus has purchased a slave without her knowledge.

Bk XV:1-55 Her father and brothers are urging her to marry Eurymachus.

Bk XV:301-350 Odysseus, disguised as a beggar, proposes to take her news of himself.

Bk XVI:1-59 Telemachus asks after her on his return.

Bk XVI:60-111 Telemachus describes her as uncertain what to do.

Bk XVI:112-153 Telmachus sends Eumaeus to tell her of his return.

Bk XVI:258-320 Telemachus is not to tell her about Odysseus’ return.

Bk XVI:321-39 She receives the news of Telemachus’ return.

Bk XVI:393-451 Amphinomus’ conversation pleases her.

Bk XVI:452-481 Athene wishes to keep the news of Odysseus’ return from her.

Bk XVII:1-60 She greets Telemachus and asks for news.

Bk XVII:61-106 She sits spinning, and again asks for news.

Bk XVII:107-165 Telemachus tells her of his visit to Sparta.

Bk XVII:328-395 Eumaeus regards her as a protectress.

Bk XVII:462-504 She rails against Antinous’ behaviour.

Bk XVII:505-550 She asks Eumaeus to bring the stranger to see her.

Bk XVII:551-606 Eumaeus explains why the stranger will not see her yet.

Bk XVIII:158-205 Athene prompts her to enter the hall, and enhances her beauty.

Bk XVIII:206-283 Odysseus’ orders to her on leaving for Troy.

Bk XVIII:284-339 The Suitors bring her gifts.

Bk XIX:53-99 She prepares to question the Stranger.

Bk XIX:100-163 She speaks with Odysseus in disguise.

Bk XIX:164-219 Bk XIX:220-307 She weeps at Odysseus’ fictitious tale.

Bk XIX:308-360 She offers Odysseus hospitality.

Bk XIX:361-47 She insists that Eurycleia washes his feet.

Bk XIX:476-507 Athene prevents her noticing Eurycleia’s glance.

Bk XIX:508-553 She tells her dream of the eagle and the geese.

Bk XIX:554-604 She proposes a contest for the Suitors.

Bk XX:299-344 Telemachus pretends to accede to her marrying.

Bk XX:345-394 She is obliged to listen to the Suitors’ rowdiness.

Bk XXI:1-79 She initiates the challenge to the Suitors.

Bk XXI:136-185 Bk XXI:245-310 The subject of the Suitors’ longings.

Bk XXI:311-358 She argues that the guest should attempt the bow.

Bk XXII:378-432 Odysseus insists she be left to sleep.

Bk XXII:433-501 Eurycleia is sent to bring her to Odysseus.

Bk XXIII:1-84 Eurycleia identifies the stranger to her as Odysseus.

Bk XXIII:85-140 She meets with Odysseus but is uncertain of his identity.

Bk XXIII:141-204 She tests Odysseus.

Bk XXIII:205-246 She and Odysseus weep together.

Bk XXIII:247-299 Odysseus tells her of Teiresias’ prophecy.

Bk XXIII:300-372 She tells Odysseus of her life among the Suitors.

Bk XXIV:98-204 The ghost of Agamemnon praises her faithfulness.

Bk XXIV:205-30 Laertes claims she has been prevented from mourning Odysseus, because his fate is unknown.


The daughter of Eurymedon.

Bk VII:1-77 Mother of Nausithous by Poseidon.


Bk XI:225-332 The son of Neleus and Chloris.


A companion of Odysseus.

Bk XI:1-50 He assists in the sacrificial rites.

Bk XII:165-200 He tightens Odysseus bonds to help him resist the Sirens.


Bk XI:225-332 Bk XV:222-270 The daughter of Neleus and Chloris. She married hre cousin Bias through the good offices of his brother Melampus.


Daughter of Ocean, and wife of the Sun.

Bk X:133-197 The mother of Circe and Aeetes.


The daughter of Zeus and Demeter. The wife of Hades. Abducted from Enna, and raped by him, she was forced to remain in the Underworld for half the year. Her story formed the basis of the ritual worship at Eleusis, where she was revered as Kore, the Maiden.

Bk X:449-502 Odysseus must visit her in Hades.

Bk X:503-574 Her Groves of poplar and willow, sited beyond the Ocean stream, i.e. beyond the Pillars of Hercules perhaps on an Atlantic shore.

Bk XI:1-50 Odysseus invokes the divinities of the underworld.

Bk XI:150-224 She is able to send phantoms to the living.

Bk XI:225-332 She sends the ghosts of famous women to meet Odysseus.

Bk XI:385-464 She disperses the women’s ghosts again.

Bk XI:593-640 Odysseus fears lest she send the Gorgon’s head.


A son of Nestor.

Bk III:404-463 He helps his father with the sacrifice.


The people of the island of Scherie (modern Corfu).

Bk V:1-42 Zeus predicts Odysseus will land among them, and they will send him home aboard one of their ships.

Bk V:262-312 Odysseus sees their country from his raft, but is driven away by Poseidon’s storm. The land is described as lying ‘like a shield on the sea’.

Bk V:313-387 Odysseus swims towards their country.

Bk VI:1-47 Bk VII:1-77 They settled in Scherie (after moving from southern Italy?). Alcinous is their king.

Bk VI:48-109 Bk VI:251-315 The lords call Alcinous to council.

Bk VI:110-148 Bk VI:149-197 Bk VII:78-132 The city of Alcinous is their capital.

Bk VI:198-250 They are dear to the gods.

Bk VI:316-33 Odysseus prepares to meet them.

Bk VII:133-181 Their leaders offer libations, before retiring to rest, to Hermes (presumably as a god of trade?).

Bk VII:182-239 Alcinous addresses them.

Bk VII:298-347 They respect a guest’s freedom to leave.

Bk VIII:1-61 Bk VIII:62-103 Odysseus attends their gathering.

Bk VIII:104-151 Bk VIII:152-198 Their sports contest.

Bk VIII:199-255 Their talents at seamanship, running, dance and song, and the arts of good living.

Bk VIII:367-415 Bk VIII:416-468 Bk XIX:220-307 The princes give Odysseus gifts.

Bk VIII:521-585 Their ‘intelligent’ ships that need no helmsman.

Bk XI:333-384 Bk XIII:1-52 They are exhorted to deal well by Odysseus.

Bk XIII:96-158 They land Odysseus on Ithaca.

Bk XIII:159-215 Poseidon turns their ship to stone.

Bk XVI:213-257 Their ship that brought Odysseus to Ithaca mentioned.

Bk XIII:311-365 Odysseus reminds Athene of their meeting there.

Bk XIII:366-415 Odysseus hides their gifts in the Cave of the Nymphs.

Bk XXIII:300-372 Odysseus tells the tale of his visit to them.


King of Sidon.

Bk IV:593-624 Bk XV:56-119 He gifted the silver bowl of Hephaestus to Menelaus, when Menelaus touched there on his journey home.


The daughter of King Minos of Crete and Pasiphaë, sister of Ariadne. She loved Hippolytus her stepson, and brought him to his death. (See Racine’s play – Phaedra).

Bk XI:225-332 Her ghost appeared to Odysseus.


The ancient city of southern Crete, near the modern coastal resort of Matala, and the Bay of Mesara.

Bk III:253-312 Part of Menelaus’ fleet was driven round western Crete (Khania) and wrecked on the headland near Phaestus, presumably modern Cape Lithinon.


One of the horses that pulls Dawn’s chariot.

Bk XXIII:205-246 Held back by Athene.


A nymph. Daughter of Hyperion and Neaera.

Bk XII:111-164 A shepherdess of Hyperion’s herds.


An Egyptian island off the mouth of the Nile (at Alexandria). The famous lighthouse was later built there.

Bk IV:351-397 Menelaus delayed there. A haunt of Proteus.


A town in western Greece. Modern Fias in Ilia province.

Bk XV:271-300 Passed by Telemachus on his way home.


King of Thesprotia.

Bk XIV:293-359 Bk XIX:220-307 Odysseus pretends to have met him.


The bard in the palace at Ithaca.

Bk I:96-155 He has been forced by the Suitors to entertain them.

Bk I:325-364 Penelope objects to his singing the return from Troy.

Bk XVI:213-257 Mentioned by Telemachus.

Bk XVII:254-289 He plays for the Suitors.

Bk XXII:310-377 He begs for his life and is spared.

Bk XXIV:412-462 He accompanies Medon to the meeting-place.

Pherae (1)

The home of Eumelus in Thessaly.

Bk IV:795-847 Mentioned.

Pherae (2)

An ancient city (near modern Kalainai on the Gulf of Messinia) between Pylos and Sparta.

Bk III:464-497 Bk XV:183-221 The home of Diocles, visited by Telemachus and Peisistratus.


Son of Cretheus and Tyro.

Bk XI:225-332 Mentioned.


The son of Poias. He lit Heracles’ funeral pyre and received from him the bow, quiver and arrows that would enable the Greeks to finally win at Troy, and that had been with Hercules when he rescued Hesione there. Bitten by a snake on Lemnos, he was abandoned there on Odysseus’ advice. Odysseus subsequently brought Philoctetes and the weapons to Troy.

Bk III:148-200 He returned safely from Troy.

Bk VIII:199-255 Odysseus acknowledges him as the greatest archer at Troy.


A master cowherd.

Bk XX:172-239 He displays his loyalty towards Odysseus and prays for his safe return.

Bk XX:240-298 He serves at the feast.

Bk XXI:186-244 Odysseus gives him his orders.

Bk XXI:359-403 He bars and lashes the courtyard gates.

Bk XXII:68-115 Telemachus arms him.

Bk XXII:241-309 He kills Ctesippus.

Bk XXII:310-377 He helps Odysseus in the fight.

Bk XXII:433-501 He helps to execute the faithless serving women.

Bk XXIII:247-299 He retires to rest.

Bk XXIII:300-372 He arms himself and follows Odysseus.

Bk XXIV:356-411 He helps prepare a meal.


A wrestler.

Bk IV:290-350 Bk XVII:107-165 Defeated in a wrestling match with Odysseus on Lesbos.


A familiar name for Apollo as the sun-god, and so the sun itself.

Bk III:253-312 Bk VIII:62-103 An epithet of Apollo.


The modern Lebanon. Its great cities were Sidon and Tyre (famous for is purple dyes and cloth). The Phoenicians explored, traded with, and colonised the western Mediterranean and North Africa.

Bk IV:59-112 Visited by Menelaus in his wanderings.

Bk XIV:235-292 Odysseus pretends to be a Cretan who falls in with a wily Phoenician and travels to Phoenicia.

Bk XV:403-492 Phoenicians carried Eumaeus to Ithaca.


The Old Man of the Sea. A demi-god, father of Thoosa, and grandfather of Polyphemus in some variants of myth.

Bk I:44-95 Mentioned.

Bk XIII:96-158 Bk XIII:311-365 His natural harbour on Ithaca.


The father of Noemon, an Ithacan.

Bk II:382-434 Bk IV:625-674 Mentioned.


The son of Onetor, and helmsman to Menelaus.

Bk III:253-312 Killed by Apollo’s arrow and buried at Cape Sunium.

Phthia, Phthie

A city in Thessaly, birthplace of Achilles, and ruled by his father Peleus.

Bk XI:465-540 Achilles’ home city.


A city in Thessaly, founde by Phylacus.

Bk XI:225-332 Bk XV:222-270 Ruled by Iphiclus.


A maidservant of Helen.

Bk IV:113-154 Mentioned.


The mountainous region containing Olympus, on the Greek mainland bordering the north-eastern Aegean (Myrtoan Sea).

Bk V:43-91 Hermes descends to the Pierian coast before skimming out over the Aegean to reach Calypso’s isle of Ogygia (Malta?, hence a long journey).

Pleiads, Pleiades

The Seven Sisters, the daughters, with the Hyades and the Hesperides, of Atlas the Titan. Their mother was Pleione the naiad. They were chased by Orion rousing the anger of Artemis to whom they were dedicated and changed to stars by the gods. The Pleiades are the star cluster M45 in the constellation Taurus. Their names were Maia, the mother of Hermes by Zeus, Taÿgeta, Electra, Merope, Asterope, Alcyone (the brightest star of the cluster), and Celaeno.

Bk V:262-312 Odysseus uses the star cluster to steer by.

Poias, Poeas

The father of Philoctetes.

Bk III:148-200 Mentioned.


A friend and companion of Odysseus.

Bk X:198-250 He encourages the men to enter Circe’s house.

Polybus (1)

The father of Eurymachus.

Bk I:365-420 Bk II:177-223 Bk XV:493-557 Bk XVI:321-39

Bk XVI:393-451 Bk XVIII:340-393 Bk XX:345-394 Bk XXI:311-358


Polybus (2)

A lord visited by Menelaus and Helen in Egyptian Thebes.

Bk IV:113-154 His gifts to them.

Polybus (3)

A Phaeacian craftsman.

Bk VIII:367-415 He fashions a purple ball that the young men use in their dance display.

Polybus (4)

A Suitor.

Bk XXII:241-309 Killed by Eumaeus.


Nestor’s youngest daughter.

Bk III:464-497 She bathes Telemachus.

Polyctor (1)

A co-builder of the Fountain of the Nymphs on Ithaca.

Bk XVII:204-253 Mentioned.

Polyctor (2)

The father of Peisander, possibly identical with Polyctor (1).

Bk XVIII:284-339 Bk XXII:241-309 Mentioned.


An Egyptian woman, the wife of Thon.

Bk IV:220-289 She gave Helen gifts of powerful drugs.

Polydeuces, Pollux

The divine son of Zeus and Leda, brother of Castor.

Bk XI:225-332 Famous for his skill in boxing.


The father of Amphialus.

Bk VIII:104-151 Mentioned.


Bk XXIV:302-355 The fictitious (?) father of Apheidas.


Priest of Apollo, father of Theoclymenus.

Bk XV:222-270 A son of Mantius.


The son of Poseidon. One of the Cyclopes, one-eyed Giants, living in Sicily.

Bk I:44-95 Blinded by Odysseus.

Bk IX:152-192 Bk IX:193-255 His cave on Sicily.

Bk IX:256-306 He attacks and eats two of Odysseus’ crewmen.

Bk IX:307-359 Odysseus plys him with wine.

Bk IX:360-412 Odysseus blinds him.

Bk IX:480-525 Bk IX:526-566 He pursues the fleeing Greeks.

Bk X:198-250 Bk X:400-448 Odysseus’ men remember his savagery.

Bk XII:201-259 Odysseus recalls their predicament to his crew.

Bk XX:1-55 Odyseus recalls his own resilience and cunning.

Bk XXIII:300-372 Odysseus tells the tale.


The father of Ctesippus.

Bk XXII:241-309 Mentioned.


A Phaeacian.

Bk VIII:104-151 He competes in the Games.


Alcinous’ herald or squire.

Bk VII:133-181 Bk VII:182-239 Bk XIII:1-52 Bk XIII:53-95 He is ordered to mix and serve the wine.

Bk VIII:62-103 He guides the bard, Demodocus.


The god of the sea, earthquakes and other natural forces. The son of Cronos and brother of Zeus.

Bk I:1-21 Bk I:44-95 He was angered by Odysseus’ blinding of his son, Polyphemus, the Cyclops, and pursued a vendetta against Odysseus. Called ‘the Earth-Bearer’.

Bk I:22-43 He visits the Ethiopians (i.e. visits the remotest place on Earth) to receive sacrifice from them.

Bk III:1-50 Bk III:51-101 The father of Neleus, and grandfather of Nestor, which is why Nestor and his sons are sacrificing to him especially. Called ‘the Earth-Shaker’ and described as having dark tresses (the waves of the sea). Athene, as Mentor, purports to pray to him.

Bk III:148-200 His altar on Euboea. Nestor sacrificed there.

Bk III:313-355 Nestor and his guests sacrifice to him.

Bk IV:351-397 Proteus, the Old Man of the Sea, serves him.

Bk IV:464-511 He wrecked Ajax the Lesser at Gyrae, and then drowned him for his hubris.

Bk V:262-312 Bk V:313-387 Bk V:388-450 Bk VII:240-297 He sees Odysseus, while returning from Ethiopia, and sends a violent storm that wrecks Odysseus’ raft.

Bk VI:316-33 The brother of Zeus, and uncle of Athene. He continues to persecute Odysseus until he reaches home.

Bk VII:1-77 The father of Nausithous, by Periboea. He favours the sea-faring Phaeacians his descendants.

Bk VIII:256-366 Asks Hephaestus to free Ares.

Bk VIII:521-585 Nausithous predicts the result of his anger with the Phaeacians.

Bk IX:256-306 Odysseus ascribes his fictitious shipwreck to Poseidon, who is the Cyclop’s father.

Bk IX:360-412 Bk IX:480-525 Father of all the Cyclopes, specifically Polyphemus.

Bk IX:526-566 Polyphemus prays to him.

Bk XI:90-149 Angered by Odysseus’ blinding of Polyphemus his son, Poseidon will pursue Odysseus across the seas.

Bk XI:225-332 He slept with Tyro, and Iphimedeia.

Bk XI:385-464 Odysseus asks if he has pursued Agamemnon too.

Bk XII:36-110 Charybdis is too powerful even for Poseidon to counter.

Bk XIII:96-158 He plans to punish the Phaeacians.

Bk XIII:159-215 He turns the Phaeacian ship to stone.

Bk XXIII:205-246 Bk XXIV:98-204 He causes shipwrecks.

Bk XXIII:247-299 Odysseus is to sacrifice to him.


Wine from an unidentified location (Pramnos).

Bk X:198-250 Circe mixes it into her brew.


The King of Troy at the time of the Trojan War, the son of Laomedon, and husband of Hecuba, by whom he had many children including Hector, Helenus, Paris, Polydorus, Deïphobus, Cassandra and Polyxena.

Bk III:102-147 Bk V:92-147 Bk XI:465-540 Bk XIII:311-365

Bk XIV:235-292 Bk XXII:200-240 The doomed last King of Troy.

Bk XI:385-464 Father of Cassandra.


The daughter of Erectheus king of Athens. Married happily to Cephalus, the grandson of Aeolus. Cephalus was unfaithful and tempted her into unfaithfulness but they were reconciled. She gave him a magic hound and a magic javelin, gifts of Artemis. Through an error she was killed by Cephalus, with the spear that was her gift to him.

Bk XI:225-332 Her ghost appeared to Odysseus.


A Phaeacian.

Bk VIII:104-151 He competes in the Games.


The shape-changing (‘protean’) Old Man of the Sea. A sea-god.

Bk IV:290-350 Menelaus has had contact with him.

Bk IV:351-397 His daughter Eidothee. He haunts Pharos.

Bk IV:398-463 Bk XVII:107-165 He is captured by Menelaus.

Bk IV:464-511 He tells Menelaus how to return home, and relates the fate of Ajax the Lesser.

Bk IV:512-547 He relates Agamemnon’s fate.

Bk XXIV:57-97 His daughters the sea-nymphs.


A Phaeacian.

Bk VIII:104-151 He competes in the Games.


An island (modern Psara) due west of Chios. Nestor’s fleet sailed to the north of it when sailing west across the Aegean.

Bk III:148-200 Nestor’s ships kept it to larboard (south).


The city in Elis (modern Pilos, in Messinia) in the western Peloponnese, the home of Nestor the wise.

Bk I:44-95 Bk I:252-305 Athene proposes to send Telemachus there for news of his father. Pylos is called ‘sandy’.

Bk II:177-223 Bk II:296-336 Bk II:337-381 Telemachus proposes to travel there. Pylos described as ‘sacred’.

Bk III:1-50 Telemachus and Athene reach Pylos.

Bk III:51-101 The home of Nestor and his people.

Bk III:148-200 Nestor reaches home after the Trojan war.

Bk III:464-497 Telemachus leaves for Sparta.

Bk IV:593-624 His friends remain there, with his ship.

Bk IV:625-674 Bk IV:675-720 Bk V:1-42 He travels back home from there.

Bk XI:225-332 Neleus became its king, after driving out the Lelegians.

Bk XI:385-464 Agamemnon’s ghost asks if his son is perhaps still alive there.

Bk XIII:256-310 Odysseus uses it as a possible destination.

Bk XIV:165-234 Eumaeus tells Odysseus that Telemachus has gone there.

Bk XV:1-55 Athene urges Telemachus to return home from Sparta via Pylos.

Bk XV:183-221 Telemachus returns there and boards his ship.

Bk XV:222-270 Melampus once lived there.

Bk XV:493-557 Peiraeus accompanied Telemachus there.

Bk XVI:1-59 Bk XXIV:98-204 Eumaeus welcomes Telemachus back from there.

Bk XVI:112-153 Telemachus sends Eumaeus to his mother to tell of his return from Pylos.

Bk XVI:321-39 Telemachus’ ship and crew make harbour.

Bk XVII:1-60 Bk XVII:107-165 Telemachus is returned from there.

Bk XXI:80-135 A major city of Achaea, noted for its women.

Bk XXIV:412-462 Eupeithes suggests Odysseus may flee there.


A River of Hades (The River of Blazing Fire)

Bk X:503-574 Odysseus must visit it.

Bk XI:385-464 Agamemnon asks if his son is perhaps still alive there.


The sanctuary and oracle of Apollo on Mount Parnassus, at Delphi.

Bk VIII:62-103 Visited by Agamemnon.

Bk XI:541-592 Tityos attempted to rape Leto there.