A slave name.
BkIISatV:89-110 An ironic name for a freed slave, and self-made man.
BkIISatVII:46-67 Horace disguises himself as Dama, a slave.
Damasippus, an art and antiques dealer who appears in
BkIISatIII:1-30 He criticises Horace for his indolence.
BkIISatIII:64-81 An example of one obsessed by business.
BkIISatIII:300-326 Horace is defeated by Damasippus’ long list of criticisms.
A slave-character in Comedy.
BkIISatV:89-110 His subservient stance.
AP:220-250 A stock character in low comedy.
One of Horace’s slaves.
BkIISatVII:1-20 He is allowed to criticise his master.
BkIISatVII:46-67 He questions who is the true slave.
BkIISatVII:95-118 He finally exasperates Horace.
The commission of ten men, for religious and public duties.
BkIIEpI:1-33 The Decemvirs drew up the Twelve Tables of the criminal code in 450BC.
Publius Decius Mus, first of his plebeian family to become a consul, sacrificed himself in the Latin War (Livy viii.9)
BkISatVI:1-44 His plebeian background.
The site of the oracle of Apollo in
AP:189-21 The obscure, oracular utterances of late and post-classical drama.
A musician and trainer of actresses.
BkISatX:72-92 Horace has a low regard for his taste.
A Greek slave.
The Greek Eleatic philosopher (c460-370BC) born at Abdera in Thrace. He developed the first materialist theory of Nature. His atomism developed by Leucippus considered all matter as a combination of elementary particles, the atoms, which in turn accounted for all material properties. He wrote also on cosmology, biology, perception and music. His ethical theory foreshadowed Epicureanism in valuing spiritual calm and balance. His works survive as fragments. Traditionally, he was called the laughing philosopher.
BkIEpXII:1-29 Fabled to be able to ‘leave’ the body and investigate the universe in spirit.
BkIIEpI:182-213 The laughing philosopher himself would smile.
AP:295-332 Horace claims he thought talent preferable to technique.
Daughter of Jupiter
and Latona (hence her epithet Latonia) and twin sister of Apollo. She was born on the
AP:1-37 Her sacred grove and altar as a subject of poetry.
AP:438-476 Lunacy an effect of the moon, hence a curse of the moon-goddess.
The modern Licenza, in the Sabine country, a tributary of the Anio.
BkIEpXVIII:86-112 Horace drank from its stream.
A slave name.
BkIEpXVIII:1-36 A dispute over his skills.
A stock character, a sly villain, in the Atellan Oscan farces.
nymph, wife of Numa. Unconsoled at his
death she was turned into a fountain, and its attendant streams (at Le Mole, by
Nemi in Aricia). She was worshipped as a minor deity of childbirth at Aricia, and later in
BkISatII:111-134 An ideal woman.
Orestes’ loyal sister.
The Greek philosopher (c490-430BC) of Acragas (Agrigentum) in Sicily. He modified the teachings of Pythagoras and opposed Parmenides’ view of reality as one and unchanging, with his doctrine that the four elements, earth, air, fire and water, make up the world, and that love and strife (attraction and antipathy, Horace’s ‘harmonious discord’) govern their distribution in a four-stage cycle. He wrote an important work On Nature.
BkIEpXII:1-29 A philosophical theorist.
epic poet (239-169BC) born at Rudiae in
BkIEpXIX:1-20 He said of himself that he was only a poet when drunk.
BkIIEpI:34-62 In the introduction to the Annales, He claimed to have fallen asleep on the Muses’ Mount and dreamed that Homer’s ghost expounded the theory of transmigration (as Pythagoras taught), and told him he possessed Homer’s soul. Horace says he no longer has to worry about the claim, as he is considered a second Homer. He was called sapiens, wise because of his philosophical poems, and fortis, brave, because he recounted in the Annales the fortia facta patrum, the brave deeds of our ancestors.
AP:251-274 Horace does not rate his metric skill.
Writer of Sicilian comedies, mythological burlesques, working in the first quarter of the fifth century BC.
philosopher (341-270BC), and founder of
A city in
BkISatIII:25-54 The snakes sacred to Aesculapius as god of medicine were reputed to have keen sight.
One of the
BkISatVIII:1-22 The setting for this satire. The cemetery lay outside the Agger, the Rampart or Mound of Servius, an embankment and ditch a mile long closing off the valley between the Esquiline and the Quirinal, supposedly made by Servius Tullius and enlarged by Tarquin Superbus, that was part of the old Servian Wall system, and had been a burial place for criminals and paupers, where witches practised their rites among the graves. Horace plays on the formula intended to preserve ground as a grave, H.M.H.N.S. or Hoc monumentum heredes non sequetur… ‘this memorial is not to be passed down to the heirs’, those laid to rest there being unlikely to have much to leave them!
BkIISatVI:1-39 Mournful because of the prior associations decribed above.
BkIISatIII:224-246 BkIIEpI:245-270 Tuscan Street, the Vicus Tuscus, ran from the Forum to the Velabrum, and was perhaps named from the Tuscan workmen who lived there. The street had a variety of shops and Horace in BkII Epistle I puns on the name, as the street where tus, incense, is sold, and imagines himself, and by analogy Augustus, being carried down to the Forum, and the street where remaindered works are used as wrapping paper in the shops, in a coffin along with the works of the worthless admirer.
BkIIEpI:182-213 The Tuscan Sea
to the west and south-west of
BkIIEpII:180-216 Etruscan figurines.
The late 5th century BC Greek dramatist of the Old Comedy, a rival of Aristophanes. His comedies satirised contemporary politicians and socialites. Only fragments of his work survive.
BkIISatIII:1-30 Horace has taken his writings along.
Publius Volumnius, a knight and friend of Mark Antony, Atticus and Cicero (See Ad fam. vii. 32, 33), given the nickname Eutrapelus, or ‘witty’.
BkIEpXVIII:1-36 His means of belittling his enemies.
The son of Carmentis,
one of the Camenae, or prophetic nymphs. She first lived in
BkISatIII:76-98 Any cup touched by him would be sacred and antique and therefore precious.
One of the thirty-five tribes of Roman citizens.
BkIEpVI:49-68 A powerful citizen in a tribe in turn exerted influence beyond it.
A Roman eques, who expounded Stoic philosophy. Horace uses him as an example of a windbag in argument, and possibly an adulterer.
BkISatI:1-22 A chatterbox.
BkISatII:111-134 Adultery causes painful consequences which even a Stoic would have to accept.
Lucius Farbicius, curator viarum.
The Falernus district in Campania produced a strong, highly-prized wine, Falernian.
BkIEpXIV:31-44 Falernian wine.
A minor poet.
BkISatIV:1-25 His extreme self-advertisement.
Demi-gods. Rural deities with horns and tails.
The daughter of Sulla, born in 86BC. She would have been about 47 years old at the time the Satires were written. Her name means lucky, or auspicious.
BkIEpXVII:1-32 A quiet country town.
From the town of
BkIIEpI:118-155 The development of Latin verse.
town six miles north of
BkIEpXI:1-30 Partly deserted, a ghost-town.
BkIISatI:1-23 Horace’s cognomen. The name means flap-eared!
Head of a school at Venusia.
Julius Florus a friend of Horace and Tiberius, a student of oratory and writer of satires according to Porphyrion.
BkIEpIII:1-36 The epistle addressed to him on campaign.
BkIIEpII:1-25 This epistle addressed to him.
Consul suffectus in 30BC. A close ally of Mark Antony.
BkISatV:34-70 He provides food at Formiae.
Roman Forum. The main thoroughfare. The marketplace. Maecenas as
a magistrate had the right to set up a court of justice there. It was the
centre of early
BkISatVI:110-131 An area frequented by dubious characters.
BkIEpVI:1-27 The place where money is made, the trading centre.
BkIEpVI:49-68 The central market.
BkIEpVII:1-28 The business centre and its mundane affairs.
BkIEpXIX:1-20 A place of sobriety.
The Market of Appius at the head of the canal to Feronia through the Pomptine Marshes.
BkISatII:1-22 A rich and miserly loan-shark.
BkIISatIII:31-63 Playing the part of Iliona, he was so drunk that even the combined efforts of the audience failed to waken him. He was playing the sleeping heroine of Pacuvius’ Ilione, and was supposed to be awakened by the ghost of her murdered son played by Catienus.
A well-known gladiator.
BkIISatVII:95-118 A wall-sketch for advertising purposes involving him.
A friend of Horace.
BkIISatVIII:1-19 He reports on a dinner-party he attended.
Furies, The Three Sisters, were Alecto, Tisiphone and
Megaera, the daughters of Night and Uranus. They were the personified pangs of
cruel conscience that pursued the guilty. (See Aeschylus – The Eumenides).
Their abode was in Hades by the
BkISatVIII:23-50 The witches appeared like Furies.
BkISatX:31-49 His bombastic style is criticised.
A friend of Horace, a famous orator. Consul in 17BC.
BkISatX:72-92 Horace seeks his approval of his literary efforts.
BkIEpXI:1-30 Partly deserted, a ghost-town.
BkIEpXV:1-25 Its cold countryside.
BkIIEpI:1-33Tarquinius Superbus made a treaty (late sixth century) with Gabii, written in archaic letters on bull’s hide. It was still in existence at the time of Dionysius of Halicarnassus, in the Augustan Age (Dion. Hal. iv. 58)
BkIIEpII:1-25 A trained house-slave from there.
The Gaetuli were a people of North Africa, hence African.
BkIIEpII:180-216 A source of dyed cloth.
A member of the Sulpicii Galba family.
BkISatII:23-46 An adulterer and lawyer.
The priests of Cybele who ritually castrated themselves. See Catullus ‘Attis’.
The inhabitants of the region now roughly modern
BkIISatI:1-23 There were campaigns against the Gauls in 36,35 and 34BC and victories were celebrated in the triumph of 29BC.
A glutton satirized by Lucilius. A rich auctioneer.
BkIISatII:23-52 He served a huge sturgeon for dinner.
A mountainous promontory on the coast of north-east Apulia, now Monte di S. Angelo.
BkIIEpI:182-213 The wind roaring in its forests.
Unknown. Perhaps a character from Lucilius’ satires.
BkIEpVI:49-68 His idea of hunting!
The spiritual counterpart of every man that watches over him, worshipped especially on the birthday. The personal guardian spirit.
BkIEpI:70-109 The marriage bed was dedicated to the family Genius.
BkIIEpI:118-155 Offerings of flowers and wine made to the spirit to ask for long life.
BkIIEpII:180-216 The Genius being a man’s own guardian spirit partakes of the nature of his natal stars. It shares his fate and character and dies with him.
AP:189-21 Drinking became customary during the offerings to the spirit.
A Lycian hero in Homer’s Iliad VI.
A famous athlete.
BkIEpI:20-40 His excellent physique.
An Apulian town on the Adriatic coast, devoid of springs.
Tiberius (d.133BC) and Gaius (d. 122BC), the Gracchi, were both orators.
BkIIEpII:87-125 Gaius was the more famous orator, and is probably intended here.
A Roman knight living in Sicily where he owned a large estate. (See Odes II.16)
The long arm of the
The ‘snatchers’, Aellopus and Ocypete, the fair-haired, loathsome, winged daughters of Thaumas and the ocean nymph Electra, who snatch up criminals for punishment by the Furies. They lived in a cave in Cretan Dicte. They plagued Phineus of Salmydessus, the blind prophet, and were chased away by the winged sons of Boreas. An alternative myth has Phineus drive them away to the Strophades where Ovid has Aeneas meet the harpy Aëllo, and Virgil, Celaeno. They are foul-bellied birds with girls’ faces, and clawed hands, and their faces are pale with hunger. (See Virgil Aeneid III:190-220)
BkIISatII:23-52 Ravenously hungry creatures.
BkIEpIII:1-36 A Thracian river, but Horace also hints at literary activity.
BkIEpXVI:1-24 Its cool, pure waters.
The daughter of the Titans Perses and Asterie, Latona’s sister. A Thracian goddess of witches, her name is a feminine form of Apollo’s title ‘the far-darter’. She was a lunar goddess, with shining Titans for parents. In Hades she was Prytania of the dead, or the Invincible Queen. She gave riches, wisdom, and victory, and presided over flocks and navigation. She had three bodies and three heads, those of a lioness, a bitch, and a mare. Her ancient power was to give to or withhold from mortals any gift. She was sometimes merged with the lunar aspect of Diana-Artemis, and presided over purifications and expiations. She was the goddess of enchantments and magic charms, and sent demons to earth to torture mortals. At night she appeared with her retinue of infernal dogs, haunting crossroads (as Trivia), tombs and the scenes of crimes. At crossroads her columns or statues had three faces – the Triple Hecates – and offerings were made at the full moon to propitiate her.
BkISatVIII:23-50 The witches call on her.
The Trojan hero, eldest son of Priam and Hecuba.
The daughter of Leda and Jupiter (Tyndareus was her putative father), sister of Clytemnaestra, and the Dioscuri. The wife of Menelaüs. She was taken, by Paris, to Troy, her adultery instigating the Trojan War.
BkISatIII:99-119 She was not the first woman to cause trouble.
possibly a reference to Apollodorus a teacher in
BkIISatIII:247-280 A mistress murdered by her lover.
straits that link the Propontis with the
The towers at
The Greek Hero. He was set in the sky as the constellation Hercules between Lyra and Corona Borealis. The son of Jupiter and Alcmena, the wife of Amphitryon. Jupiter predicted at his birth that a scion of Perseus would be born, greater than all other descendants. Juno delayed Hercules birth and hastened that of Eurystheus, grandson of Perseus, making Hercules subservient to him. Hercules was set twelve labours by Eurystheus at Juno’s instigation:
1. The killing of the Nemean lion.
2. The destruction of the Lernean Hydra.
3. The capture of the stag with golden antlers.
4. The capture of the Erymanthian Boar.
The cleansing of the stables of Augeas king of
The killing of the birds of the
7. The capture of the Cretan wild bull.
8. The capture of the mares of Diomede that ate human flesh.
9. The taking of the girdle of Hippolyte, Queen of the Amazons.
10. The killing of Geryon and the capture of his oxen.
11. The securing of the apples from the Garden of the Hesperides.
12. The bringing of the dog Cerberus from Hades to the upper world.
BkIISatVI:1-39 Hercules was
regarded as a god who brought good fortune, due to his connections with the
BkIISatVII:68-94 By Hercules! A conventional oath.
BkIIEpI:1-33 He killed the Lernean Hydra but was brought to his death by the revenge of Nessus the Centaur whom he had killed, and who had envied him for his love of Deianira. Hercules was deified.
A musician. Not apparently the same person as Tigellius the Sardinian.
Herod the Great, King of Judaea (reigned 39-34BC).
possessed famous groves of date-palms near
epic poet, (fl. c. 8th century BC? born
BkISatX:50-71 His works attracted a vast critical commentary.
BkIEpII:1-31 Horace is re-reading the Iliad.
BkIEpXIX:1-20 His praise of wine. (See Iliad vi. 261 etc)
AP:333-365 Even Homer sometimes nods.
Horatius Flaccus, the poet (65-8BC). He
was born at Venusia in Apulia the son of a freedman, who had his
son educated at Rome and Athens. Horace supported Brutus and fought at
BkISatVI:65-88 His tribute to his father.
BkIISatVI:1-39 Horace describes
his business life in
BkIEpXIV:1-30 He names himself in the text.
BkIEpXX:1-28 He was born on the 8th December 65BC.
BkIIEpII:26-54 After the defeat at Philippi, Horace who had fought on the side of Brutus, withdrew from the Republican cause, unlike Pompeius Varus and other friends who fought on under Sextus Pompeius. Horace’s family estate at Venusia was confiscated.
An Indian slave, named from the River Hydaspes, now Djelun.
BkIISatVIII:1-19 Acts as wine-bearer.
BkIIEpI:1-33 Hercules killed this creature in his second labour.
A mountain in
A blind woman also named Plotia or Plautia.
BkISatII:86-110 Noted for her blindness.
The Roman two-headed god of doorways and beginnings, equivalent to the Hindu elephant god Ganesh. The Janus mask is often depicted with one melancholy and one smiling face. The first month of the year in the Julian calendar was named for him, January (Ianuarius). His temple, said to have been built by Numa, stood in the Argiletum north of the Forum. It was opened in time of war, closed in peacetime.
BkIISatVI:1-39 Horace invokes him as the god of beginnings, and therefore of dawn in the country, and the commencement of this satire.
BkIEpXVI:46-79 Invoked by the trader and merchant at the beginning of business undertakings.
BkIEpXX:1-28 The booksellers stalls in the Forum and Argiletum.
BkIEpXII:1-29 This letter addressed to him.
The middle of the Roman month. The fifteenth of March, May, July and October. The thirteenth of the other months.
BkISatVI:65-88 School fees were paid on the Ides.
A Spanish town on the River Ebro.
BkIEpXX:1-28 Provincial but a part of the extended Empire.
Silvia, the daughter of Aeneas (Greek myth) or Numitor (Roman
version), the Vestal who bore Romulus and Remus, to the god Mars. She and her sons were claimed as
descendants through Aeneas, of Ilus, the founder of
BkISatII:111-134 An ideal woman.
The heroine of a play by Pacuvius.
The Indian sub-continent.
BkIEpI:41-69 A source of trade.
BkIEpVI:1-27 A source of pearls and gemstones.
The daughter of Cadmus, wife of Athamas, and sister of Semele and Agave. She fostered the infant Bacchus. She incurred the hatred of Juno, and maddened by Tisiphone, and the death of her son Learchus, at the hand of his father, she leapt into the sea, and was changed to the sea-goddess Leucothoë by Neptune, at Venus’ request.
AP:119-152 Horace suggests how she should be portrayed.
of Inachus a river-god of
AP:119-152 Horace suggests how she should be portrayed.
The country conquered by the Romans, and ruled from Rome its and their Capital.
home of Ulysses-Odysseus, off the
BkIISatV:1-22 The home Ulysses longs to return to.
BkIEpVI:49-68 His crew disobeyed orders and slaughtered the Cattle of the Sun.
Unknown. Possibly a freedman of the Julian House.
The daughter of Rhea and Saturn,
wife of Jupiter, and the queen of the gods. A
representation of the pre-Hellenic Great Goddess. (See the Metope of
BkISatIII:1-24 A reference to the basket-bearers in religious processions.
The sky-god, son of Saturn and
Rhea, born on
BkISatII:1-22 His name used as an exclamation of surprise.
BkIISatIII:281-299 Prayed to in sickness. His fast days, adhered to by the Jews, were on dies Iovis, the day corresponding to our Thursday.
BkIEpI:70-109 The wise man is second only to Jove.
BkIEpXVII:33-62 Touching his throne is achieving an ultimate ambition.
BkIIEpI:63-89 The ultimate judge.
King of the Lapithae, father of Pirithoüs, and of the Centaurs. Punished in Hades for attempting to seduce Juno, he was fastened to a continually turning wheel.
AP:119-152 Horace suggests how he should be portrayed.
The first day of each month.
BkISatIII:76-98 The days on which payments fell due.
Possibly Marcus Antistius Labeo, an amateur expert on law.
BkISatIII:76-98 Noted for his crazy judgements.
Decimus Laberius (c115-43BC), a Roman knight who wrote mimes, and was compelled to act in them by Julius Caesar. He revived archaisms, coined words and was often obscene. His work is lost.
BkISatX:1-30 His verse comedies.
Publius Valerius Laevinus. A descendant of Publius Valerius Publicola colleague of Brutus in the consulship of 509BC.
BkISatVI:1-44 Of high birth but poor character according to Horace.
A Greek witch that preyed on children, a vampire.
AP:333-365 An example of what not to show on stage.
Lamia, a friend of Horace. One of the Aelii
Lamia, a distinguished family from Formiae in
BkIEpXIV:1-30 He is grieving for his brother.
Beneficent spirits watching over the household, fields, public areas etc. They were the public gods of the crossroads, the Lares Compitales, or Praestites, enshrined in pairs, providing protection, deriving from Etruscan and Sabine deities, as the single family Lar provided household protection. Each house had a Lararium where the image of the Lar was kept. The Lar is usually coupled with the Penates the gods of the larder. The yearly festival of the public Lares was the Compitalia.
BkIISatIII:142-167 They protect a man from foolish excesses, and should be granted offerings to acknowledge their propitious powers.
BkIISatV:1-22 First fruits were offered to the Lar.
BkIISatVI:59-76 Offerings were made to the Lar before the mensa secunda with its wine-drinking.
A country in
BkIEpXIX:21-49 Horace is writing for its audience.
BkIIEpI:156-181 The Romans adopted Greek models in literature.
district between Ardea and
BkIISatIV:40-69 The source of inferior wild boar.
The goddess of thieves and imposters.
BkIEpXVI:46-79 Secretly invoked by the devious man.
A small coastal town fifteen miles west of Colophon.
BkIEpXI:1-30 The point of the often misunderstood lines here is that Horace with heavy irony suggests Bullatius might as well go the whole hog and choose deserted Lebedus as a place to live. The vellem is an ironic ‘if I were you I’d choose’.
The constellation and zodiacal sign of the Lion. It contains the star Regulus ‘the heart of the lion’, one of the four guardians of the heavens in Babylonian astronomy, which lies nearly on the ecliptic. (The others are Aldebaran in Taurus, Antares in Scorpius, and Fomalhaut ‘the Fish’s Eye’ in Piscis Austrinus. All four are at roughly ninety degrees to one another). The constellation represents the lion killed by Hercules as the first of his twelve labours.
BkIEpX:1-25 The sun is in Leo in August, and the sun’s rays therefore pierce it and prompt the lion to charge in rage.
A well-known male mime and dancer, supposedly admired by Augustus.
The island in the eastern
BkIEpXI:1-30 A famous island.
BkISatIV:86-106 The god of wine, and ‘in vino veritas.’
BkIEpXIX:1-20 The god of wine.
Italian goddess sometimes identified with Proserpina. She presided over
funerals. Funeral equipment was stored in her temple in
BkIISatVI:1-39 The autumn carries off the sick and weak.
BkIIEpI:34-62 Dead poets.
He set up a tribunal at the Puteal, or Libo’s Wall.
BkIISatVI:1-39 His wall (around a well) was the site of the Roman Exchange and bore his name.
BkIEpXIX:1-20 A place of sobriety (ironically appropriate being a well-head)
BkIEpX:1-25 Numidian marble used for mosaics etc.
Livius Andronicus of Tarentum, earliest of Latin writers. He produced two plays a tragedy and a comedy in 240BC. He also translated the Odyssey. He died 204BC.
Marcus Lollius consul in 21BC.
BkIEpII:1-31 The epistle is
addressed to him. He is practising rhetoric in
BkIEpXVIII:1-36 This epistle also addressed to him, with advice on how to treat a patron.
A district of lower
BkIEpXV:1-25 The girls of the region.
BkIIEpII:155-179 Pasture land there.
Lucilius, the friend of
BkISatIV:1-25 Horace praises and also criticises him.
BkISatIV:26-62 An example of a great Satirist.
BkISatX:1-30 Horace’s criticism of his style.
BkISatX:50-71 Lucilius’ own criticism of others.
BkIISatI:24-46 Horace considers Lucilius a better man than himself.
BkIISatI:47-86 Lucilius’ satires were tolerated.
BkIISatIV:24-39 Its large mussel, peloris.
Lucius Licinius Lucullus fought as a general in
the war (74-67BC) against Mithridates king of
BkIEpVI:28-48 A story regarding his wealth.
BkIIEpII:26-54 A story regarding on of his soldiers (and with a financial slant.)
Lucius Cornelius Lentulus Lupus, Consul in 156 BC. Censor in 147BC, and leader of the Senate from 130BC. An opponent of Scipio.
The father of Neobule who was promised to Archilochus.
BkIEpXIX:21-49 He broke faith, and was pilloried by Archilochus in verse.
A country in
A country in
One of the Argonauts, the son of Aphareus and brother of Ida. He was also present at the Calydonian Boar Hunt.
The famous Greek sculptor from