Johann Wolfgang von Goethe
Faust Part I: Scenes XVI to XXV
Translated by A. S. Kline © Copyright 2003 All Rights Reserved
This work may be freely reproduced, stored, and transmitted, electronically or otherwise, for any non-commercial purpose.
- Scene XVI: Martha’s Garden
- Scene XVII: At The Fountain
- Scene XVIII: A Tower
- Scene XIX: Night
- Scene XX: The Cathedral
- Scene XXI: Walpurgis Night
- Scene XXII: A Walpurgis Night’s Dream
- Scene XXIII: Gloomy Day
- Scene XXIV: Night
- Scene XXV: A Dungeon
Scene XVI: Martha’s Garden
Margaret Promise me, Heinrich!
Faust If I can!
Margaret Say, as regards religion, how you feel. 3415
I know that you are a dear, good man,
Yet, for you, it seems, it has no appeal.
Faust Leave that alone, child! You feel I’m kind to you:
For Love I’d give my blood, my life too.
I’ll rob no man of his church and faith. 3420
Margaret That’s not right, we must have faith.
Faust Must we?
Margaret Ah, if in this I was only fluent!
You don’t respect the Holy Sacrament.
Faust I respect it.
Margaret Without wanting it, though. You’ve passed
So many years without confession, or mass. 3425
Do you believe in God?
Faust My darling, who dare say:
‘I believe in God’?
Choose priest to ask, or sage,
The answer would seem a joke, would it not,
Played on whoever asks?
Margaret So, you don’t believe? 3430
Faust Sweetest being, don’t misunderstand me!
Who dares name the nameless?
Or who dares to confess:
‘I believe in him’?
Yet who, in feeling, 3435
Says: ‘I don’t believe’?
Does it not clasp, uphold, 3440
You: me, itself?
Don’t the heavens arch above us?
Doesn’t earth lie here under our feet?
And don’t the eternal stars, rising,
Look down on us in friendship? 3445
Are not my eyes reflected in yours?
And don’t all things press
On your head and heart,
And weave, in eternal mystery,
Visibly: invisibly, around you? 3450
Fill your heart from it: it is so vast,
And when you are blessed by the deepest feeling,
Call it then what you wish,
Joy! Heart! Love! God!
I have no name 3455
For it! Feeling is all:
Names are sound and smoke,
Veiling Heaven’s bright glow.
Margaret That’s all well and good, I know,
The priest says much the same, 3460
Only, in slightly different words.
Faust It’s what all hearts, say, everywhere
Under the heavenly day,
Each in its own speech:
And why not I in mine? 3465
Margaret Listening to you, it almost seems quite fine,
Yet something still seems wrong, to me,
Since you don’t possess Christianity.
Faust Dear child!
Margaret I’ve long been grieved
To see you in such company. 3470
Faust Why, who?
Margaret That man who hangs round you so,
I hate him in my innermost soul:
Nothing in all my life has ever
Given my heart such pain, no, never,
As his repulsive face has done. 3475
Faust Don’t be afraid of him, sweet one!
Margaret His presence here, it chills my blood.
To every other man I wish good:
But much as I’m longing to see you
I’ve a secret horror of seeing him, too, 3480
I’ve thought him a rogue, all along!
God forgive me, if I do him wrong!
Faust There have to be such odd fellows.
Margaret I’d rather not live with such as those!
Once he’s inside the door, again, 3485
He looks around in a mocking way,
You can see he’s not at all in sympathy:
It’s written on his forehead even,
That there’s no spirit of love within. 3490
I’m so happy in your arms,
Free, untroubled, and so warm,
Yet I’m stifled in his presence.
Faust You angel, full of presentiments!
Margaret It oppresses me, so deeply, too, 3495
That when he meets with us, wherever,
I feel that I no longer love you.
Ah I can’t pray when he’s there,
And that gnaws inside me: oh,
Heinrich, for you too, surely it’s so. 3500
Faust It’s merely an antipathy!
Margaret I must go now.
Faust Ah, will there never be
An hour where I can clasp you to my heart,
And heart to heart, and soul, to soul impart?
Margaret Ah, if I only slept alone! 3505
For you, I’d gladly draw the bolt tonight:
But my mother hears the slightest tone,
And if we were caught outright,
I’d die on the selfsame spot!
Faust You angel: no need for that. 3510
Here is a little phial to keep!
Three drops of this, in her drink, she’ll take,
And Nature will favour her with deepest sleep.
Margaret What would I not do for your sake?
I hope that it won’t harm her though! 3515
Faust Would I advise it, Love, if it were so?
Margaret Ah, I only have to see you, dearest man,
And something bends me to your will,
For you, so much, I have already done,
Little remains for me to do for you still. 3520
The little monkey! Has it gone?
Faust Spying again, are you?
Mephistopheles I’ve heard in infinite detail, how
The Doctor works his catechism through,
And I hope it does you good, now.
Girls are always so keen to review 3525
Whether one’s virtuous, and sticks to the rules.
They think if a man can be led, he’ll follow too.
Faust Monster, you can’t see
How this true loving soul,
Full of a belief, 3530
That is wholly
Her salvation, torments herself so,
In case her lover should be lost indeed.
Mephistopheles You sensual wooer, beyond the sensual,
A Magdalen leads you by the nose, I see. 3535
Faust Abortion, of the filth and fire of hell!
Mephistopheles And how well she reads one’s physiognomy:
In my presence, senses, without knowing how,
The hidden mind behind the mask: she feels
That I’m an evil genius, at least, and now 3540
Perhaps, that it’s the Devil it conceals.
So, tonight? –
Faust What’s that to you?
Mephistopheles I take my pleasure in it too!
Scene XVII: At The Fountain
(Gretchen and Lisbeth.)
Lisbeth Have you not heard from Barbara?
Gretchen Not a word. I go out so seldom. 3545
Lisbeth It’s certain, Sibyl told me: well then,
She finally fell to that seducer.
There’s a lady for you!
Gretchen How so?
Lisbeth It stinks!
She’s feeding two when she eats and drinks.
Gretchen Oh! 3550
Lisbeth Serves her right then, finally.
She clung to that fellow, oh so tightly!
That was a fine to-ing and fro-ing,
Round the village, and dance-going,
Ahead of us all, they had to shine, 3555
Him treating her always to cakes and wine:
She the picture of loveliness, oh so fine,
So low after all, then, and so shameless,
And the gifts she took from him, nameless.
It was all kissing and carrying on: 3560
But now the flower is gone!
Gretchen The poor thing!
Lisbeth Why are you so pitying?
When each of us was at our spinning,
When mother never let us out,
She and her lover hung about: 3565
On the bench, in a dark alley,
Forgetting the time, he and she.
She can’t raise her head again,
In a sinner’s shift now, penitent.
Gretchen Surely he’ll take her for his wife. 3570
Lisbeth He’d be a fool! A lively fellow
Can ply his trade elsewhere, and so -
Gretchen Oh, that’s not nice!
Lisbeth If she gets him, she’ll reap ill in a trice,
The lads will tear at her wreath, what’s more 3575
We’ll scatter chaffin front of her door!
Gretchen (Walking home.)
How proudly I’d revile her, then,
Whenever some poor girl had fallen!
I couldn’t find words enough, I mean,
To pour out scorn for another’s sin! 3580
Black as it seemed, I made it blacker,
Not black enough for me: oh never.
It blessed its own being, that proud self,
Yet now I’m the image of sin, myself!
Yet all that drove me on to do it, 3585
God! Was so fine! Oh, so sweet!
Scene XVIII: A Tower
(In a niche of its wall a shrine, and image of the Mater Dolorosa, with flowers in front of it. Gretchen sets out fresh flowers. )
Gretchen Oh bow down,
Your kind face, to my affliction!
A sword in your heart, 3590
Where a thousand pains start,
You look up, at your dead Son.
You look up to the Father,
You send Him your sighs, there,
For His, and for your, affliction. 3595
Who then can feel,
How like steel,
Is the pain inside my bones?
What my poor heart fears for,
What it quakes for, and longs for 3600
You know, and you alone!
Wherever I go now,
How sore, sore, sore now
How sore my heart must be!
Ah, when I’m alone here, 3605
I moan, moan, moan here:
My heart it breaks in me.
The pots before my window!
My tears bedewed them so,
In the early dawn, when 3610
I picked the flowers below.
The sun it shone so brightly,
And early, in my room,
Where I sat already,
On my bed, in deepest gloom. 3615
Help me! Oh, save me, from shame and destruction!
Oh, bow down,
Your kind face, to my affliction!
Scene XIX: Night
(The Street in front of Gretchen’s door.)
Valentine (A soldier, Gretchen’s brother.)
When I have sat, and heard the toasts, 3620
Where everyone makes good his boasts,
And comrades praised, to me, the flower
Of maidenhood, and loud the hour,
With brimming glass that blurred the praise,
And elbows sticking out all ways, 3625
I sat in my own peace secure,
Listening to the boastful roar,
And as I stroked my beard, I’d smile
And take a full glass in my hand,
Saying: ‘Each to his own, but I’ll 3630
Ask if there’s any in this land,
Who, to my Gretel, can compare
Whose worth can ever equal hers?’
Hear! Hear! Clink! Clang! Went around:
Some cried out: ‘He’s quite correct, 3635
She’s an ornament to all her sex.’
There sat the boasters, not a sound.
And now! – I could tear my hair, bawl,
And dash my head against the wall! –
With jeers, they now turn up their noses: 3640
Every rogue can taunt me, he supposes!
Like a bankrupt debtor, when I’m sitting,
A casual word can start me sweating!
And though I thrash them all together,
I’ve still no right to call them liars. 3645
Who goes there? What’s creeping by?
If I’m not wrong, there’s two I spy.
If it’s him, I’ll have him by the skin,
Alive he’ll not leave the place he’s in!
Faust How the glow of the eternal light 3650
Shines from the Sacristy window, there,
On either side grows fainter, fainter,
And all around draws in the night!
Now it seems as dark within my heart.
Mephistopheles And I’ve a little of the tom-cat’s art, 3655
That creeps around the fire escape,
Then slinks along the wall, a silent shape,
I’m quite virtuous in my way,
A little prone to thieve, and stray.
The splendour of Walpurgis Night, 3660
Already haunts all my members,
It’s the day after tomorrow’s light:
There, why one watches, one remembers.
Faust Meanwhile you’ll bring that wealth to view,
That I see there, glimmering, behind you? 3665
Mephistopheles You’ll soon experience the delight
Of holding this cauldron to the light.
I recently had a squint inside –
Where splendid silver dollars hide.
Faust And not a jewel, or a ring, 3670
To adorn my darling girl?
Mephistopheles Among the rest I saw a thing,
A sort of necklace, made of pearl.
Faust That’s good! It’s painful to me,
To take no gift for her to see. 3675
Mephistopheles You shouldn’t find it so annoying,
To get something now, for nothing.
Now the sky glows, filled with stars,
You’ll hear the work of a master:
I’ll sing a few moralising bars, 3680
All the better to seduce her.
(Sings to the zither.)
‘Why are you here,
In daylight clear,
At your lover’s door? 3685
No, no! When,
It will let in,
A maid, and then,
Let out a maid no more!
Take care for once 3690
It’s over and done,
And it’s all gone,
Goodnight to you, poor thing!
Keep your love’s belief,
And the pleasure brief,
From every thief, 3695
Unless you’ve a wedding ring.’
Whom do you lure? By every element!
You evil-tongued rat-catcher!
To the devil, with your instrument! 3700
To the devil, too, with the singer!
Mephistopheles The zither’s broken! There’s nothing left of it.
Valentine There’s a still a skull left I’ll need to split!
Mephistopheles (To Faust.)
Look lively, Doctor! Don’t give ground.
Stand by: I’ll command this thing. 3705
Out with your fly-whisk, now.
You lunge! I’m parrying.
‘The Duel between Faust and Valentine’
Valentine Parry, then!
Mephistopheles And why not, indeed?
Valentine And that!
Mephistopheles Ah, yes!
Valentine The devil opposes me!
What’s this? My hand’s already maimed. 3710
Mephistopheles (To Faust.)
Mephistopheles Now, the lout is tamed!
Away, we must go! Swiftly, of course,
Soon the cries of murder will begin,
With the police, now, I’m well in:
But not so much so, with the courts. 3715
(He exits with Faust.)
‘Mephistopheles and Faust Fleeing After the Duel’
Martha (At the window.)
Come here! Come here!
Gretchen (At the window.)
Here’s a light!
Martha Hear how they swear and struggle, yell and fight.
On-lookers Here’s one dead already!
Martha (Leaving the house.)
Where have the murderers gone?
Gretchen (Leaving the house.)
Who is it, lying there?
On-lookers Your mother’s son. 3720
Gretchen Almighty God! What misery!
Valentine I’m dying! That’s soon spoken,
And, sooner still, it will be done.
Why stand there, crying, woman?
Come, hear me everyone! 3725
(They gather round him.)
You’re still young, my Gretchen, see!
And still haven’t sense enough, to be
Effective in your occupation.
I’ll tell you confidentially:
Now that you’re a whore indeed, 3730
Be one, by proclamation!
Gretchen My brother! God! Why speak to me so?
Valentine In this business, leave God alone!
Sadly, what is done is done,
And what will come: will come. 3735
Begin with one, in secret, then,
Soon you’ll gather other men,
And, when a dozen of them have had you,
All the town can have you too.
When Shame herself appears, 3740
She’s first brought secretly to light,
Then they draw the veil of night
Over both her eyes and ears:
Men would gladly kill her, I say,
But they let her walk about and prosper, 3745
So she goes nakedly by day,
Yet isn’t any lovelier.
She’s the uglier to our sight,
The more it is she seeks the light.
Truly I can see the day 3750
When all honest people
Will turn aside from you, girl,
As from a corpse with plague.
Your heart’s flesh will despair,
When they look you in the face, 3755
You’ll have no golden chain to wear!
At the altar, there, you’ll have no place!
You’ll not be dancing joyfully
In all your lovely finery!
In some wretched gloomy corner, you 3760
Will hide, with cripples and beggars too,
And, though God may still forgive,
Be damned on earth while you live!
Martha Commend your soul to God’s mercy!
Will you end your life with blasphemy? 3765
Valentine If I could destroy your withered body,
Shameless, bawd, I’d hope to see
A full measure of forgiveness
For me, and all my sinfulness.
Gretchen My brother! These are the pains of hell! 3770
Valentine I said, leave off weeping, girl!
When you and honour chose to part,
That was the sword-thrust in my heart.
I go, through a sleep within the grave,
To God, as a soldier, true and brave. 3775
Scene XX: The Cathedral
(A Mass, with organ and choir.)
(Gretchen among a large congregation: the Evil Spirit behind Gretchen.)
The Evil Spirit How different it was, Gretchen,
When you, still innocent,
Came here to the altar,
And from that well-thumbed Book,
Babbled your prayers, 3780
Half, a childish game,
Half, God in your heart!
What’s in your mind?
In your heart, 3785
Do you pray for your mother’s soul, who
Through you, fell asleep to long, long torment?
Whose blood is on your doorstep?
And beneath your heart, 3790
Does not something stir and swell,
And trouble you, and itself,
A presence full of foreboding?
Gretchen Oh! Oh!
Would I were free of the thoughts 3795
That rush here and there inside me,
Choir (Singing the Requiem Mass, the verses of Thomas of Celano, which commence: ‘That day, the day of wrath, will dissolve the world to ash’.)
‘Dies Irae, dies illa,
Solvet saeclum in favilla!’
(The organ sounds.)
The Evil Spirit Wrath grasps you! 3800
The trumpet sounds!
The grave trembles!
And your heart,
From ashen rest,
To fiery torment 3805
Gretchen Would I were not here!
It seems to me as if the organ
Steals my breath, 3810
The Hymn dissolves
My heart in the abyss.
Choir (Verse 6:‘So when the Judge takes the chair, whatever is hidden will appear, nothing is left unpunished there.’)
‘Judex ergo cum sedebit,
Quidquid latet adparebit,
Nil unultum remanebit.’ 3815
Gretchen I’m so stifled!
The pillars of the walls
Crush me! – Air! 3820
‘Marguerite in Church’
The Evil Spirit Hide yourself! Sin and shame
Cannot be hidden.
Misery, to you!
Choir (Verse 7: ‘What shall I say in that misery, who shall I ask to speak for me, when the righteous will be saved, and barely?’)
‘Quid sum miser tunc dicturus, 3825
Quem patronum rogaturus,
Cum vix Justus sit securus?’
The Evil Spirit The transfigured, turn
Their faces from you.
The pure, shudder 3830
To offer you their hand.
Choir (Repeats: ‘What shall I say in that misery?’)
‘Quid sum miser tunc dicturus?’
Gretchen Neighbour! Your restorative!
(She falls, fainting.)
Scene XXI: Walpurgis Night
(The Hartz Mountains, in the region of Schierke and Elend.)
‘Faust and Mephistopheles in the Hartz Mountains’
Mephistopheles Don’t you just long for a broomstick? 3835
I wish I’d the sturdiest goat to ride.
Like this, the journey’s not so quick.
Faust So long as my legs can do the trick,
This knotted stick will do me fine.
Why do we need a shorter way! – 3840
To wander this labyrinth of valleys,
Climb all these cliffs and gullies,
From which the waters ever spray,
That’s a delight enchants the day!
Spring stirs already in the birches, 3845
And even the fir tree knows it now:
Shouldn’t our limbs feel it search us?
Mephistopheles Truly, I don’t feel a thing!
It’s winter in my body, still,
On my path I want it frosty, snowing. 3850
How sadly the Moon’s imperfect circle
With its red belated glow, is rising,
So dim its light that at every step
You scrape a rock, or else a tree!
Ah, there, a will o’ the wisp leapt! 3855
It’s burning fiercely, now, I see.
Hey! My friend! May I ask your aid?
Would you like to give us a blaze?
Be so good as to light us up the hill!
Will O’ The Wisp With respect, I hope I’ll still be able, 3860
To keep my Natural light quite stable:
We usually zig-zag here, at will.
Mephistopheles Ha, ha! He thinks to play the human game.
Go straight along now, in the Devil’s name!
Or I’ll blow out your flickering spark! 3865
Will O’ The Wisp You’re master of the house, I’ll remark,
And yes, I’ll serve you willingly.
But think! The mount is magically mad today,
And if a will o’ the wisp should lead the way,
You mustn’t judge things too precisely. 3870
Faust, Mephistopheles, The Will O’ The Wisp (In alternating song.)
We it seems, now find ourselves.
In the sphere of dreams and magic,
Do us honour, guide us well
So our journey will be quick,
Through the wide, deserted spaces! 3875
Tree on tree now shift their places,
See how fast they open to us
And the cliffs bow down before us,
And their long and rocky noses,
How they whistle and blow, for us! 3880
Through the stones, and through the grasses,
Stream and streamlet, downward, hurrying.
Is that rustling? Is that singing?
Do I hear sweet lovers’ sighing,
Heavenly days, is that their babbling? 3885
What we hope for, what we love!
And the echoes, like the murmuring
Of those other days, are ringing.
‘Too-wit! Too-woo!’ sounding nearer,
Owl there, and jay, and plover, 3890
Are they all awake above?
A salamander in the scrub, he’s
Long of leg, and fat of belly!
And every root like a snake,
Over sand and rock all bent, 3895
Stretches with a strange intent,
To scare us, of us prisoners make:
From the gnarled and living mass,
Stretching towards those who pass,
Fibrous tentacles. And mice 3900
In the moss and in the heather!
And all the fire-flies glowing,
Crushed together, tightly crowding,
In their tangled cohorts gather. 3905
Tell me, are we standing still,
Or are we climbing up the hill?
All seems spinning like a mill,
Rocks and trees, with angry faces
Lights, now, wandering in spaces, 3910
Massing: swelling at their will.
Mephistopheles Grasp me bravely by the coat-tail!
Here’s a summit in the middle,
Where, astonished you can see,
Mammon glowing furiously. 3915
Faust How strangely, through the hollow, glows
A sort of dull red morning light!
Into the deepest gorge it flows,
Scenting abysses in their night.
There vapour rises: here cloud sweeps, 3920
Here the glow burns through the haze,
Now like a fragile thread it creeps,
Now like a coloured fountain plays.
Here a vast length winds its way,
In a hundred veins, down the vales, 3925
And here in a corner, locked away,
All at once, now lonely, fails.
Nearby the sparks pour down,
Like showers of golden sand,
But see! On all the heights around, 3930
The cliffs, now incandescent, stand.
Mephistopheles Has Mammon not lit his palace
Splendidly, for this festivity?
It’s fortunate you’re here to see,
I already sense the eager guests. 3935
Faust How the wind roars through the air!
And whips around my head!
Mephistopheles Grasp the ancient stony bed,
Lest you’re thrown in the abyss, there.
Mist dims the night to deepest black. 3940
Hear the forest timbers crack!
The owls are flying off in terror.
Hear, how the columns shatter,
In the vast, evergreen halls.
Now the boughs groan and fall! 3945
All the tree-trunks are thrumming!
All their roots are creaking, gaping!
Sinking in a tangled horror,
Crashing down on each other,
And through the ruined gorges 3950
The wind howls and surges.
Hear the voices on the heights?
Far away, and then nearby?
Yes, a furious magic song
Sweeps the mountain, all along! 3955
Witches (In chorus.)
To Brocken’s tip the witches stream,
The stubble’s yellow, the seed is green.
There the crowd of us will meet.
Lord Urian has the highest seat.
So they go, over stone and sticks, 3960
The stinking goat, the farting witch.
A Voice Old Baubo comes, alone, and how:
She’s riding on a mother-sow.
Chorus So honour then, where honour’s due!
Baubo, goes first! Then, all the crew! 3965
A tough old sow, a mother proud,
Then follow, all the witches’ crowd.
A voice Which way did you come?
A voice By the Ilsen Stone!
I gazed at the owl in her nest alone.
What a pair of Eyes she made! 3970
A Voice O, all you who to Hell’s gate go!
Why ride there so quickly though?
A Voice She’s driven me hard: oh, see,
The wounds, all over me!
Witches, Chorus The way is broad: the way is long. 3975
Where is this mad yearning from?
The fork will prick, the broom will scratch,
The child will smother: the mother crack.
Wizards, Half-Chorus Like snails in their shells, we’re crawlers,
All the women are there before us.
At the House of Evil, when we’re callers, 3980
Woman’s a thousand steps before us.
The Other Half We don’t measure with so much care,
In a thousand steps a Woman’s there.
But make whatever speed she can,
A single leap, and there is Man. 3985
Voice (From above.)
Come now: come now from stony mere!
Voice (From below.)
We’d like to climb the heights from here.
We’re as bright and clean as ever,
But we’re unfruitful still, forever.
Both Choruses The wind is quiet: a star shoots by, 3990
The shadowy Moon departs the sky.
The magic choir’s a rush of sparks,
Thousands shower through the dark.
Voice (From below.)
Voice (From above.)
Who calls there, from the stony vault? 3995
Voice (From below.)
Take me with you! Take me with you!
Climbing for three hundred years,
I haven’t reached the summit yet,
I long to be where my peers are met.
Both Choruses Here’s the broom: and here’s the stick, 4000
The ram is here, the fork to prick.
Tonight, whoever can’t deliver
There’s a man is lost forever.
I’ve stumbled round so long, down here:
How far ahead the rest appear! 4005
I get no peace around the house,
And get none either hereabouts.
Chorus of Witches An ointment makes the witches hale:
A rag will do them for a sail,
A trough’s a goodly ship, and tight: 4010
He’ll fly not who flies not tonight.
Both Choruses And once we’ve soared around,
So, alight then, on the ground,
Cover the heather, far and wide,
With your swarming witches’ tide. 4015
(They let themselves fall.)
Mephistopheles They push and shove, they roar and clatter!
They whistle and whirl, jostle and chatter!
They glimmer and sparkle, stink and flare!
The genuine witch-element’s there!
We’ll soon be parted, so stay near! 4020
Where are you?
Faust (In the distance.)
Mephistopheles What! Nearly out of sight?
Then I’ll have to use a master’s right.
Ground! Sir Voland comes. Sweet folk, give ground!
Here, Doctor, hold tight! In a single bound,
Far from the crowd, we’ll soon be free: 4025
It’s too much, even for the likes of me.
Something burned there with a special light,
In that thicket, as far then as I could see,
Come on! We can slip inside, all right.
Faust You spirit of contradiction! Go on! I follow you. 4030
I think after all it’s worked out quite cleverly:
We walk the Brocken on Walpurgis Night, yet we
Are as isolated now, as we ever could choose.
Mephistopheles See now, what colours flare!
A lively mob club together there. 4035
In little groups one’s not alone.
Faust I’d still rather be higher, though!
I can see fire and whirling smoke.
There the crowd stream, to the Evil One:
There many a puzzle finds solution. 4040
Mephistopheles But many a puzzle’s knotted so.
Let the whole world have its riot,
Here we’ll house ourselves in quiet.
It’s a long and well-established tradition,
From the great one makes a smaller edition. 4045
I see young witches, naked, bare,
And old ones, veiled cunningly.
For my sake, be a little friendly.
The trouble’s slight, the fun is rare.
I hear instruments being tuned, too! 4050
A cursed din, you’ll soon get used to.
Come, with me! There’s no way otherwise,
I’ll step ahead, lead you to their eyes,
And earn your fresh gratitude, so.
What say you? There’s lots of room, my friend. 4055
Look over there! You can’t see its end.
A hundred fires burning, in a row,
They love, and drink, and dance, and chat,
Tell me where you’ll find better than that?
Faust Will you, as we make our bow, 4060
Play the devil, or wizard now?
Mephistopheles To be sure I’m used to travelling incognito,
But on formal occasions rank’s allowed to show.
I’ve no Knight’s garter to mark me out,
But the cloven foot’s honoured in this house. 4065
Do you see how that snail there crawls to me:
With those delicate feelers on its head,
It’s already scented me, you see,
I can’t deny myself, if I wished.
Come! We’ll go from fire to fire, 4070
I’m the broker: you’re the suitor.
(To some, sitting by dying embers.)
Old sirs, what do you sit at the edge for?
I’d praise you, in the middle, more,
Among the youthful buzz, and shout.
You’re alone enough inside the house. 4075
The General Who would trust the Nation!
One’s toiled so long for it:
With the people, as with women,
Youth’s always the best fit.
The Minister From every rule they’ve gone astray, 4080
Me, I praise the good old days,
Then, truly, we were all the rage,
That was a real golden age.
The Nouveau Riche We weren’t so stupid, you’d have found,
And often did, what wasn’t right: 4085
But now it all turns round and round,
Just as we’d like to grasp it tight.
Author Who writes anything good these days,
Or reads with moderate intelligence!
And what the dear young folk all praise, 4090
I’ve never seen such stupid nonsense.
Mephistopheles (Suddenly looking old.)
I feel folk are ripe for Judgement Day,
Of Witches’ Mount, I’ve made my last ascent.
And now my cask runs cloudy, anyway,
The world itself is all as good as spent. 4095
Witch-Marketeer Gentlemen: don’t pass me by!
Don’t lose the opportunity!
Inspect my wares attentively,
I’ve a selection for your eye.
There’s nothing on my stall, here, 4100
On Earth, it’s equal you’ll not find,
That hasn’t caused some harm somewhere,
To the world itself, and then, mankind.
No knife that isn’t dyed in gore,
No cup that, through some healthy body, 4105
Hot, gnawing venom hasn’t poured,
No gems that haven’t bought some kindly
Girl, no sword that’s not cut ties that bind,
Or, perhaps, struck an enemy from behind.
Mephistopheles Granny! You misunderstand the age. 4110
What’s gone: is done! What’s done: is gone!
Get novelties they’re all the rage!
Now it’s novelties that lead us on.
Faust Don’t let me lose myself in here!
Now, this is what I call a fair! 4115
Mephistopheles This whole whirlpool’s trying to climb above,
You think you’re shoving, and you’re being shoved!
Faust Who is that, there?
Mephistopheles Note that madam!
Mephistopheles First wife to Adam.
Pay attention to her lovely hair, 4120
The only adornment she need wear.
When she traps a young man in her snare,
She won’t soon let him from her care.
Faust Those two, the old and young one, sitting,
They’ve leapt about more than is fitting! 4125
Mephistopheles No rest tonight for anyone.
Let’s grasp them. There’s a new dance, come!
Faust (Dancing with the lovely young witch.)
A lovely dream once came to me,
And there I saw an apple-tree,
Two lovely apples, there, did shine, 4130
Tempting me so, I had to climb.
The Young Witch Apples you love a lot, I know,
That once in Paradise did grow.
I’m deeply moved with joy to feel,
That such my garden does reveal. 4135
Mephistopheles (Dancing with the old witch.)
A vile dream once came to me,
In it, I saw an old cleft tree,
A monstrous crack there met my eyes,
It pleased me, though, despite its size.
The Old Witch I offer my best greetings to 4140
The knight of the cloven shoe!
He’ll need to have a real stopper,
If he’s not scared of that whopper.
A Rationalist (Nicolai)
Cursed Folk! How do you dare to?
Haven’t we shown, for many a season, 4145
Spirits can’t exist: it stands to reason?
Yet you dance around, just as we do!
The Lovely Witch (Dancing.)
Why’s he here then, at our ball?
Oh! He’s everywhere, and into all.
While others dance, he must reflect. 4150
If he can’t discuss every last step,
It’s as good as if it didn’t happen.
He’s angriest at a forward pattern.
But if you turn around in circles,
As he does in his ancient mills, 4155
He’ll call it excellent, least ways
If you greet with interest what he says.
The Rationalist You’re still there! Oh, it’s quite unheard of.
We’re enlightened now, so take yourselves off!
The Devil’s crew’s discounted by every rule: 4160
Yet though clever, still we’re haunted, in Tegel, too.
The Young Witch Well listen: here we’re bored with it!
The Rationalist I tell you, Spirit, to your face: 4165
For me, spirit-rule has no place:
Because my spirit can’t exercise it.
(The dance continues.)
I see, tonight, I’ll have no success:
But I get a bit from every trip,
And hope, before the final step, 4170
I’ll defeat the devils and the poets.
Mephistopheles Now he’ll sit in some wet sump,
And console himself, like that, about you,
And if he sticks leeches on his rump,
He’s cured of the Spirit, and Spirits, too. 4175
(To Faust, who has left the dance.)
Why have you deserted that lovely girl,
Who sang so sweetly in the dancing?
Faust Ugh! Right in the middle of her singing
A red mouse sprang out of her mouth.
Mephistopheles That’s fine: don’t brood on it, anyway: 4180
Enough, that the mouse wasn’t grey.
At harvest time who queries a mouse?
Faust Then I saw –
Faust Mephisto, can you see
That lovely child, far off, alone there, 4185
Travelling slowly, so painfully,
As if her feet were chained together.
I must admit, without question
She’s the image of my sweet Gretchen.
Mephistopheles Forget all that! It benefits no one.
It’s a lifeless magic form, a phantom. 4190
Encountering it will do you no good:
Its fixed stare freezes human blood,
And then one’s almost turned to stone:
Medusa’s story is surely known.
Faust Those are the eyes of the dead, truly, 4195
No loving hand has closed their void.
That’s the breast Gretchen offered to me:
That’s the sweet body I enjoyed.
Mephistopheles It’s magic, fool: you’re an easy one to move!
She comes to all, as if she were their love. 4200
‘Marguerite’s Apparition Appearing to Faust’
Faust What delight! What pain!
I can’t turn from her, again.
Strange, around her lovely throat,
A single scarlet cord adorns her,
Like a knife-cut, and no wider! 4205
Mephistopheles That’s right! I see it too: and note,
She can carry her head under her arm,
Since Perseus did her that fatal harm.
Always desire for that illusion!
Come on, climb this bit of mountain: 4210
It’s as lively as the Vienna Prater,
And if no one’s deceiving me,
I’m looking at a genuine theatre.
Servibilis It’ll be on again shortly.
A fresh performance: last of seven. 4215
That number, for us, is traditional.
An amateur’s written it, and then
It’s amateurs who perform it all.
Forgive me, sir, if I break off here,
Since I’m the amateur curtain-raiser. 4220
Mephistopheles That I find you on the Blocksberg’s good,
Since I find you exactly where I should.
Scene XXII: A Walpurgis Night’s Dream
Or, Oberon and Titania’s Golden Wedding.
An Interlude (Intermezzo)
Theatre Manager You brave stagehands, of Weimar,
Take a rest, at least for today.
Ancient mountains, misty vales are, 4225
All the scenery for our play.
Herald Fifty years we’ve passed by,
To make this wedding golden,
But let some argument arise:
There’s gold in it, for me, then. 4230
Oberon Spirits, where I am, be seen:
Appear, all, at this moment:
Fairy King, and Fairy Queen,
Renew their old intent.
Puck Puck comes shooting through the air, 4235
And moves his feet, in time:
After him a hundred, there,
Share his joyful rhyme.
Ariel Ariel conducts his singing
In pure and heavenly tones: 4240
Ugly faces greet its ringing,
But also lovely ones.
Oberon Partners if you’d get along,
Learn then from the two of us!
If we in pairs would love for long, 4245
Someone needs to separate us.
Titania The sulky man, the wilful wife,
So they might know each other,
I’d show him all the Northern ice,
And show her the Equator. 4250
The Whole Orchestra (Tutti. Very loud.)
From fly-snout and midge-nose,
And all of their relations,
Frog and cricket, too, there flow
These musical vibrations!
Solo See, the bagpipes on their way! 4255
Made from a soap-bubble.
Hear the snail’s-twaddle play
Through its stumpy nozzle.
Spirit (Newly formed.)
Spider’s-feet and toad’s-belly,
With useless winglets to ’em! 4260
A little creature, it can’t be
But it makes a little poem.
A Tiny Couple Little steps and high leaps,
Through honeydew and fragrance here,
You still won’t do enough it seems, 4265
To climb into the atmosphere.
A Curious Traveller A masquerade of mockery?
Do I dare to trust my eyes?
Oberon, that fair divinity,
Do I see him here, tonight? 4270
The Orthodox He’s no tail, and not a claw!
And yet it’s him, it’s true:
Like the gods of Greece, I’m sure,
He must be a devil too.
Northern Artist What I capture here today, 4275
In truth is only sketchy:
Yet I prepare myself, someday
For my Italian journey.
Purist Ah! My bad luck brings me here:
Since I haven’t been invited! 4280
Of all the witches to appear,
Only two are powdered.
Young Witch Powder like a petticoat
On an old, grey witch you’ll see,
While I sit naked on my goat, 4285
And show a fine young body.
Married Woman We have too much experience,
To moan about you, here, then!
Yet, as young and tender you are, once,
So, I hope you will be, rotten. 4290
Orchestral Conductor Fly-snout and midge-nose,
Don’t swarm around the naked!
Frog and cricket, too, all know
Your time, and don’t mistake it!
A Wind-Vane (Swinging to one side.)
Society, as one would like it done: 4295
True pure brides along the slope!
And young fellows, one for one,
People quite brimful of hope!
The Wind-Vane (Swinging to the other side.)
And if the ground doesn’t split,
And swallow everyone, 4300
I’ll be so amazed at it,
I’ll leap into hell at once.
Xenies (Barbed verses: Greek – gifts exchanged.)
As insects we appear,
With little claws we’re nipping,
To do Satan, our Papa, 4305
Due honour as is fitting.
Hennings (August Von Hennings, a literary enemy.)
See them, packed in a crowd,
Naïve, together, poking fun!
At last, they’ll even say, aloud,
Their hearts were blameless ones. 4310
Musagete (Controller of the Muses: Greek – epithet of Apollo)
Among this witches’ crew,
I’d gladly lose my way:
They’re easier to manage, too
Than Muses, any day.
Former ‘Genius of the Age’ One was someone, among real folk. 4315
Come on, then: I can hold my end up!
Like Germany’s Parnassus, look,
The Blocksberg’s summit’s broad enough.
Curious Traveller (Nicolai)
Say, who’s that haughty man?
He walks with such proud steps. 4320
He sniffs as only a sniffer-out can.
‘He smells out Jesuits.’
A Crane (Lavater)
I like to fish among the clear
And the muddy levels:
So the pious man appears 4325
Mixing with the devils.
A Child of This World (Goethe himself.)
To the pious man, as I’m aware,
Every place is fitting,
So you build, on the Blocksberg here,
Many a house of meeting. 4330
A Dancer Does some new choir succeed?
I hear a distant drum.
‘No! It’s the booming in the reeds,
Of bitterns, in unison.’
A Dancing Master How they lift their legs, this lot! 4335
As best they can, they all take flight!
The cripples skip, the clumsy hop,
And don’t care at all what they look like.
A Fiddle-Player The ragged mob all hate so much,
They’d gladly crush the others. 4340
Here the bagpipe draws them, just
As Orpheus’ lyre the creatures.
The Dogmatist I won’t declare it’s madness, now,
Or show myself too critical.
The devil must exist somehow, 4345
Or how could we act the devil?
The Idealist The fantasy in my mind,
For once, is too despotic.
Truly, if I am all, I find
Today I’m idiotic! 4350
The Realist Here’s real pain, at hand,
It annoys me so to see it:
For the first time, here I stand,
Unsteady, on my feet.
A Believer in the Supernatural It’s very pleasant to be here, 4355
And this crowd too has merit:
Since from the devil I infer
Some much more virtuous spirit.
A Sceptic These little flames a-hunting go,
And think they’re near the treasure: 4360
But Devil rhymes with doubtful: so
My being here’s a pleasure.
Orchestral Conductor Frog on leaf, and cricket, oh
You amateur editions!
Fly-snout and midge-nose, 4365
Remember you’re musicians!
The Skilful Carefree, is what they call
This band of happy creatures:
When we can’t go on foot at all
Our head it is that features. 4370
The Maladroit We picked up many a titbit once,
But now, God orders things so,
Our shoes are ragged from the dance,
And we travel on naked soles.
Will-O’-The-Wisps From the swamps we’ve come, 4375
Where we first arose:
In the ranks here, we, at once,
As glittering gallants pose.
A Shooting Star I shoot here from the sky
And star- and firelight meet. 4380
Now across the grass I lie -
Who’ll help me to my feet?
The Heavy-Footed Room, round about us, room!
We crush the grasses under.
Spirits come, and spirits too 4385
Have their bulky members.
Puck Don’t tread so heavily,
Like elephantine calves: let
Puck himself, the sturdy, be,
On this night, the stoutest. 4390
Ariel Loving nature winged your backs,
You spirits, one supposes,
Follow, then, on my light track,
To the hill of roses!
Orchestra (Quietly: pianissimo)
Trailing cloud, and misted trees, 4395
Brighten with the day.
Breeze in leaves, and wind in reeds,
And all have flown away.
Scene XXIII: Gloomy Day
(A Field. Faust, Mephistopheles.)
Faust In misery! Despair! Wandering wretchedly on the face of the earth, for ages, and now imprisoned! That kind, unfortunate creature, locked up in prison as a criminal, and lost in torment! To this! This! – Treacherous, worthless spirit, you hid it from me! – Stand there, then! Roll the devil’s eyes in your head, in anger! Stand there, and defy me with your unbearable presence! Imprisoned! In irredeemable misery! Delivered up to evil spirits, and the judgement of unfeeling men! And you’ve troubled me meanwhile with tasteless diversions, concealed her growing misery from me, and left her helpless in the face of ruin!
Mephistopheles She is not the first.
Faust Dog! Loathsome Monster! – Change him, infinite Spirit! Change the worm into his dog-form, in which he often liked to scamper in front of me, at night, rolling at the feet of the unsuspecting traveller, and clambering on his shoulders when he fell. Change him into his favourite likeness, so he can crawl on his belly in the sand in front of me, and I can trample him, depraved thing, under my feet! – ‘Not the first!’ – Misery! Misery! That no human spirit can grasp. That more than one being should sink into the depth of this wretchedness: that the first, writhing in its death-pangs, under the eyes of Eternal Forgiveness, did not expiate the guilt of all the others! It pierces to the marrow of my bones, the misery of this one being – and you smile calmly at the fate of thousands!
Mephistopheles Now we’re out of our wits again, already, at the point where men’s brains are cracked. Why did you enter into partnership with us, if you can’t go through with it? Would you take wing, and yet be free of dizziness? Did we thrust ourselves on you, or you on us?
Faust Don’t gnash your greedy jaws at me! It disgusts me! – Great and glorious Spirit, you who revealed yourself to me, nobly, who know my heart and soul, why shackle me to this disgraceful companion, who feeds on injury, and at the last on ruin?
Mephistopheles Have you finished?
Faust Save her, or woe to you! May the weightiest curse fall on you for a thousand ages!
Mephistopheles I can’t undo the bonds of the Avenger, nor loose his bolts. – ‘Save her!’ –
Who was it dragged her to ruin? I or you?
(Faust looks around, wildly.)
Would you grasp the lightning? A good thing it has not been allowed you miserable mortals! To crush the innocent one who replies is the tyrant’s way to free oneself of an embarrassment.
Faust Take me to her! She shall be freed!
Mephistopheles And the danger you expose yourself to? Be aware, the guilty blood from your hands lies on the town. Avenging spirits hover over the place of death, and lie in wait for the murderer’s return.
Faust And not from yours, too? Murder, and death in this world, be on you, monster! Take me there, I say, and free her.
Mephistopheles I’ll take you: listen to what I can do! Have I all the powers of heaven and earth? I’ll confuse the jailor’s mind: you take possession of the key, and bring her out, hand in human hand! I’ll keep watch: magic horses are ready: I’ll carry you away. That, I can do.
Scene XXIV: Night
(An open field. Faust and Mephistopheles flying onwards on black horses.)
‘Faust and Mephistopheles Galloping on the Night of the Witches’ Sabbath’
Faust What do they weave, round the Ravenstone?
Mephistopheles I don’t know what they’re cooking and brewing. 4400
Faust Soaring up, diving down, bending and bowing.
Mephistopheles A guild of witches.
Faust They scatter, they consecrate.
Mephistopheles Away! Away!
Scene XXV: A Dungeon
(Faust, with a bunch of keys and a lamp, in front of an iron door.)
Faust A long-forgotten shudder grips me, 4405
I’m gripped by all of Mankind’s misery,
Here behind these damp walls, she
Lives: and all her guilt’s illusory.
Do I tremble, then, to free her!
Do I dread, once more, to see her! 4410
On! Fear adds to death’s proximity.
(He grips the lock. She sings within.)
My mother, the whore
She killed me!
My father, the rogue,
He gnawed me! 4415
Little sister alone
Laid out the bone
In the cool of the clay:
Then I was a sweet bird on the stone.
Fly away! Fly away! 4420
Faust (Unlocking the door.)
She doesn’t know her lover’s listening,
Hears the chains, the straw’s rustling.
Margaret (Hiding herself in the bed of straw.)
Woe! Woe! It comes. Bitterest Death!
‘Faust in Marguerite’s Prison’
Hush! Hush! It’s I who come, to free you.
Margaret (Throwing herself down in front of him.)
Are you a man? Then pity my distress. 4425
Faust Your cries will wake the jailors, too!
(He grasps the chains, to loose them.)
Margaret (On her knees.)
Who gives the executioner
Such power over me!
At midnight you’re already here.
Let me live, have mercy on me! 4430
Won’t it be soon enough when dawn should come?
(She stands up.)
I’m still so young, so young!
And yet I’ll die!
I was lovely too, that was my
Ruin. My love was near, now he’s gone: 4435
The garland’s torn: the flowers are done.
Don’t grip me, now, so violently!
What harm have I done you? Spare me!
Don’t let me beg for mercy, in vain,
I’ve never seen you before today! 4440
Faust How shall I endure this misery, say!
Margaret I’m wholly in your power. Oh,
Let me feed my baby first.
I caressed it all night, though,
They told me I caused it hurt, 4445
And now they say I killed it, so,
And now I’ll never be happy again.
They sing songs of me! It’s wicked of folk!
There’s an old story ends this way,
Who told them to tell it so? 4450
Faust (Falling on his knees.)
A lover lies at your feet,
Who’ll end your painful slavery.
Margaret (Throwing herself down next to him.)
O let’s kneel, the saints will bless!
See here! Under these steps,
Under this sill, 4455
The Evil One
With fierce anger,
Makes his groan!
Gretchen! Gretchen! 4460
Margaret (Listening closely.)
The voice of my lover!
(She leaps to her feet: the chains fall away.)
Where? I heard him call me.
I’m free! No one holds me.
To his neck, I shall fly,
On his breast, I shall lie! 4465
He called Gretchen! Stood at the sill.
Among the howls and cries of Hell,
Among the devil’s, scornful groans,
I knew his sweet, dear tones.
Faust I’m here!
Margaret Here! O, say it once again! 4470
(She embraces him.)
It’s he! It’s he! Where now is all the pain?
Where now the chains, the dungeon’s misery?
You’re here! You come to save me.
I am saved!
Already the street is there again, 4475
Where I first saw you plain,
And the joyful garden,
Where Martha and I waited, then.
Faust (Struggling to move.)
Come with me! Come!
Margaret (Caressing him.)
I’ll gladly stay, if you are with me. 4480
If you don’t hurry,
We’ll pay for this.
Margaret What? You can no longer kiss?
My dear, so short a time to miss me, 4485
And you’ve forgotten how to kiss me?
Why am I so anxious on your breast?
When, once, at your words, your gaze,
With a whole heaven I was blessed,
And you kissed me, enough to suffocate. 4490
I kiss you: see!
(She embraces him.)
Oh! How cold and silent,
Where has your passion 4495
Who brought me this?
(She turns away from him.)
Faust Come! Follow me! Darling, be bold!
I’ll clasp you with a thousand-fold
Warmth: now follow me! I beg you! 4500
Margaret (Turning to him.)
And is it you? Is it really you?
Faust It is! Come, with me!
Margaret You’ll loose the chains,
And take me to your breast, again.
How is it you don’t shrink from me?
Do you know, friend, whom you free? 4505
Faust Come! Come! The night will soon be over.
Margaret I’ve killed my mother,
I’ve drowned my child.
Was it not given to you and I?
You too. - You here! I scarce believe. 4510
Give me your hand! This is no dream.
Your dear hand! – Ah, but it’s damp!
Wipe it clean! Why do I think,
It has blood on.
Ah God! What have you done? 4515
Put your sword away,
I beg you, please!
Faust Let past be past I say!
You’re destroying me!
Margaret No you must live on: must do. 4520
I’ll describe our graves to you.
You must begin them
This very dawn:
The best one is for my mother,
Then, by her, my brother, 4525
Myself, a little further, lay,
But not too far away!
And the little one, at my right breast.
No one else by me will lie! –
Ah, to nestle at your side, 4530
That was a sweet, a darling bliss!
But no more will I achieve it:
It’s as if I must force you to it,
As if you turn aside my kiss:
And yet it’s you, so good, so sweet to see! 4535
Faust You know it is, so come with me!
Margaret Out there?
Faust To Freedom.
Margaret If the grave is there,
Death waiting, then I come!
From here to everlasting rest, 4540
And not a step further would
You go now? O Heinrich, if I could!
Faust You can! Just will it! The door is open!
Margaret I dare not: there’s no hope for me then. What use is flight? They lie in wait for me. 4545
To be forced to beg is a bitter existence,
And cursed too with an evil conscience!
To wander among strangers, bitter,
And even then I’d still be captured!
Faust I’ll stay beside you. 4550
Margaret Quickly! Quickly!
Save my poor baby!
Away! Down the ridge,
Now, by the brook,
Over the bridge, 4555
Into the wood,
Left, where the plank is,
There, in the pool.
Seize it now: you!
It’s trying to rise, 4560
It’s moving still!
Save it! Save it!
Faust Be sensible!
Only one step, and then you’re free!
Margaret If we were on the mountain, only! 4565
There my mother sits, on a stone,
And oh, the cold, it grips me!
There my mother sits on a stone,
And wags her head, so heavy.
No sign, no nod, for me, I’m sure 4570
Her sleep’s so long: she’ll wake no more.
She slept, while we took our pleasure.
That was such a time to treasure!
Faust Here all’s useless, speech or prayer:
I’ll take you from this place: I’ll dare. 4575
Margaret Let me alone! No, no force!
Don’t grip me so murderously, oh,
I’ve done all else to please you so.
Faust The day breaks! Dearest! Dearest!
Margaret Day! Yes, it’s dawn! The last I’ll see: 4580
My wedding day, that was to be!
Tell no one you’ve been with Gretchen. Ah, bright glance!
It’s done with: all in vain!
We two will meet again: 4585
But not in the dance.
The crowd gather, without speech.
The streets, the square,
Can’t hold them, there.
The bell tolls, the wand breaks. 4590
Now, they seize and tie me!
I’m dragged already to the block.
The blade that quivers over me,
Has quivered before over every neck.
Silent the world, now, as the grave! 4595
Faust Oh, would that I’d never seen the light!
Mephistopheles (Appears outside.)
Away! Or you’ll be lost, tonight.
Useless staying and praying! Chattering!
The horses are shivering,
The dawn breaks, clear. 4600
Margaret What rises in the doorway, here?
Him! Him! Send him away!
Why is he here in this holy place?
He wants me!
Faust You will live!
Margaret God of Judgement! To you, myself I give! 4605
Mephistopheles (To Faust)
Come! Now! Or I leave you both to stew.
Margaret Father, save me! I belong to you!
Angels! In Holy Company,
Draw round me: guard me!
Heinrich! For you, I fear. 4610
Mephistopheles She is judged!
A Voice (From above.)
She is saved!
Mephistopheles (To Faust.)
To me, here!
(He vanishes, with Faust.)
A Voice (From within, dying away.)