François de Chateaubriand
Mémoires d’Outre-Tombe: Index J
The Old Testament patriarch, son of Isaac and Rebekah, and ancestor of the Jewish People, his story is told in Genesis:25-50. He married Leah, and then Rachel, the daughters of Laban. His twelve sons gave their names to the twelve tribes of Israel.
Jacobins, Club des
The Jacobin Club was originally formed at Versailles in 1789 as the Breton Club as most of its member came from Brittany. On the removal of the Assembly to Paris it became known as the Jacobin Club because it met in the convent of the Jacobin Friars: Dominican Friars who were known as Jacobins since their first house in Paris was in the Rue Saint-Jacques. Moderate at first it became increasingly revolutionary. It was closed in November 1795.
BkIX:Chap4:Sec1 Their historical plagiarism.
BkXIII:Chap5:Sec1 Their transformation into the new aristocracy in 1800.
Brother of the former Russian minister (Baron von Jacowleff) in Stuttgart.
BkXXI:Chap4:Sec3 Mentioned in 1812.
Innkeeper and potter at Cannes in 1838.
BkXXIV:Chap17:Sec1 Chateaubriand’s host.
Jacqueminot, Jean-François, Colonel
1787-1865. A Colonel at Waterloo, he became a textile manufacturer and Deputy for the Vosges in 1827. He became a Lieutenant-General (1838) under the July Monarchy, Commander of the National Guard (1842) and a Peer of France.
Jacqueminot, Monsieur and Madame
They were characters in a story told by Madame de Coislin.
Jacques L’Intercis, Saint James the Mutilated
4th century. A Persian Christian martyred by dismemberment, under the rule of King Shapur II.
Jacquin Nicolas Joseph
1727-1817. Dutch botanist, born in Leyden. He was appointed in 1752, by Francis I, imperial botanist, and two years later went to America in search of unknown plants. He remained five years in South America and the West Indies, and returned to Europe in 1760, with a rich collection of plants and many specimens in natural history, which he presented to the emperor. They became afterward the property of the Museum of Schoenbrunn, which he contrived to make one of the most interesting in Europe. He was appointed in 1774 professor of botany and chemistry in the University of Vienna, and created baron by Joseph II in 1806. His numerous works include ‘Selectarum stirpium americanarum historia’ (Vienna, 1763), and ‘Enumeratio systematica plantarum quae in insulis Caribaeis, vicinoque Americae continente detexit’ (Leyden, 1760).
BkV:Chap15:Sec3 His work consulted by Chateaubriand.
Squadron commander of the Gendarmerie.
Jaffa, Tel Aviv-Jaffa, Israel
The Mediterranean coastal city is situated in central Israel. Tel Aviv was originally a suburb of Jaffa (ancient name: Joppa). The city’s port lies at Ashdod to the south.
BkXVIII:Chap3Sec2 A letter dated from there.
James I, Stuart, King of England and Ireland
1566-1625. King 1603-1625. The son of Mary Queen of Scots, he acceded to the Scottish Throne as James VI (1567-1625) on her abdication. A mean-spirited Presbyterian he presided over a period of constitutional grievances, which led the Stuarts ultimately to precipitate the English Civil War.
James II, Stuart
1633-1701. King of England, Scotland and Ireland (1685-1688), the second son of Charles I escaped to Holland after the Civil war and fought for the French and then the Spanish. At the Restoration he became Lord High Admiral. The threat of a Roman Catholic Succession caused his overthrow in the Glorious Revolution of 1688 which saw William III take the throne. He was defeated at the Battle of the Boyne in 1690 and at Aughrim in 1691. He died in exile in France.
BkXXXII:Chap7:Sec1 Not saved by the House of Lords.
BkXXXIII:Chap6:Sec1 The events leading to his overthrow.
BkXXXIII:Chap9:Sec1 His fall a delayed consequence of Charles I’s reign.
The capital of St Helena it was founded in 1659, when the English East India Company built a fort and established a garrison at the site on James Bay, naming it after the Duke of York (later James II).
A hill in western Rome, the second tallest hill (after Monte Mario), in the contemporary city, the Janiculum does not figure among the proverbial Seven Hills of Rome, being west of the Tiber and outside the boundaries of the ancient city. It was a centre for the cult of the god Janus.
BkXL:Chap2:Sec4 Sant’Onofrio is built on the slopes of the Janiculum. Criminals, including indicted Senators, in ancient Rome were thrown to their deaths from the Tarpeian Rock on the Capitoline however. The French phrase pères conscrits meant Roman Senators.
The elite troops of the Ottoman Sultans, they were selected from subject peoples, especially Christian families, and were highly-trained powerful and politically adept. After their insurrection in 1826 they were eliminated by Mahmud II.
Janson, Madame la Marquise de Forbin-Janson
1763-?. She owned land by the Rhône (Les Issarts).
The Roman two-headed god of doorways and beginnings, is equivalent to the Hindu elephant god Ganesh. The Janus mask is often depicted with one melancholy and one smiling face. The first month of the year in the Julian calendar was named for him, January (Ianuarius). His temple, with a statue of the god beneath an archway, stood between the Forum Romanum and Forum Iulium. Its gates were closed in times of peace, opened in times of war. ‘In the time of Augustus it was closed, after he had overthrown Marc Antony; and before that, when Marcus Atilius and Titus Manlius were consuls, it was closed a short time; then war broke out again at once, and it was opened.’(Plutarch, Life of king Numa 20.1-2)
BkXXIV:Chap16:Sec1 Napoleon allegorically closed the gates of war.
Son of Noah. See Genesis 10:5.
BkV:Chap2:Sec1 The Indo-European family of languages was termed Japhetic as if appertaining to Japhet and his sons, Gomer etc. The Semitic languages were treated as if appertaining to the descendants of Shem, another of Noah’s sons.
Jassi, Treaty of
In 1792, the frontier between Turkey and Russia was fixed, and the freedom of Black Sea navigation confirmed, a further limitation of Ottoman power.
Jaucourt, Arnail François, Marquis de
1757-1852. He took refuge in Switzerland to escape the Reign of Terror, and returned only after Napoleon’s 18th Brumaire coup, and the establishment of the French Consulate, entering the tribunate, of which he was the president for a short period. In 1803, Jaucourt entered the Senate, and became attached to the household of Joseph Bonaparte. He accompanied Joseph to Naples, and was created a Count of the Empire by Napoleon. During the following years, Jaucourt distanced himself from the Imperial cause, and, with the Bourbon Restoration became Minister of State and a Peer of France. After the outcome of the Hundred Days (during which he stood by Louis XVIII), he was Naval Minister in July-September 1815, but held no further office. He devoted himself to the support of the Protestant interest in France, and tried to reduce the effects of the White Terror. A member of the upper house after the July Revolution and throughout the reign of Louis Philippe (the July Monarchy), he was driven into private life by the establishment of the Second Republic, but lived to see the 1851 coup and to rally to the government of Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte, dying in Paris the next year.
BkXXII:Chap17:Sec1 A Member of the Provisional Government in 1814.
A French banker (his father, also Théodore, an aide-de-camp to Lafayette, had been guillotined during the Terror) he was vice-president of the Electoral College for the Seine under the Restoration. He later acted as banker to the Duchess de Berry.
BkXXXVII:Chap3:Sec1 He provided Chateaubriand with the funds to travel to Prague in 1833.
BkXXXIX:Chap2:Sec1 And the funds for the Venice trip in 1833.
Javotte is Chateaubriand’s name for the serving woman at Hollfeld.
Jay, for Le Jay, Madame
She was the wife of Mirabeau’s publisher.
BkV:Chap14:Sec1 Mistress of Mirabeau.
Jean, de la Grille, Saint
1098-1163. Bishop of Aleth, his epithet deriving from the grille around his tomb to protect it from the massed devotion of the pilgrims there. Born in Brittany he entered Clairvaux and was ordained by Saint Bernard. Bernard sent him to Brittany to found the Abbey of Buzay. Appointed Bishop of Aleth he transferred the Episcopal See to Saint-Malo (from c1143).
Jean (Jan) I of Luxembourg, called The Blind, King of Bohemia
Jean II, Le Bon, King of France
1319-1364. King of France 1350-1364.
BkXXIV:Chap4:Sec1 Captured by the Black Prince at Poitiers in 1356 during the Hundred Years’ War, he remained in captivity in London, where he was forced to sign the unfavourable Treaty of Bretigny, until 1360. Released, he was unable to raise the ransom demanded, and returned to London where he died.
Jean, John or Jan III Sobieksi, King of Poland
1624-1696. King of Poland 1674-1696. A brilliant military commander he was elected King after defeating the Turks at Khotin in 1663. In 1683 he saved Vienna (and Europe) at the battle of Kahlenberg. He subsequently failed to capture Moldavia and Wallachia.
Jean III (John III) of Portugal
1502-1557. Nicknamed o Piedoso (‘the Pious’), John was the fifteenth King of Portugal and Algarves. His tomb is in the Monastery of Jerónimos in Lisbon.
BkXL:Chap5:Sec1 His epitaph.
Jean VI (John VI) of Braganza, King of Portugal
Don Maria Jose Luis de Braganza (1769-1826) second son of Peter III, exercised the regency in his mother’s name. He decided on the 24th of November 1807 to take refuge in Brazil. Proclaimed King as John VI, in March 1816, he did not return to Lisbon until 1821.
BkXX:Chap7:Sec1 Mentioned as Jean II in the text.
BkXXVI:Chap7:Sec1 His return to Portugal in 1821, which required him to sanction a liberal constitution. Brazil meanwhile proclaimed its independence.
Jean V, Duke of Brittany
1338-1399. Duke of Brittany from 1354, known as the Conqueror, he was the son of Duke Jean IV and Joanna of Flanders.
Jean-Baptiste, St John the Baptist
5BC-c28/30AD. According to the Gospels, John’s role was to announce the coming of Jesus: see John 1:23. According to Matthew 3:4, he wore clothing made of camel hair and ate locusts and wild honey, and baptized people in the river Jordan. John was executed by Herod; as told in Matthew 14, Herod granted the demand of Salome to ‘give me the head of John the Baptist here on a platter.’
BkXXXIII:Chap7:Sec2 See Matthew 3:4 again for St John’s simple way of life in the desert.
1650-1702. A French naval hero, born in Dunkirk of a seafaring family, he enlisted in the Dutch navy but entered French service as a privateer at the outbreak of the Dutch War (1672). In 1686 he was commissioned a navy captain. As a reward for his spectacular exploits, particularly in the War of the Grand Alliance, he was ennobled (1694) and made a rear admiral (1696) by Louis XIV.
BkXXVI:Chap1:Sec1 His visit to Versailles.
Jean Le Silentiaire
454-558 Saint John the Silent, John Hesychastes, Son of Enkratios, a military commander, and Euphemia; his brother and other family members were advisors to emperors. His parents died in 471, and at age 18 John used his inheritance to build the Church of the Most Holy Mother of God in Nicopolis. By age 20 he had founded a monastery for himself and ten fellow young monks. Bishop of Colonia (Taxara) by age 28; ecclesiastical duties permitting, he continued to live as a monk. In his tenth year as bishop, his brother-in-law, Pazinikos, was appointed governor of Armenia, and immediately began meddling in Church affairs. Overwhelmed by secular matters he was not prepared for, he secretly fled to Jerusalem, praying for a place to hide from the world. Accepted as a novice at Saint Sabas monastery, working as a steward and construction worker. After four years at the monastery, he was being considered for ordination, and felt compelled to reveal his secret the the Jerusalem Patriarch Elias. Elias permitted him to take a vow of silence, and wall himself into his cell for another four years. Lived as a hermit in a hut built against a rock face in the desert wilderness for nine years; legend says he was protected from brigands by a lion that stayed nearby. Saint Sava convinced John to return to the monastery. His secret came out, and he lived many years at the monastery under the protection of Sava. Late in life he left his solitude to fight the Origenists.
The Battle of Jemappes (November 6, 1792) took place near the town of Jemappes in Hainaut, Belgium, near Mons. Charles François Dumouriez, in command of the French Revolutionary Army, defeated the greatly outnumbered Austrian army under the command of Duke Albert of Saxe-Teschen and of François Sebastien Charles Joseph de Croix, Count of Clerfayt.
John Sigismond, Elector of Brandenburg
1572-1619. He succeeded his father as margrave of Brandenburg in 1608. He gave the Reichshof Castrop to his teacher and educator Carl Friedrich von Bordelius. He became Duke of Cleves in 1614. He succeeded his father-in-law as Duke of Prussia in 1618, and held all three titles until his death.
Jean Sans Terre, John Lackland
1167?-1216 King of England 1199-1216. The youngest son of Henry II, he succeeded to the throne on the death of his brother Richard I. He lost the French possessions and in 1215 John was compelled by the barons to sign the Magna Carta.
Jean de Bruges, see Van Eyck
Daughter of Alphonse of Aragon.
Jeanne d’Arc, Joan of Arc
1412-1431. The Maid of Orleans or Jeanne la Pucelle is a national heroine of France and a saint of the Catholic Church. She stated that she received visions from God, through which she helped inspire Charles VII’s troops to retake most of his dynasty’s former territories, which had been under English and Burgundian dominance during the Hundred Years’ War.
1540-1622. President of the Burgundy Parliament, Counsellor to Henri IV and Louis XIII, his Negotiations were published in 1656.
1743-1826. Born 13th April he was the third President of the USA (1801-1809). A lawyer, he began his political career, 1769, in Virginia’s House of Burgesses. He was elected a delegate to the second Continental Congress of 1775 and was chief author of the Declaration of Independence. He served as Governor of Virginia (1779-1781), Minister to France (1785-1789), secretary of state (1789-1793) and vice president (1797-1801) under John Adams. He approved the Louisiana Purchase in 1803, and encouraged US neutrality in the Napoleonic Wars. After 1809 he founded the University of Virginia, and died, as did John Adams, on the 4th July 1826 the 50th anniversary of American Independence, and in the fifty-fourth year since Samuel Adams created the first Committee of Correspondence that launched the American Revolution.
BkVIII:Chap5:Sec3 His beautiful house Monticello is near Charlottesville, Virginia. Three of his daughters and a son died very young, two of his daughters survived into adulthood, Martha (‘Patsy’) died 1836 and Maria (‘Polly’) died 1804. His wife Martha died in 1782. It is not clear which child’s death Chateaubriand is referring to, but if an adult child it must be Maria, ‘Polly’, in 1804 when one ‘half’ of his two surviving daughters was lost. I am unable to find the relevant text of Jefferson’s.
Jehu, the son of Jehoshaphat, was the tenth King of the northern kingdom of Israel, who fulfilled a prophecy of Elijah (1 Kings 21:17-24).
The city located in the Gera area on the Saale river; ruled by House of Wettin from the 14th century, by dukes of the Ernestine line from 1485; a noted academic centre, and long the focus of liberal ideas in Germany, including those of the evolutionist Haeckel, and Karl Marx. The Battle of Jena was fought on October 14, 1806, and resulted in a French victory under Napoleon against the Prussians under General Hohenlohe.
BkXIII:Chap7:Sec2 From 1814 onwards, German students articulated their displeasure over the unsatisfactory ‘reorganization’ of Germany at the Congress of Vienna. Pro-unification students, vast numbers of whom had fought against Napoleon’s army in the Lützow volunteer corps, came together in Jena and founded the first student association (Urburschenschaft), the aim of which was proclaimed in its slogan: ‘Honour, Freedom, Fatherland.’
BkXX:Chap6:Sec1 The twin battles of Jena and Auerstedt (older name: Auerstädt) were fought on October 14, 1806 on the plateau west of the river Saale, in modern Germany, between the forces of Napoleon I of France and Frederick William III of Prussia. The decisive defeat suffered by the Prussian army resulted in Prussia’s elimination from the anti-French coalition up until the liberation war of 1813.
BkXXVI:Chap1:Sec1 Presumably the battles of 1806, but perhaps also the French defeat of 19th October 1813.
Jenkinson, Charles, see Liverpool
Chambermaid to the Marquise de Custine.
7th Century BC. The Old Testament prophet believed to have been born about 650BC near Jerusalem. The Book of Jeremiah contains his prophecies of the fall of Judah, the Babylonian conquest and exile. A Messiah is prophesied to rule over Jews and Gentiles.
BkXXX:Chap6:Sec1 The Book of Lamentations ascribed to him.
c342-420. The biblical scholar, born in Stridon is a Doctor of the Church, and was the author of the Vulgate Bible, the first Latin translation from Hebrew. After a period as a hermit he was ordained in Antioch. Secretary to Pope Damasius I from 382-385. Settled in Bethlehem where he established a monastery, and died there.
BkIII:Chap7:Sec1 The cedar of Lebanon consecrated to him.
BkXVIII:Chap3Sec5 A translation of his letters.
Referred to in Les Martyrs.
BkXX:Chap9:Sec3 The quotation is from Saint Jerome’s letter to Innocentius concerning the woman of Vercelli in Liguria, at the foot of the Alps, struck seven times with the sword.
BkXXIX:Chap2:Sec1 From a letter, XXII:18, the phrase signifies in context that prayers should not cease and is most intense at night, but here perhaps signifies transience and memory.
BkXXIX:Chap2:Sec3 A reference to his Letter XXII:7 to St. Eustochium.
BkXXIX:Chap7:Sec1 His letter XXII:13 to St Eustochium.
Jerome of Brescia
This is an apparent confusion with the architect and sculptor Andrea Briosco (c1470-1532) who designed the church of Santa Giustina in Padua.
Jérôme de Montfort, see Jérôme Bonaparte
Jérôme de Prague
1379-1416. One of the chief followers and most devoted friends of Jan Hus, he was burned at the stake.
The largest of the Channel Islands, in the English Channel, it was colonized from Normandy in the 11th century. French is the official language. The capital is St. Helier.
BkII:Chap3:Sec1 France made an alliance with the American insurgents during the American War of Independence, on 7th February 1778 and planned an attack on Jersey.
BkVI:Chap4:Sec1 The principal of the monastery in Santa Cruz was a sailor from Jersey.
BkIX:Chap1:Sec1 An émigré destination in 1792.
BkXVIII:Chap7:Sec1 Armand’s boat left from there in 1808. The Ecrehous is a group of small islands and rocks, officially part of Jersey not France, between Jersey and Carteret, about six miles to the north-east of St Catherine’s.
Jersey, Sarah-Sophia Child-Villiers née Fane, Lady
1758-1867. Wife of the 5th Earl of Jersey, she was the daughter of the more famous Lady Jersey, Frances Twysden, who died in 1821, mistress of George IV and wife of the 4th Earl. Sarah was a society hostess, friend of Lord Byron, and frequenter of Almack’s.
BkX:Chap7:Sec1 Present at Chateaubriand’s reception in 1822.
The de facto capital of Israel on the Judea Heights between the Mediterranean and the Dead Sea, it became a religious centre for Christianity, Islam and Judaism. It was conquered by King David in 1005BC, and the first Temple was built by his son Solomon in 969BC. The Babylonians destroyed the city in 586BC, and the Jews were exiled to Babylon. It was rebuilt by those returning from exile around 538 BC. It was occupied by Alexander, the Romans, the Arabs and Turks, and the Crusaders. It fell to Saladin in 1187 and was part of the Ottoman Empire from 1516 until 1917.
BkI:Chap1:Sec2 BkXXXIX:Chap5:Sec1 BkXLI:Chap7:Sec1 On the evening of his arrival in Jerusalem, 4th October 1806, the Franciscans of Saint-Saviour were celebrating the festival of their founder Saint Francis, his namesake. Chateaubriand considered the day of great importance, and had long believed the 4th October to be his actual birthday (correctly 4th September). The date was symbolic for him, as one which commemorated his entry into life,Jerusalem, and literature.
BkXVIII:Chap1:Sec1 BkXXXI:Chap1:Sec2 Chateaubriand uses Solyme, from the Latin Solyma, for Jerusalem in the text. He implies in the first reference that he carries a mixture of Greek and Christian heritage.
BkXVIII:Chap2:Sec1 BkXXVI:Chap9:Sec1 BkXXXVII:Chap1:Sec1 BkXXXIX:Chap7:Sec1 BkXXXIX:Chap20:Sec1 Chateaubriand was there in 1806. The Valley of Josaphat (or Jehoshaphat) is mentioned only once in the Bible (Joel 3), and was later taken to be identical with the Valley of Cedron (Kidron) that runs north-south along the eastern side of the city beneath Zion and the Temple Mount.
BkXVIII:Chap3Sec2 A passport dated from there.
BkXVIII:Chap4Sec1 Mount Sion is the western hill of Jerusalem, near the Jaffa Gate, to be distinguished from the Jewish Zion on the eastern hill.
BkXXI:Chap4:Sec2 See Lamentations I:1 for the mourning over Jerusalem.
BkXXIII:Chap8:Sec1 An example of French influence.
Members of the Society of Jesus founded by St Ignatius Loyola, in 1533, to propagate the Roman Catholic faith, they established themselves as educators and missionaries, becoming one of the dominant forces of the Counter-Reformation, famous for their argumentative subtlety. In 1773 Pope Clement XIV suppressed the Order, and it was not reinstated until 1814.
BkVII:Chap10:Sec1 The activities of the Canadian Jesuits.
BkXXVIII:Chap11:Sec1 Pius VII had resolved to restore the Society during his captivity in France; and after his return to Rome he did so with little delay; 7 August, 1814, by the Bull ‘Solicitudo omnium ecclesiarum,’ In France, the Society began in 1815 with the direction of some petits séminaries and congregations, and by giving missions. They were attacked by the liberals, especially by the Comte de Montlosier in 1823, and their schools, one of which St-Achuel, already contained 800 students, were closed in 1829. The Revolution of July (1830) brought them no relief; but in the visitation of cholera in 1832 the Fathers pressed to the fore, and so began to recover influence. In 1845, there was another attack by Thiers, which drew an answer from De Ravignan. The revolution of 1848 at first sent them again into exile, but the liberal measures which succeeded, especially the freedom of teaching, enabled them to return and to open many schools (1850).
BkXXVIII:Chap16:Sec1 Anti-Jesuit feeling in April 1827.
BkXXIX:Chap15:Sec1 Their intrigues in Rome in 1828.
BkXXXVII:Chap3:Sec1 Their status in France in 1833.
BkXXXVII:Chap7:Sec1 This was probably the church of Saint Nicholas Mala Strana.
c6BC-c30AD. Jesus, the founder of Christianity, called by his followers the Messiah or Christ.
BkIV:Chap8:Sec4 Chateaubriand gives an edited quotation from John X.32.
BkXIII:Chap10:Sec2 Chateaubriand refers to the Medieval heresies of the Albigensians etc.
BkXXVIII:Chap11:Sec1 Jesus died about the ninth hour (of daylight) that is about three in the afternoon, see Matthew XXVII:46-50, Mark XV:34-37, Luke XXIII:44-46.
BkXXIX:Chap7:Sec1 His age at death was traditionally 33 years.
BkXXIX:Chap15:Sec1 See Matthew XXII:21, Mark XII:17, Luke XX:25.
BkXXX:Chap2:Sec1 The Agapes were Love-feasts held by the Early Christians in connection with the Lord’s supper. The Greek word means brotherly love.
BkXLII:Chap13:Sec1 See Luke II:7
Joachim II, Elector of Brandenburg
1505-1571. Joachim II, nicknamed ‘Hector’, was a Margrave of Brandenburg and an Imperial Elector of the Hohenzollern dynasty. He succeeded his father, Joachim I ‘Nestor’, in 1535.
The Jewish High Priest in Racine’s Athalie.
King of Judah, see Second Kings XII:2 and more pertinently the character in Athalie by Racine.
The Book of Job in the Old Testament develops the theme of the suffering of the innocent. Job, the protagonist is led to realise that man cannot understand the ways of God (Jehovah).
BkIII:Chap6:Sec1 Chateaubriand quotes Job 10.1 and 14.1.
BkVII:Chap4:Sec1 Chateaubriand refers to Job 38:19-25.
BkXIV:Chap4:Sec1 Chateaubriand quotes Job 4:15-16.
BkXVIII:Chap4Sec1 Chateaubriand quotes Job 37:10.
Jogues, Père Isaac
1607-1646. French Jesuit, martyred in Canada at the hands of the Mohawks.
Johannisberg, Battle of
30th August 1762. The Prince of Condé and Marshal Soubise defeated the Prince of Brunswick in Western Germany.
John, the Divine, Saint
The brother of Saint James the Great, and called one of the Sons of Thunder. The disciple of Saint John the Baptist. Friend of Saint Peter the Apostle. Known as the beloved disciple, during the era of the new Church, he worked in Jerusalem and at Ephesus. He founded churches in Asia Minor and baptized converts in Samaria. He is attributed with the fourth Gospel, three Epistles, and possibly the Book of Revelation.
BkXX:Chap9:Sec1 See John XIX:30.
BkXX:Chap9:Sec3 ‘Behold the Man!’: Pilate’s words to the crowd. See John XIX:5.
BkXXXIX:Chap3:Sec1 The quotation is from Thomas of Celano’s Dies Irae, based on Revelation V.
BkXXXIX:Chap18:Sec1 For the woman of Bethany see John XI:2, for the Woman of Samaria John IV:1-30, and for the woman taken in adultery John VIII:3-11. ‘Woman, why weepest thou? etc comes from John XX:15-16.
John, Chrysostom, Saint
c347-407. A Doctor of the Church, born at Antioch, John, whose surname ‘Chrysostom’ (Chrysostomos, ‘golden-mouthed’ so called on account of his eloquence) occurs for the first time in the ‘Constitution’ of Pope Vigilius in the year 553, is generally considered the most prominent doctor of the Greek Church and the greatest preacher ever heard in a Christian pulpit.
John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster
1340-1399. The fourth son of Edward III, he was born at Ghent. He was Duke of Lancaster from 1362. He tried unsuccessfully to claim Castile through his second wife Constance. In 1396 he married his mistress Catherine Swynford and in 1397 their descendants were legitimised but barred from succession. They included Margaret Beaufort the mother of Henry VII.
BkXXIII:Chap9:Sec1 His birth in Ghent.
1709-1784. The leading literary scholar and critic of his time. His Dictionary of the English Language (1747-1755), edition of Shakespeare and biographies of the poets made him hugely influential.
A smuggler, he reputedly had a project to abduct Napoleon from St Helena.
Joinville, François d’Orléans, Prince de
1818-1900. Third son of Louis-Philippe.
Joinville, Jean, Sire de
1224?–1317? The French chronicler, he was biographer of Louis IX of France (St. Louis). As seneschal (governor) of Champagne, he was a close adviser to Louis, whom he accompanied (1248–54) on the Seventh Crusade. He opposed and refused to take part in the Eighth Crusade. His Mémoires of St. Louis, dictated between 1304 and 1309 for the instruction of Louis X, is an invaluable record of the king, of feudal France, and of the Crusade. It is written in a simple, delightful style, with moving reverence for the saintly and chivalrous king, with a sharp eye for graphic and psychological detail, and with occasional, sly humour.
Preface:Sect4 An example of a writer who was also involved with warfare.
BkXVI:Chap5:Sec1 Chateaubriand quotes from the end of the first part of the Mémoires.
Jomini, Antoine-Henri, Baron and General,
1779-1869. A Swiss general and military writer, he organized (1799) the militia of the Helvetic Republic and after 1804 served as staff officer in the French army. In August 1813, after a clash with Marshal Berthier, he defected to the Russian army, in which a commission had previously been arranged. He rose to high rank, becoming a celebrated authority on strategy. His works include a study of the campaigns of Frederick the Great, Traité des grandes opérations militaires (1804–10); Histoire critique et militaire des guerres de la Révolution (1819–24) on the French Revolutionary Wars; and the influential Précis de l’art de la guerre (1836), which he wrote while military tutor to the future Czar Alexander II. He emphasized the capture of major points and the importance of superior numbers and lines of operation, and he advocated the employment of speed and manoeuvrability rather than battle whenever possible.
1772-1821. French writer and political figure, he was a moderate supporter of the French Revolution, who fled France during the Reign of Terror and again after the coup of Sept. 4, 1797. He befriended Goethe, Schiller, and Herder. Returning to France after Napoleon came to power, he wrote (1802) the widely read pamphlet, Vrai sens du vote national (the true meaning of the national vote), directed against Napoleon. After the Bourbon restoration Jordan was elected (1816) to the chamber of deputies. He was a friend of Madame Récamier.
BkXXVIII:Chap14:Sec1 His death in 1821.
The Jordan flows through Israel, Palestine and Jordan and is 320 km long. The Sea of Galilee is part of the system, as well as the Yarmuk River of Syria.
c 6th century AD. A historian, he lived about the middle of the sixth century in the Eastern Roman Empire. His family was of high standing, either Goth or Alanic, and his grandfather was notary to Candac, King of the Alani in Mæsia. Two of his historical works have come down to us. The one is a history of the Goths, or, perhaps it would be better to say, of Mæsia, it is now commonly entitled: ‘De origine actibusque Getarum’ and is dedicated to his friend Castulus (Castalius), at whose instance it was begun about 551.
BkXXI:Chap1:Sec1 Referenced. De origine: XXIV. Also, XLIX.
Joseph le Roi, see Bonaparte
A Milanese ironmonger.
Joséphine de Beauharnais, Empress
1754-1824. Empress of the French (1804-1809). Born Marie Josèphe Rose Tascher de la Pagerie in Martinique, she was married in 1779 to Alexandre de Beauharnais. Two children were born, Eugène (later viceroy of Italy) and Hortense (later queen of Holland). Josephine's husband was guillotined during the French Revolution, in 1794, but she escaped with brief imprisonment. In 1796 she was married, by a civil ceremony, to Napoleon Bonaparte, whom she had met through Paul Barras. Before Napoleon became emperor, they were remarried in a religious ceremony. Josephine took a prominent part in the social life of the time. Napoleon had the marriage annulled in 1809 because of her alleged infertility, so that he might marry Marie Louise, daughter of the Austrian emperor Francis I (Holy Roman Emperor Francis II). Thereafter Josephine lived in retirement at Malmaison.
BkXVI:Chap6:Sec1 Is supposed to have begged for clemency for the Duc d’Enghien. Chateaubriand considers it a myth.
BkXIX:Chap10:Sec1 His penchant for her in 1795.
BkXX:Chap10:Sec1 She had been crowned Empress in 1804.
BkXXIV:Chap5:Sec1 Napoleon’s private letters to her.
Josephus, Flavius (Joseph ben Mattityahu)
c38-c100AD. The Jewish historian helped to defend Galilee during the Jewish Revolt against the Romans of 66AD. Captured, he accompanied Vespasian to Rome where he wrote his histories, and an autobiography.
BkXIX:Chap18:Sec2 Chateaubriand refers to Josephus’ The Jewish War, VI:320
Wife of Joseph.
Joubert, Barthélemy Catherine, General
1769-1799. In 1791 he joined the volunteers of the Ain and fought with the French army in Italy in 1793. He was in charge of the retaining force at the battle of Rivoli, and in the campaign of 1797 (invasion of Austria) he commanded the detached left wing of Bonaparte’s army in the Tyrol and fought his way through the mountains to rejoin his chief in Styria. He held various commands in Holland, on the Rhine, and in Italy, where up to January 1799 he was commander in chief. Resigning the post in consequence of a dispute with the civil authorities, Joubert returned to France. He was almost immediately summoned to take over the command in Italy from General Moreau; but he persuaded his predecessor to remain at the front and was largely guided by his advice. Joubert and Moreau were compelled to give battle by the Russian commander Suvorov, and Joubert fell at the Battle of Novi, which was a victory for the Austrians and Russians.
BkXXII:Chap15:Sec1 A great general of the Republic.
1754-1824. Philosopher and moralist, he was a friend of Chateaubriand, remembered for his Pensées published posthumously. Joubert published nothing during his lifetime, but he wrote a copious amount of letters and filled sheets of paper and small notebooks with thoughts about the nature of human beings, literature and other topics, in a poignant, often aphoristic style. He was appointed inspector-general of the University under Napoleon. After his death his widow entrusted Chateaubriand with these notes, and in 1838, he published a selection titled Recueil des pensées de M. Joubert (Collected Thoughts of Mr. Joubert).
BkXIII:Chap3:Sec2 Chateaubriand probably stayed with his younger brother Arnaud, called Joubert-Lafond (1768-1854).
BkXIII:Chap9:Sec1 At the theatre with Chateaubriand in Paris in 1802.
BkXIV:Chap5:Sec1 He talked of accompanying Chateaubriand to Rome in 1803.
BkXV:Chap1:Sec1 His concern for Madame de Beaumont.
BkXV:Chap2:Sec1 Chateaubriand writes to him.
BkXV:Chap7:Sec1 Chateaubriand writes to him concerning the Memoirs.
BkXVII:Chap4:Sec1 He corresponds with Chateaubriand.
BkXIX:Chap11:Sec1 He was living in the Yonne valley in 1795.
Chateaubriand remembers him.
BkXXXII:Chap16:Sec1 At the Palais-Royal on the 31st of July 1830.
1794-1838. Son of Joseph.
1762-1833. He fought in the American Revolution, and in the French Revolutionary Wars commanded the Army of the North at Wattignies (1793), won a decisive victory at Fleurus (1794), and led the army of Sambre-et-Meuse into Cologne (1794). He sponsored the law of general conscription (1798) that bore his name. Although initially opposed to the coup of 18th Brumaire (1799), he served Napoleon as ambassador to the Cisalpine Republic (1801) and was made Councillor of State (1802) and Marshal of France (1804). After Napoleon's fall, he rallied to the Bourbons, who later made him a peer.
BkXXIV:Chap7:Sec1 His victory at Fleurus paved the way for later achievements.
Journal de Francfort
Published in French.
Journal des Débats
‘The Journal of Debates’, the former Parisian daily newspaper (ceased 1944) which was one of the most influential organs of the French press in the 19th century. Founded in 1789 by Gaultier de Biauzat to report the debates of the National Assembly, the Journal des Débats was acquired in 1799 by the Bertin family, which retained control of it until 1871. Moderately liberal in its viewpoint, Débats was critical of the Restoration monarchy and the Second Empire but favourable to Louis-Philippe. Chateaubriand was a contributor to its pages in opposition.
BkXVIII:Chap6:Sec1 Hoffman’s critical articles on Les Martyrs in the journal ran from April 7th to July 1807. Bertin, the co-proprietor, was ousted as editor to enable Étienne to become editor in chief from August 1807.
BkXXXII:Chap2:Sec1 Mentioned in 1830.
BkXXXV:Chap7:Sec1 See the editions of 18th June and 21st June 1832.
Journal des Patriotes
The Journal des Patriotes de 1789 appeared from 18th August 1795 to 16th August 1796.
BkXXIII:Chap12:Sec1 Revived 1st May to 3rd July 1815 under the title Patriote de 1789.
The legendary seducer based on a 17th century Spanish nobleman Don Juan Tenorio. Most authorities agree that the first recorded tale of Don Juan was "El Burlador de Sevilla y convidado de piedra" by Tirso de Molina. Many subsequent works have elaborated the legend, including Mozart’s opera Don Giovanni.
BkXXXVIII:Chap6:Sec1 The generic name for a seducer.
Judas Iscariot was the disciple who betrayed Christ according to the Scriptures.
In the Apocrypha account, Judith enters the camp of Holofernes and ingratiates herself with him. She then beheads Holofernes while he is drunk. She returns to Bethulia with the decapitated head, and the Jews subsequently defeat the attacking enemy.
A village in Seine-et-Marne, it derived its name from Julius Caesar. Louis XIII commissioned the order of the Oratory to found a seminary for the education of young nobles. The school was called an Académie Royale and was allowed to quarter the lilies of France with the crown of thorns of the Oratory. Many famous Frenchmen were pupils at the old Collège de Juilly. Montesquieu, La Fontaine, and Jerome Bonaparte were among the number, as were also two of the most famous of England's illegitimate royalties---the Duke of Monmouth and the Duke of Berwick. Bossuet, as Bishop of Meaux, was closely connected with the school, and La Fayette had an estate near by and always showed great fondness for it. In the Library is still preserved a facsimile of the American Declaration of Independence, given by Congress to La Fayette and by him presented to the College. During the Revolution the College was nearly extinguished, most of the Oratorians going to the guillotine during the Terror, the direction of which was largely in the hands of certain radicals who had formerly been on its faculty.
Jules II, Guiliano della Rovere, Pope Julius II
1443-1513. Pope (1503-1513), he ably completed the work, begun by his enemy Cesare Borgia, of restoring the Papal States to the church. Having joined the League of Cambrai, he was at war with Venice until 1509 and won back Ravenna, Rimini, and Faenza. He then formed (1510) the anti-French Holy League. In 1512 he assembled the Fifth Lateran Council, which condemned the Gallicanism of the church in France and abolished simony in the College of Cardinals. Julius was a great patron of art, and Raphael (who painted his portrait), Michelangelo, and Bramante enjoyed his favour. He laid the cornerstone of St. Peter's.
Jules III, Pope Julius III
1487-1555. Pope from February 7, 1550 to 1555, he was the last of the High Renaissance Popes, born at Rome, the son of a famous jurist.
BkXXIX:Chap6:Sec1 His Villa Giulia is only a small part of the building designed in 1550 by many architects and craftsmen involved in the implementation. Ammannati, Vasari, Vignola and Michelangelo all worked there. The villa was divided up after his death, and the main building as well as part of the gardens became the property of the Apostolic Chamber. It was restored in 1769 on initiative of Pope Clement XIV. It became the property of the Reign of Italy in 1870 and was made into a Museum for Etruscan Art at the end of the century.
Julia of Carthage, Saint
5th century. According to legend, Julia was of a noble Carthaginian family who was sold as a slave to a Syrian merchant named Eusebius when Genseric captured Carthage in 439. While on the way to Gaul, the ship on which she was a passenger with her master stopped at Cape Corso in northern Corsica. A heathen festival was just being observed by the islanders when the ship docked. When Julia did not disembark with her master to participate in the pagan ritual, the governor of the island, Felix, discerned that she was a Christian and ordered her to sacrifice to the gods. When she refused to do so, he offered Julia her freedom if she would apostatize. When she still refused, she was martyred.
Julian, Roman Emperor
332-363. Flavius Claudius Julianus, known as the Apostate, was the only non-Christian emperor after Constantine. He embraced Paganism and restored the pagan temples. He was killed fighting the Persians.
BkXXXVII:Chap5:Sec1 Mentioned as a possible suicide.
BkXXXVIII:Chap8:Sec1 See the Palatine Anthology IX:368
BkVIII:Chap5:Sec1 Chateaubriand refers to Letters XXVI and XXVII of the second part of the work.
Jullien de la Drôme, Marc-Antoine the Elder
1744-1821. Deputy for the Drôme during the Convention, he fell with Robespierre but was allowed to retire into private life.
Jullien de Paris, Marc-Antoine the Younger
1775-1848. Son of Marc-Antoine the Elder, he was an intimate of, and private agent for, Robespierre. Imprisoned after Thermidor, in 1796 he obtained a journalistic post in the Army of Italy, and briefly continued his journalistic activity in Naples after the Egyptian Campaign. He later became a noted ‘scientific’ educationalist and theorist, having observed Pestalozzi’s work.
Julien Potelin, called Julien
BkXVIII:Chap1:Sec1 His journal of the Levant voyage.
BkXVIII:Chap4Sec1 His death.
The tragic heroine of Shakespeare’s Romeo and Juliet.
Julien or Jullien, Auguste
b1767. The son of a Geneva-born Paris banker, Louis Julien (c1710-1796), he was the brother of Antoinette-Marguerite Julien, Madame Rilliet (1750-1836).
Junken, Bishop of Dol
Early Eleventh Century.
Junot, Andoche, Duc d’Abrantès
1771-1813. A French general who served under Napoleon Bonaparte in Italy and Egypt. He became ambassador to Portugal (1804–5) and commanded the French invasion of that country in 1807, thus opening the Peninsular War. Appointed governor-general of Portugal, he was forced to evacuate after his defeat by Arthur Wellesley (later the duke of Wellington) in 1808. He also served in Spain, Germany, and Russia. Napoleon created him duke of Abrantès, under which name his wife, Laure Junot, Duchesse d’Abrantès, is generally known. Near the end of his life he became insane, and may have committed suicide.
BkXIX:Chap10:Sec1 With Bonaparte in Paris in 1795. His passion for Paulette.
BkXX:Chap7:Sec1 He entered Portugal on November 17th 1807.
The Roman King of the Gods, a sky god: his Greek counterpart being Zeus.
BkXIX:Chap1:Sec1 BkXIX:Chap14:Sec3 Alexander the Great believed he had been fathered on his mother Olympias by Jupiter Ammon in the form of a serpent. See Plutarch’s Life of Alexander:2 Ammon was an Egyptian and Libyan god, worshipped in the form of a Ram-headed deity, identified by the Romans and Greeks with Jupiter-Zeus.
BkXXIV:Chap11:Sec1 Also called Jove. Juno was Jupiter’s sister and wife. Is Chateaubriand slyly suggesting an incestuous relationship?
BkXXV:Chap8:Sec1 His high priest, the flamen dialis.
BkXXIX:Chap7:Sec3 As a pagan god.
BkXXX:Chap12:Sec1 Jupiter Tonans, the Thunderer, his Temple in Rome was on the Capitoline.
A series of parallel mountain ranges running along the French–Swiss frontier between the Rivers Rhône and Rhine, a distance of 156 miles. The highest peak is Crête de la Neige (5,650 ft). The mountains give their name to the Jura département of France, and in 1979 a Jura canton was established in Switzerland, formed from the French-speaking areas of Berne.
Jussac, Monsieur de
fl. 1684, alive in 1677, he was Captain in Monsieur’s household. Governor to the Duc de Vendôme.
Jussieu, Bernard de
1699-c1777. Naturalist, brother of Antoine (1686-1758, Director of the Jardin des Plantes) was director of the gardens at the Trianon, Versailles; there he arranged the plants according to a new system of classification, which he never published. He revised (1725) Tournefort’s Histoire des plantes qui naissent aux environs de Paris. Another brother, Joseph de Jussieu (1704–79), accompanied La Condamine to South America, where he remained until c.1771. He introduced into Europe many plants, including the heliotrope.
BkV:Chap15:Sec3 His work consulted by Chateaubriand.
Juste Lipse, Justus Lipsius
1547-1606. A Flemish philologist and humanist, the publication of his Variarum Lectionum Libri Tres (1567), which he dedicated to Cardinal Granvella, earned him an appointment as a Latin secretary, and a visit to Rome in the retinue of the cardinal. Here Lipsius remained for two years, devoting his spare time to the study of the Latin classics, collecting inscriptions and examining manuscripts in the Vatican. After travels and teaching posts, he finally settled at Leuven, as professor of Latin in the Collegium Buslidianum.
Justinian, Flavius Petrus Sabbatius Iustinianus
483-565. He was Eastern Roman Emperor from 527 until his death. He is remembered for his reform of the legal code, and was the Emperor who won back the city of Rome from the Ostrogoths.
BkXXXIV:Chap14:Sec1 The Plague of Justinian (541-542) is the first known pandemic, and it also marks the first firmly recorded pattern of bubonic plague. It is comparable to the Black Death of the 14th century, and was nearly world-wide in scope, striking central and south Asia, North Africa and Arabia, and Europe as far north as Denmark and west to Ireland. The plague returned with each generation throughout the Mediterranean basin until about 750. Procopius records its horrors.
Juvenal, Decimus Iunius Iuvenalis
Late 1st early 2nd century. A Roman poet he was the author of the Satires.
BkXLII:Chap6:Sec1 See Satires XIV:215