François de Chateaubriand
Mémoires d’Outre-Tombe: Index C
1743-1805. A Breton diplomat, he negotiated the Treaty of Tolentino (1797). A member of the Legislature, he returned to Rome in February 1801 to negotiate the Concordat with the Pope. He was made a senator in 1804.
BkXIV:Chap7:Sec1 Chateaubriand met him as he relinquished his post in Rome in 1803.
1091-c1147. Dante’s great-great-grandfather, his son was Alighiero I. Cacciaguida’s wife was Alighiera of the Aldighieri family of Ferrara. He took part in Saint Bernard of Clairvaux’s crusade of 1147 under Emperor Conrad III, and was killed during the crusade
BkI:Chap4:Sec2 Chateaubriand quotes Paradiso XVII:58-69, where Cacciaguida foretells Dante’s future, having recalled his ancestry.
Cadet de Gassicourt, Charles-Louis
1769-1821. A pharmacist poet, he published various satires, some on Chateaubriand’s works e.g. Atala ou les Habitants du désert of 1801.
Cadet de Gassicourt, Charles-Louis-Félix
1789-1861. A Liberal activist he became Mayor of the 4th Arrondissement.
BkXXXV:Chap1:Sec1 His proclamation of the 4th of April 1832 included invective against the Carlists.
Cadore, Jean-Baptiste Nompère de Champagny, Duc de
1756-1834. French statesman and diplomat, foreign minister under Napoleon I. In 1804 he became minister of the interior, succeeding Talleyrand as foreign minister in 1807. Champagny was responsible for the annexation of the Papal States, for the abdication of Charles IV of Spain, for the Franco-Russian negotiations at the Congress of Erfurt (all in 1808), and for the Treaty of Schönbrunn between France and Austria (Oct. 14, 1809), for which he was made Duc de Cadore. He also negotiated Napoleon’s marriage to Marie-Louise (1810). In 1811 a disagreement with Napoleon led to Champagny's resignation as foreign minister, but he continued in ministerial and senatorial offices. After Napoleon’s fall Champagny adhered to the restored monarchy and was made a peer of France. His Souvenirs appeared posthumously.
The city and seaport, in Andalusia, in south-west Spain, was founded c1100BC by Phoenician merchants it was taken from the Moors by Alfonso the Wise of Castile in 1262. It prospered as a base for the Spanish treasure fleets, following the discovery of the Americas.
BkXVIII:Chap3Sec1 Chateaubriand there in 1807.
BkXXVIII:Chap18:Sec1 BkXXXVII:Chap2:Sec1 Moreau there in 1804. Chiclana de la Frontera is about five miles north of Barrosa in the Province of Cadiz, where Sir Thomas Graham defeated Marshal Victor on the 5th of March 1811. The Duc d’Angoulême installed his headquarters at Chiclana during the siege of Cadiz in September 1823.
BkXXXIV:Chap15:Sec1 Cadiz was under siege by the British February 1797 to April 1798. The reference to Napoleon is curious as he was campaining in Italy in 1797, and setting out for Egypt in 1798.
BkXXXVII:Chap14:Sec1 The 1823 siege.
1771-1804. French royalist conspirator. A commander of the Chouans, he led the counter-revolutionists in the Vendée. He fled to England in 1801 after the failure of an attempted assassination of Napoleon. In 1803 he returned as the leader of another conspiracy. Generals Pichegru and Moreau were implicated in the plot. Insurrections were planned in Paris and in the provinces, but the conspiracy was uncovered by Fouché, and Cadoudal was executed. The conspiracy, exaggerated in report, was used as a pretext to transform the Consulate into Napoleon’s empire.
BkXXVIII:Chap18:Sec1 His trial mentioned.
The city and port in north-west France, capital of the Calvados department, on the River Orne, was captured by the English in 1346 and again in 1417, and became a Huguenot stronghold in the 17th century.
Caesar, Gaius Julius
100-44BC. The Roman General became a Consul and Dictator from 49 to 44BC when he was assassinated by Brutus, Cassius and the other conspirators.
BkXIX:Chap5:Sec2 Chateaubriand attributes a poetic nature to him.
BkXIX:Chap16:Sec2 Caesar passed through Palestine, Syria and Asia Minor, where he reorganised the provinces before he returned to Rome in 47 BC.
BkXIX:Chap18:Sec2 BkXXIV:Chap4:Sec1 Caesar was fighting as an ally of Cleopatra in Alexandria in 48BC. At one point when the Romans were forced to retreat from land to their docked ships, his own galley was sunk and he had to swim 200 paces to another nearby ship to reach safety.
BkXX:Chap2:Sec2 Anecdotes concerning him.
BkXXII:Chap 20:Sec3 Assassinated in the Senate House on the Ides of March (March 15th 44BC)
BkXXIV:Chap5:Sec1 His literary ability.
BkXXIV:Chap11:Sec1 As a famous Italian military man.
BkXXVIII:Chap20:Sec1 His greatness of spirit lacking in Napoleon.
BkXXXIII:Chap4:Sec1 As a historian.
BkXXXIX:Chap11:Sec1 His age of the world.
Caesarea, Maritima or Palaestina, Israel
The town built by Herod the Great about 25 –13 BC, lies on the sea-coast of Israel about halfway between Tel Aviv and Haifa, on the site of a place previously called Pyrgos Stratonos (‘Strato’ or ‘Straton’s Tower,’ in Latin Turris Stratonis).
Caffarelli du Falga, Louis Marie Joseph Maximilien de
1756-1799. Brilliant commander of the army of the Orient, he had his elbow smashed by a bullet at the siege of Acre. He had already lost his left leg to a cannonball on November 27, 1797, as he was serving under Kléber in the army of Sambre-et-Meuse. In Egypt he was known and adored by the entire army. The soldiers liked to say of him: ‘Caffa doesn't give a damn what happens; he’s always sure to have one foot in France.’ He was also a philosopher, who was elected to the Institute of Egypt on February 13, 1796 in the class of moral and political sciences. He was part of the commission in charge of drafting the regulations of the Institute of Egypt and accompanied Napoleon on the surveys to trace the route of what would one day be the Suez Canal. Stricken with gangrene he died of a fever. Napoleon wrote in the order of the day: ‘Our universal regrets accompany General Caffarelli to the grave; the army is losing one of its bravest leaders. Egypt one of its legislators, France one of its best citizens, and science, an illustrious scholar.’
Caffarelli Palace, Rome
A seventeenth century palace built by Duke Caffarelli on the Capitoline Hill, on the ancient site of Jupiter’s temple to the south-west. Chateaubriand negotiated with Baron Bunsen for a let of the Palace.
A contact made by Chateaubriand on his travels.
Cagliostro, Alessandro, Conte di, (Giuseppe Balsamo)
1743-1795. An Italian adventurer, his pretended skills in alchemy and magic gained him fame in Paris and throughout Europe. He was arrested for promoting freemasonry and died in prison in Italy.
Cahuzac, Henri-Roger, Comte de, see de Caux
The capital of Egypt, in the north on the east bank of the Nile, the Arabic city of El Fustat was founded in 641AD, and from the 9th century as El Qahira it was the capital of the Fatimid, Ayyubite, and Mameluke dynasties. It declined following the Turkish conquest in the 16th century, but revived in the 18th century under Mehemet Ali.
Chateaubriand was there in 1806.
BkXIX:Chap14:Sec2 Napoleon entered Cairo (four miles distant) two days after the Battle of the Pyramids (fought on the 21st of July 1798). Napoleon made his headquarters what is now the Helwan-Shepard Hotel, a former Mameluke Palace.
BkXXIII:Chap8:Sec1 An example of French influence.
BkXXXVIII:Chap6:Sec1 A reference perhaps to the 10th century Al-Azhar mosque with its many-pillared interior.
The port in Northern France, in the Pas-de-Calais department, was besieged and captured by Edward III in 1346 and remained in British hands until 1558.
BkXII:Chap6:Sec1 BkXIII:Chap3:Sec1 Chateaubriand landed there from Dover on the 6th May (16th Floréal) 1800. His expressed regrets at leaving England were possibly to do with a liaison with Madame de Belloy.
Calcutta (Kolkata), India
The capital of the Indian state of West Bengal, it is located in eastern India on the east bank of the River Hooghly. The city served as the capital of India during the British Raj until 1911.
It was the location of a wartime engagement in Italy in 1813.
fl:1340-1360. He was a Venetian architect.
BkXXXIX:Chap19:Sec1 His work on the Ducal Palace. The 13th/14th century palace was built between 1340 and 1420. The main features visible today are 14th and 15th century.
Caligula, Gaius Caesar
12-41AD. A Roman Emperor (37-41) he was the son of Germanicus Caesar and Agrippina the Elder. Succeeding Tiberius he initially enjoyed great popularity but his subsequent tyrannical and extravagant behaviour brought allegations of madness. He was assassinated.
BkXLII:Chap14:Sec1 As an example of a tyrannical ruler.
Callisthenes of Olynthus
c360-328BC. A Historian and biographer of Alexander the Great, whom he accompanied to Asia, he was a great-nephew and pupil of Aristotle. His Greek history (covering the years 387-356) and three books on the Third Sacred War are lost. During the campaign, Callisthenes’ main duty was to write the Alexandrou praxeis or Deeds of Alexander. In Babylon, Callisthenes supervised the translation of the Astronomical diaries, which were used by Callipus of Cyzicus to reform the Greek calendars. In the summer of 327, Callisthenes voiced protests against the introduction of proskynesis (an aspect of the Persian court ritual) among the Macedonians, and lost Alexander's favour. He died in prison from torture or disease.
c1592-1635. A French etcher and engraver, in the service of Cosimo II de' Medici, he created many works: the Capricci, small, vivacious figure groups; gay scenes of Medici court life; the vast Fair at Impruneta (1620); and sparkling illustrations of the theatre among them his Commedia dell'arte group, which was reproduced in his Balli (1621). On Cosimo’s death in 1621, Callot returned to Nancy and, under the patronage of the ducal court, gained a considerable reputation. He became known for his fantasies, grotesques, beggars, and caricatures, then much in vogue. He was commissioned in 1627 by the Infanta Isabella of Brussels to engrave the siege of Breda, and by Louis XIII to etch the sieges of Rochelle and the island of Ré and a series, Views of Paris. Too independent for court favour and deeply affected by the scenes of carnage he had witnessed, he retired to Nancy, where he executed in 1633 his masterwork, the two series entitled Miseries of War. These studies of human brutality and suffering were the first dispassionate, un-romanticized treatment of the horror of war. Callot produced nearly 1,500 plates and 2,000 drawings in a wide variety of styles and subjects. The grandeur and brilliance of his work profoundly influenced many major masters, including Goya, Rembrandt and Watteau. His technical innovations established important procedures for subsequent etchers.
Calonne, Charles-Alexandre de
1734-1802 A French statesman, he was Controller-General of Finances (1783-87). Faced with a huge public debt and a steadily deteriorating financial situation, he adopted a spending policy to inspire confidence in the nation's financial position. He then proposed a direct land tax and the calling of provincial assemblies to apportion it, a stamp tax, and the reduction of some privileges of the nobles and clergy. To gain support, he persuaded King Louis XVI to call an Assembly of Notables, but the Assembly (1787) refused to consider Calonne’s proposals and criticized him bitterly. Dismissed and replaced by Étienne Charles Loménie de Brienne, Calonne fled (1787) to England, where he stayed until 1802. In 1766 he was Procureur-Général of the commission instituted to try La Chalotais.
BkIX:Chap1:Sec1 Declared a traitor in December 1791.
1509-1564. The French Protestant reformer and founder of Calvinism, whose attempts to institute reforms in Geneva in 1536 lead to his exile in 1538. After preaching in Strasbourg he was invited back to Geneva in 1541 living there as its virtual dictator until his death. He sought to re-shape Geneva as a model community where every citizen came under the sway of the Church.
BkXXII:Chap 26:Sec1 Mentioned.
In the Casentino region near Florence, Camaldoli is inhabited by Carthusians, and surrounded by pine forests, from the heights above which, on a clear day, may be seen the Mediterranean and Adriatic.
Camargo, Marie Anne de Cupis de
1710-1770 Born in Brussels. Famous dancer in the Paris Opera Ballet Corps. Debuted at 15 in 1726. Later, mistress of the Comte de Clemont.
Cambacérès, Prince Jean-Jaques Régis de
1753-1824 French revolutionary and legislator, he was deputy to the National Convention and to the Council of Five Hundred, second consul under Napoleon (1799-1804), and Arch-Chancellor of the empire. Throughout his career, his chief interest was in developing the principles of revolutionary jurisprudence. He played a major part in the preparation of the Code Napoléon. In 1808, he was made duke of Parma. Minister of Justice in the Hundred Days (1815), he was exiled after the restoration of the monarchy until 1818.
BkXVIII:Chap8:Sec2 He was a member of the Academy (restored by Bonaparte in 1803) until 1816 when he was expelled. He was regarded as a regicide but his attitude at Louis XVI’s trial was more complex and he suggested a deferred sentence.
BkXIX:Chap9:Sec3 The order was issued on 29th Fructidor Year III (15th September 1795), under Cambacères presidency.
BkXXI:Chap4:Sec4 Napoleon’s unintelligible orders to him in 1812.
BkXXII:Chap18:Sec1 Welcomed the Provisional Government’s condemnation of Napoleon in April 1814.
BkXXXVIII:Chap1:Sec1 His numerous nephews mentioned.
Cambacérès, Marie Jean-Pierre Hubert de
1798-1881 Nephew of Prince Jean, and page to the Emperor, he was a cavalry Officer, and then lawyer. He was a Senator, and Grand-Master of Ceremonies to Napoleon III. His brother was Etienne-Armande Napoleon (1804-1878), Deputy for the Aisne.
The town in north-east France, in the Nord department where Cambric was first made in the 16th century.
BkIII:Chap14:Sec2 The Navarre Regiment garrisoned there.
BkIV:Chap3:Sec3 Chateaubriand leaves Paris en route there in 1786.
Chateaubriand there in 1815. The League of Cambrai, 1508–10, was an alliance formed by the Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian I, King Louis XII of France, Pope Julius II, King Ferdinand V of Aragón, and several Italian city-states against the republic of Venice to check its territorial expansion.
Cambyses II of Persia
d522BC King of Persia (529–522) who extended Persian rule throughout the Nile Valley. He was the son and successor of Cyrus the Great. He invaded Egypt, defeating (525BC) Psamtik at Pelusium and sacking Memphis. His further plans of conquest in Africa were frustrated. Cambyses died, possibly by suicide, while putting down an insurrection at home. Darius I succeeded him.
BkXIX:Chap16:Sec2 His return to Persia via Palestine.
1551-1623. English antiquarian and historian. He wrote the first topographical survey of Britain, and the first detailed historical account of the reign of Elizabeth I.
BkX:Chap7:Sec1 He was a conscientious scholar in editing old manuscripts and in collecting materials of antiquarian interest, many of which were in the British Museum at this time.
BkXI:Chap5:Sec1 Chateabriand had examined several manuscripts with a view to translating them.
1500-1574. A German classical scholar, humanist and reformer he was born at Bamberg, Bavaria. His family name was Liebhard, but he was generally called Kammermeister, previous members of his family having held the office of chamberlain (camerarius) to the bishops of Bamberg.
She is a warrior maiden in the Wars of early Latium. See Virgil’s Aeneid Book XI:532 et al.
Camoëns, Luiz vaz de, (Luís de Camões)
1524-80 The Portuguese poet, born in Lisbon, he travelled to the Red Sea, Persia and Mozambique and spent some years in Goa, India. After his return to Lisbon in 1572, he published ‘The Lusiads’ recalling the voyages of Vasco da Gama - a work that became the national epic of Portugal.
Preface:Sect4 An example of a writer who travelled extensively.
BkVI:Chap3:Sec1 The Tagus is the great river of Spain and Portugal, which enters the Atlantic at Lisbon. Camoëns ended his days in poverty.
BkVIII:Chap4:Sec1 His Endechas a Barbara escrava, lyric verses for a Barbarian slave-girl.
BkXX:Chap7:Sec1 A reference to the Lusiads.
BkXL:Chap2:Sec2 His death.
Campbell, Sir Neil
1776-1827. English Commissioner for Elba in 1814 (3 May 1814 - 26 Feb 1815, resident). He kept an intimate diary of his time on Elba. He was Governor of Sierra Leone 1826 until his death December 1827.
1777-1844. The Scottish poet is best known for his war poems ‘Hohenlinden, ‘The Battle of the Baltic,’ and ‘Ye Mariners of England.’ Among his other volumes of poetry are The Pleasure of Hope (1799), Gertrude of Wyoming (1809); and Theodric (1824).
BkXII:Chap3:Sec1 Mentioned as a recognised living poet in 1822.
Campo-Formio, Peace Treaty of
The peace treaty between France and Austria, signed near Campo Formio, a village near Udine, north-eastern Italy, then part of Venetia. It marked the end of the early phases of the French Revolutionary Wars. The treaty generally ratified the preliminary Peace of Leoben, signed at the conclusion of Napoleon Bonaparte’s Italian campaign. Bonaparte signed for France, Count Cobenzl for Austria. Austria ceded its possessions in the Low Countries (the present-day Belgium) to France and secretly promised France the left bank of the Rhine, pending later ratification by the estates of the Holy Roman Empire. The republic of Venice, invaded despite its attempts to maintain neutrality, was dissolved and partitioned; all Venetia east of the Adige, as well as Istria and Dalmatia, passed to Austria; the present provinces of Bergamo and Brescia went to the newly founded Cisalpine Republic; the Ionian Islands went to France.
Campo-Franco, Princes de, see Lucchesi-Palli.
1771-1844. A Neo-classical painter of historical scenes, living in Rome and occupying official posts as the Inspector General of Museums and Curator of the Vatican collection.
The small Arab town of Kafr Cana, north of Nazareth, is considered to be the site of the First Miracle, where Jesus changed water to wine.
Canaletto, Giovanni Antonio Canal
1697-1768. A Venetian artist famous for his landscapes, or vedute of Venice, he was a son of the painter Bernardo Canal, hence his nickname Canaletto.
Canaris (Kanaris), Constantine
c1793-1877. Greek patriot, admiral, and politician, he distinguished himself in the Greek War of Independence, notably at Tenedos, where he destroyed (1822) the flagship of the Turkish admiral. Kanaris served several terms as minister of the navy and as premier in 1848–49, and became increasingly active in political life. In 1862 he was a leader in the revolution that ousted King Otto and put George I on the Greek throne. Under George I, he was premier in 1864–65 and in 1877.
BkXXVIII:Chap9:Sec1 His letter to his son (he had several, some distinguished, of whom Miltiades, the Admiral and Minister,1822-1899, was one. The eldest was Nicholas, 1818-1848). It was in the strait between Samos and Mount Mycale, during the Greek War of Independence, that Canaris set fire to and blew up a Turkish frigate, in the presence of the army that had been assembled for the invasion of the island, a success that led to the abandonment of the enterprise, and Samos held its own to the very end of the war.
A fishing village (Ille-et-Vilaine, near Mont St Michel) on the Emerald Coast, first became famous for its oysters which were supplied to royal tables in the 17th and 18th centuries. It was popular later with painters for its scenic charm. The walk from the famous Cancale rock up to the Pointe du Grohin gives superb views of Mont St Michel on a clear day.
BkI:Chap7:Sec1 Chateaubriand passed through in May 1777.
The Feast of the Purification of the Virgin on February 2nd.
The Canephori are sculptured figures of youths and maidens bearing baskets on their heads. In ancient Greece the Canephori carried the sacred objects necessary at the feast of the gods. See the Parthenon frieze.
Cange, Charles du Fresne, Sieur Du
1610–1688. French medieval historian and philologist, he is principally known for his Glossarium mediae et infimae Latinitatis (glossary of medieval and late Latin, 1678). It remains the greatest collection ever made of the forms of early Medieval Latin and the oldest Romance languages.
Canino, Prince de, see Lucien Bonaparte
A resort in the Alpes Maritimes department on the French Riviera, developed after Lord Brougham’s purchase of a villa there in 1834.
1770-1827 British statesman, Foreign Secretary (1807-8 and 1822-27), and Prime Minister, briefly, in 1827, he opposed the French Revolution. He resigned as Foreign Secretary in 1809 in opposition to the management of the Napoleonic Wars. Castlereagh challenged him to a duel in which he was slightly hurt. He again became Foreign Secretary after Castlereagh’s suicide. He supported the revolt of Spain’s American Colonies (1823) and the War of Greek Independence (1825-1827). In 1809 he helped found John Murray’s Quarterly Review with Walter Scott.
Preface:Sect1 Chateaubriand mentions meeting him.
Preface:Sect3. Mentioned, by Chateaubriand, as dying young.
BkX:Chap4:Sec1 Present at the Literary Fund annual meeting in 1822, he was a friend of Chateaubriand. His speech was reported in the Times of the 22nd May. He was President of the Board of Control (in London) of the East India Company from 1816-1821. He had accepted the post of Governor-General of India in April 1822.
BkX:Chap11:Sec1 BkXXVII:Chap6:Sec1 In April 1822, Canning had accepted the post of Governor--general of India in an attempt to escape from his poverty. The post carried an annual salary of £25,000. However, Castlereagh’s suicide left open the post of Foreign Secretary, to which Canning was appointed in September 1822, serving in this capacity until he became Prime Minister in April 1827 following the death of Lord Liverpool.
BkXII:Chap3:Sec1 Mentioned as a man of letters in 1822.
BkXXVII:Chap2:Sec1 His Catholic Peers Bill of 1822.
BkXXVII:Chap9:Sec1 His likely appointment as Foreign Secretary.
BkXXXIII:Chap9:Sec1 Chateaubriand’s correspondence with him.
BkXXXIX:Chap3:Sec1 He died in 1827.
Canning, née Joan Scott, Lady
1776-1837. She and George Canning had four children including Charles John 1st Viscount Canning Governor-General of India.
BkX:Chap7:Sec1 Present at Chateaubriand’s reception in 1822.
1757-1822 An Italian sculptor, he was called ‘the supreme minister of beauty,’ and ‘a unique and truly divine man’ by contemporaries, and was considered the greatest sculptor of his time. Despite his lasting reputation as a champion of Neoclassicism, his earliest works displayed a late Baroque or Rococo sensibility that was appealing to his first patrons, nobility from his native Venice. In competition, he produced his statuette of Apollo Crowning Himself, a work inspired by ancient art that came to define the Neo-classical style. The success of the Apollo enabled the young sculptor to obtain a block of marble for his next work on a large scale, Theseus and the Minotaur, which established his reputation. From the moment of its completion, it was the talk of Rome. From then until his death, his renown grew throughout Europe.
Preface:Sect3. Mentioned by Chateaubriand.
BkXXVII:Chap3:Sec2 His 11-foot high statue of Napoleon as Mars of 1810 is displayed at the Duke of Wellington’s London residence Apsley House. It was acquired by the Prince Regent in 1816 and offered to Wellington.
BkXXXIX:Chap7:Sec1 Canova’s pyramidal Tomb in the Frari in Venice was created by his pupils from his design for Titian’s tomb. Of his remains, his heart is in the Frari tomb, his body in his native church at Possagno. He produced four variants on the Hebe, the last is in the Forli Museum, while his Magdalen is in the Hermitage Museum.
The Cantal is the southern part of the Auvergne Volcanoes National Park, a relatively unknown part of the Massif Central in France.
Capefigue, Jean-Baptiste Honoré Raymond
1802-1872. A writer for La Quotidienne in 1827, he collaborated on a number of papers under the July Monarchy, land was also a prolific Royalist historian.
Capelan, correctly Caparan, Abbé Arnaud-Thomas
1754-1826. A native of Dol, later professor at Rome.
BkXI:Chap5:Sec1 Taught Chateaubriand Hebrew in London in 1798-99.
Capellari, Bartolomeo Alberto, Cardinal
1765–1846, The future Pope, Gregory XVI (1831–46), born in Belluno; successor of Pius VIII. In 1783 he became a Camaldolite and was (1825) created cardinal. Gregory was a conservative both in politics and theology, and he was continually opposed by liberals throughout Europe. In 1831 the Carbonari outbreaks spread to Rome, and only Austrian help suppressed them. He nearly came to an open break over anticlerical legislation in Spain and Portugal, and he had a long controversy with Prussia. Gregory was actively interested in propagating the faith in England and the United States. He was succeeded by Pius IX.
Preface:Sect1 Chateaubriand mentions meeting him.
BkXXX:Chap1:Sec1 A candidate for the Papacy in 1829.
BkXXX:Chap1:Sec2 An anti-Jesuit voter.
BkXXX:Chap4:Sec1 Supported as a candidate by France.
Capelle, Guillaume Antoine Benoît, Baron
1775-1843. Secretary General of the Alpes Maritimes (1800), he was Prefect of the Mediterranean (1808), and Léman (1810). He was suspended by Napoleon for leaving his post in Geneva, in 1813, when the Austrians approached. Her remained in prison until Napoleon’s fall, and then went over to the Bourbons. He signed the July 1830 decrees, and was condemned to prison for life, but released by Louis-Philippe.
BkXXXI:Chap7:Sec1 Joined the Cabinet as Minister for Commerce in May 1830, and created the ministry of Public Works.
BkXXXVII:Chap6:Sec1 He had taken refuge in Holland.
The Capetians were the ruling dynasty of France from 987 to 1328. Hugh Capet founded the dynasty.
c940-996. The son of the Count of Paris, Hugh seized the throne after the failure of the Carolingian line.
The title was given to the Chief Admiral of the Turkish Ottoman fleet.
BkXX:Chap2:Sec2 The landing at Aboukir of 25th March 1801.
The southern summit of the Capitoline Hill of Rome, but used as a name for the whole Hill.
Capo-D’Istria, Giovanni Antonio, Count
1776–1831. A Greek and Russian statesman, b. Corfu, after administrative work in the Ionian Islands he entered (1809) Russian service and was until 1822 a close adviser in foreign affairs to Czar Alexander I; he represented Russia at the Congress of Vienna. After his resignation and retirement to Switzerland in 1822, he actively elicited support for Greek independence. In 1827 the Greek national assembly elected him president of Greece. He was a dedicated reformer, and by both his military and diplomatic policies between 1828 and 1831 he helped Greece secure larger boundaries than it otherwise would have. However, his excessively ambitious modernization programs as well as his autocratic methods, nepotism, factionalism, and Russian affiliations aroused opposition and led to his assassination.
Preface:Sect1 Chateaubriand mentions meeting him.
Capponi, Gino, Marquis
1792-1876. A member of an old Florentine family, and a great traveller in his youth, he had lived in Vienna, London and Paris. In Florence from 1821, he played a major role in the political and intellectual life of the Risorgimento, as head of the liberal party.
BkXXX:Chap5:Sec1 In Rome in March 1829.
The Roman Capreae, the Italian island lies at the south-west entrance to the Bay of Naples. Its mild climate and fine scenery attracted the Romans to build there, and the Emperor Tiberius retired there.
Capua was the royal capital of ancient Campania, at the time of the Wars in Latium, described in Virgil’s Aeneid. Proverbially in French it stands for excessive luxury. See Baudelaire’s The Voyage.
The Order of Friars Minor Capuchin, an independent order of Franciscans founded in Italy in 1525–1528 and dedicated to preaching and missionary work.
BkXXXV:Chap14:Sec1 The Capuchin hospice on the Saint-Gothard Pass.
BkXXXIX:Chap9:Sec1 Their monastery in Venice on San Cristoforo.
Caraman, Victor-Louis-Charles Riquet de, Marquis, then Duc de
1762-1839. In his youth he travelled extensively. As an émigré he associated with the Duc de Richelieu. Sent as Ambassador to Berlin in 1814, he was made a Marquis in 1815. He was then made Ambassador to Vienna until 1828.
BkXXVIII:Chap3:Sec1 Chateaubriand writes to him in Vienna in 1824.
BkXXXII:Chap10:Sec1 In the Chamber of Peers on 30th July 1830.
Caraman, Georges de Riquet, Comte de
1790-1860. Diplomat. Son of the Marquis.
BkVI:Chap1:Sec1 First secretary in London from 1816. Chateaubriand had him moved to Stuttgart.
The Carbonari (‘charcoal-burners’) were members of a secret society in early 19th century Italy which advocated constitutional government. They emerged as opponents of Murat’s rule in Naples and spread widely in Northern Italy, paving the way for the unification of Italy.
BkXLII:Chap3:Sec1 The French Carbonari were organised on the Italian model.
A town in south west France, it is the capital of the Aude. The medieval fortified town is on the right bank of the River Aude, the modern town on the left bank.
He was a member of the escort for Pius VII on his journey to France after his arrest.
The town near Ajaccio, settled by Greek Mainotes in the seventeenth century,
Carignan, Eugène de Savoie, Prince de
1753-1785. Younger son of the Sardinian royal family, and brother of the Princess de Lamballe, married Élisabeth Magon de Boisgarein. Though the Magons were one of the richest commercial families of Saint-Malo, the marriage was considered a misalliance, and dissolved by an act of Parlement.
BkII:Chap3:Sec2 The marriage mentioned.
Carignan, Élisabeth-Anne de Boisgarein, Princesse de
1765-1834. Wife of Prince de Carignan.
Carline, Marie-Gabrielle Malagrida
1763-1818 Actress at the Théâtre-Italien.
Carlsbad (Karlovy Vary)
A spa city situated in the western part of the Czech Republic on the confluence of the Ohře and Teplá rivers. Karlovy Vary is named after Emperor Charles IV, who founded the city in the 1370s. It is historically famous for its hot springs.
BkXXXVIII:Chap1:Sec1 Chateaubriand arrived there on Friday 31st of May 1833, departing again on the evening of the 1st of June. In 1711, Mlýnské lázně (Mill Baths, Mühlenbad), the first public spa facility in Carlsbad, were built on the site of the present Mlýnský pramen (Mill Spring). They were re-built in 1762 with a financial contribution from Maria Theresa.
BkXXXVIII:Chap2:Sec1 A tour of the town. The Sprudel is the principal spring which now rises inside the 1879 Sprudel Colonnade. The hot mineral waters, Sprudelkessel, rise from the hard Sprudelschale rock. The 16th century Cemetery Church of St Andrew is on Ondřejská Street. The oldest Carlsbad church it was originally in Gothic Style: the adjacent cemetery was de-consecrated in 1911, and became the Mozart Park.
Originally a short jacket with metal buttons, introduced in to France by workers from Carmagnola in Piedmont, it became popular in Marseilles, and was brought to Paris by the Federalists. Worn with black woollen trousers, red or tricoulour waistcoats, and red caps it was taken up by the Jacobins. It was also the name of a dance and a popular song. Like the Ça ira it was banned by Napoleon when he became First Consul.
BkXXIII:Chap20:Sec2 Revolutionary wear.
A well-known mountain ridge in Palestine, usually called in the Hebrew Bible Hakkarmel (with the definite article), ‘the garden’ or ‘the garden-land.’ In later Hebrew it is known simply as Karmel, and in modern Arabic as Kurmul, or more commonly as Jebel Mar Elias (Mountain of St. Elias). At its extremity, near the sea, Mount Carmel looks like a bold promontory which all but runs into the waves of the Mediterranean. This north-western end of Carmel is about nine miles southwest of Acre.
BkXVIII:Chap2:Sec1 Chateaubriand sees it for the first time on 30th September 1806.
The Roman Catholic religious order founded in the mid 12th century by St Berthold (d. c 1195) who claimed direct inspiration from Elijah and established a monastery on Mount Carmel. In the 16th century the order was reformed by St Teresa of Avila.
BkIII:Chap4:Sec1 BkIV:Chap12:Sec2 BkIX:Chap4:Sec1 BkXIV:Chap8:Sec1 On the 10th of August 1792 the people of Paris marched on the Tuileries. The fall of the constitutional monarchy was followed by the September massacres. On Sunday 2nd September a small gang of armed men burst into the Carmelite Convent off the Rue de Vaugirard where a hundred and fifty priests had been imprisoned, and slaughtered them. This was the first of many massacres in the prisons of Paris over the next few days.
1753-1823. A French revolutionary, he was known as the organizer of victory, for his role in the French Revolutionary Wars. A military engineer by training, Carnot became the military genius of the Revolution. A member of the Legislative Assembly, the Convention, and the Committee of Public Safety, he made himself almost indispensable through his military knowledge. After the fall of Robespierre, Carnot managed to avoid punishment for his own part in the Terror and became a member of the Directory. He was ousted from the Directory in the coup of 18 Fructidor (September 1797) and fled abroad. He returned in 1799 and served as Minister of War (1800) and in the tribunate under Napoleon. In the next few years he wrote several works on mathematics and military engineering; in 1810 appeared his masterpiece, De la défense des places fortes, long considered the classic work on fortification. Carnot was the best-known advocate of the principle of active defence. In 1814 he returned to active service and conducted the defence of Antwerp. In the Hundred Days he served as minister of the interior. Exiled after the restoration of the monarchy, he died in Magdeburg, Prussia.
BkXIX:Chap12:Sec1 A letter from Bonaparte to him of 9th May 1796.
BkXIX:Chap12:Sec2 He was ousted in the coup of 4th September 1797 (18th Fructidor) when the monarchists were elminated from the Directory.
BkXXII:Chap15:Sec3 The quotation is from his Mémoire au Roi (1814).
BkXXII:Chap 24:Sec1 His Mémoire addressé au Roi en juillet 1814 was a violent indictment of the Restoration.
BkXXIII:Chap12:Sec1 Suggested by the liberals as War Minister in 1815.
Charon (Fr: Caron)
In Greek myth, he is the boatman of the underworld who conveys the dead across the River Styx to Hades.
Carracci, Annibale, and Augustino
1560-1609. A Bolognese painter, Annibale worked with his brother Augustino (1557-1602).
BkXXIX:Chap5:Sec1 The Carraccis and their pupils decorated (1597-1608) the great halls of the Farnese Palace in Rome.
Carrel, Jean-Baptiste Nicolas Armand
1800-1836. A Historian and journalist, after first becoming a soldier and fighting for the Catalonian Foreign Legion, he became known as a writer in various periodicals; but it was not till he formed his connection with the National that he became a power in France. The National was at first conducted by Adolphe Thiers, François Mignet and Carrel in collaboration; but after the revolution of July, Thiers and Mignet assumed office, and the whole management was left to Carrel. Under his direction the journal became the foremost political organ in Paris. As the defender of democracy he had to face serious dangers. He was twice involved in duels with editors of rival papers, before the dispute which led to his final duel with Émile de Girardin which was minor, and might have been amicably settled had it not been for Carrel’s own obstinacy. The meeting took place on the morning of July 22 1836. De Girardin was wounded in the thigh, Carrel in the groin. The wound was at once seen to be dangerous, and Carrel was conveyed to the house of a friend, where he died after two days.
BkXXII:Chap15:Sec3 Friend of Chateaubriand.
BkXXXII:Chap2:Sec1 Resisted the attempt to seize the National’s presses on the 27th July 1830.
BkXXXII:Chap4:Sec1 At a meeting of the monarchist party on 28th July 1830.
BkXXXIV:Chap8:Sec1 Dined with Chateaubriand in Paris on the 13th of September 1831. Chateaubriand left for Paris on the 2nd and returned on the 14th. The Café de Paris was on the Boulevard des Italiens.
BkXXXIV:Chap9:Sec1 His friendship with Chateaubriand. His Mémoires sur la guerre de Catalogne (1828).
BkXXXV:Chap26:Sec1 Present at Chateaubriand’s trial in 1833.
BkXXXIX:Chap3:Sec1 Mentioned in 1833.
BkXLII:Chap4:Sec1 Chateaubriand’s description of his life and politics.
BkXLII:Chap4:Sec2 His imprisonment, and death in a duel. His opponent was Émile de Girardin, editor of La Presse. He was born on the 8th of May 1800 in Rouen, on the day Chateaubriand left Calais for Paris. His tomb at Saint-Mandé has a statue of Carrel by D’Angers.
She was the sister of Armand.
1756-1794. A French revolutionary, he was a prominent Jacobin. He was guilty of atrocities at Nantes.
BkXIX:Chap10:Sec1 Guillotined in 1794.
According to Rousseau he was Titular Secretary to the Spanish Embassy in Venice, chargé d’affaires in Sweden, and Secretary to the Spanish Embassy in Paris. He took the name Chevalier de Carron.
BkXXXIX:Chap12:Sec1 Mentioned in Rousseau’s Confessions.
Carron, Abbe Guy-Toussaint-Joseph
1760-1821 Biographer. Born in Rennes, he was exiled to Jersey in 1790 with other recalcitrant priests. In London, where he lived from 1792 to 1814, in 1796 he founded two schools, a hospital and seminary. Returning to Paris he directed the Marie-Thérèse Institute (1814) and was a mentor to Lamennais.
BkXI:Chap2:Sec4 Emigrated to London.
The port is in south-east Spain in Murcia on the Mediterranean Sea. Founded by the Carthaginians, it was destroyed in 1243 by Ferdinand II of Castile, but under Philip II of Spain became a major port in the 16th century. It is Spain’s main naval base.
Carteaux, Jean Baptiste François, General
1751-1813. A French painter who became a general in the Revolutionary Army. He is notable chiefly for being the young Napoleon Bonaparte’s incompetent commander at the siege of Toulon in 1793.
BkXIX:Chap11:Sec1 Present in Paris during Vendémiaire, 1795.
An ancient city of North Africa, near modern Tunis, it was traditionally founded by Dido of Tyre in 814BC. It became a major Phoenician force in the Mediterranean, It fought three major wars with Rome in a century (246-146BC) and finally defeated, was totally destroyed. Re-founded by Julius Caesar in 45BC, it became a commercial, cultural and administrative capital of Roman Africa, the capital of the Vandal Kingdom (439-533 AD) and a Byzantine outpost until destroyed by the Muslims in 697AD.
BkVIII:Chap5:Sec2 Carthage, Texas.
BkXXXVI:Chap8:Sec1 Chateaubriand was there in 1807. The ancient city stood on the Hill of Byrsa. The Romans levelled the hill burying a few remnants of the city which have been excavated: in Chateaubriand’s time there was little to see of the original city.
BkXVIII:Chap3Sec3 BkXVIII:Chap8:Sec1 Chateaubriand on the harbours of Carthage. The ancient artificial harbour, the Cothon, is represented today by two lagoons north of the bay of al-Karm (el-Kram). In the 3rd century BC it had two parts, the outer rectangular part being for merchant shipping, the interior, circular division being reserved for warships; sheds and quays were available for 220 warships. The harbour’s small size probably means that it was used chiefly in winter when navigation almost ceased. Megara was the southern suburb of the city, south of Byrsa and the citadel, near the Bay of Tunis.
BkXVIII:Chap4Sec1 Punic means Carthaginian. The Latin adjective Punicus is derived from the Greek Phoinix, meaning Phoenician.
BkXXII:Chap 26:Sec1 It’s traditional foundation by Dido in 814BC.
A minor order of monks of the Roman Catholic Church, it was established by St. Bruno at La Grande Chartreuse near Grenoble in France in 1084. The Carthusians are peculiar among orders of Western monasticism in cultivating a nearly eremitical life: each monk lives by himself with cell and garden and, except for communal worship, scarcely meets the others. No order is more austere. The Carthusian enclosure is called a charterhouse in English, and its architecture differs necessarily from that of the Benedictine abbey. The Charterhouse of London was famous, and the Certosa di Pavia, Italy, is an architectural monument.
BkXIII:Chap4:Sec1 The Chartreuse de Paris, demolished during the Revolution.
BkXVII:Chap5:Sec1 La Grande-Chartreuse, the mother-house of the Order lies in a high valley of the Alps of Dauphine, at an altitude of 4268 feet, fourteen miles north of Grenoble. Medieval writers were awestruck by the desolation of the spot, and Martene, who visited it in 1760, writes: ‘One cannot conceive how it could enter into the mind of man, to establish a community in a spot so horrible and so barren as this.’
1491-1557 French sailor born at Saint-Malo. Jean La Veneur recommended Cartier to François I who charged him with discovering unknown lands between Newfoundland and Labrador and to find a new passage towards India and China. He began a series of sponsored voyages to North America and took possession of Canada in the name of the King of France in 1534.
BkI:Chap4:Sec5 A native of Saint-Malo.
BkVI:Chap5:Sec3 Explored along the coast of Newfoundland.
BkVII:Chap10:Sec1 His description of the Canadian Indians. He named the Baye des Chaleurs (the Bay of Warmth) at Carleton near Quebec in 1534.
BkXXXIII:Chap7:Sec1 Chateaubriand compares himself to her as a prophet not understood in his own time.
The battle of Cassano d’Adda in the French Revolutionary Wars was fought on April 27 1799 near Cassano d’Adda. It resulted in a victory for the Austrians and Russians (Second Coalition forces) under Field Marshal Alexander Suvorov over the French troops, left behind in Italy by Napoleon during his Egyptian campaign.
Cassiodorus Senator, Flavius Magnus Aurelius
c490-c583 Roman writer, statesman and monk. Governor of Lucanaia and Bruttium under Theodoric, he was Praetorian Prefect under Amalasuntha (Amalaswintha) and with her pursued the Romanisation of Ravenna. After her death and the Byzantine re-conquest he retired to his monastery Vivarium built on his own estate. His many writings include a History of the Goths (526-533), a work on music, his letters and religious works. He laboured to unite Roman and Gothic culture.
Caius Cassius Longinus, d. 42 BC was a leader in the successful conspiracy to assassinate Julius Caesar. He fought as a quaestor under Marcus Licinius Crassus at Carrhae in 53; and saved what was left of the army after the battle. He supported Pompey against Caesar but was pardoned after the battle of Pharsalus. He was made (44) peregrine praetor and Caesar promised to make him governor of Syria. Before the promise could be fulfilled, Cassius had become ringleader in the plot to kill Caesar. The plot involved more than 60 men (including Marcus Junius Brutus, Publius Servilius Casca, and Lucius Tillius Cimber) and was successfully accomplished in the Senate on the Ides of March in 44; When the people were aroused by Antony against the conspirators, Cassius went to Syria. He managed to capture Dolabella at Laodicea and coordinated his own movements with those of Brutus. Antony and Octavian met them in battle at Philippi. In the first engagement Cassius, thinking the battle lost, committed suicide.
BkXXIII:Chap20:Sec2 He and Brutus were icons of the French Revolution.
Castelbajac, Vicomte de
1776-1868. Deputy for Gers in 1815 and 1816, he was a powereful orator of the ultra-royalist right. He represented Haut-Garonne in the Chamber of Peers from 1827.
Castellane, Cordelia (née Greffulhe), Comtesse de
1796-1847. Chateaubriand’s mistress for a few months in 1823, and later a close friend.
BkXXX:Chap5:Sec1 Chateaubriand writes to her
Castelnau, Michel de
c1520-1592. A French diplomat and soldier, he early attracted the favourable notice of the cardinal of Lorraine (Charles de Guise) and performed important services for Anne, Duc de Montmorency, and King Henry II. In the religious wars he went on missions to England, Scotland, the Netherlands, and Savoy and fought in the royal army; from 1575 to 1585 he served as ambassador to England. Upon his return he fell out with the Guises and rendered valuable services against the Catholic League to King Henry III and King Henry IV. Although a Catholic, he favoured a policy of moderation toward the Huguenots. He left valuable memoirs.
BkVI:Chap8:Sec1 His Memoirs lack a final book.
Castiglioni, Cardinal, see Pope Pius VIII
Castlereagh, see Londonderry
The son of Tyndareus of Sparta and Leda, and twin brother of Pollux, noted for his horses and horsemanship.
BkIII:Chap8:Sec1 His horsemanship.
Castries, Claire Clemence Henriette Claudine de Maillé, Marquise later Duchesse de
1796-1861 The daughter of Duchesse Henriette Victoire (née Fitz-James) and the Duc de Maillé, she did not become a Duchess until 1842, and bore the title of Marquise previous to that time. She was separated from the Duc de Castries, whom she had married in 1816, as the result of a famous love affair with Prince Victor Metternich eldest son of the Austrian Chancellor, by whom she had a son in 1827. Her lover died of tuberculosis shortly after. The Marquise gathered round her a group of intellectuals, among whom were the writers Balzac (who modelled the Duchesse de Langeais on her), Musset, and Sainte-Beuve, and continued active in literary and artistic circles until her death
BkXXIX:Chap14:Sec1 In Rome in December 1828.
Castro, Juan de
1500-1548. He was a Portuguese naval officer and fourth Viceroy of the Portuguese Indies.
Castro, Inès de
1325-1355. A Galician noblewoman, daughter of Pedro Fernandez de Castro, she was the lover and posthumously declared lawful wife of the Portuguese King Peter (Pedro), according to his testimony, and was therefore Queen of Portugal. She was murdered by King Alfonso V. Peter, who became King in 1357, took Inês’ body from the grave and forced the court to swear allegiance to her as queen. She was later buried at the Monastery of Alcobaça (in central Portugal) where her marble coffin can still be seen today just opposite of her king’s. Both coffins were carved out of marble and exquisitely sculpted with scenes from their lives and a promise by Peter that they would be together ‘ate a fim do mundo: till the end of the world’.
BkXXXVIII:Chap10:Sec1 Mentioned. The incident is questionable.
Chateaubriand’s conise translates as flybane or catchfly (or possibly as O. F. conyse=fleabane which does not however appear to match the sense of a sticky plant). The Silene (Family: Caryophyllaceae) contain a number of sticky herbs and plants Chateaubriand may have been familiar with, including Silene gallica, the Common or French Silene, and Silene armeria whose hairy stems exude a sticky sap that captures small insects trying to steal nectar without pollinating the flowers. Hence, the common name, Catchfly. However Philip Ashmole advises me that: ‘the plant that was noted as gumming up the goats’ beards was almost certainly the Gumwood Commidendrum robustum, once very abundant on the island but now endangered (see St. Helena and Ascension Island: A Natural History by Philip and Myrtle Ashmole: published by Anthony Nelson, Oswestry, 2000. ISBN: 0904614611.) The other possibility is the Scrubwood Commidendrum rugosum, a smaller Gumwood relative that was then common in the lower parts of the island. But I think that in the area of Napoleon’s tomb the Gumwood is much more likely.’
The Peace of Cateau-Cambrésis was signed between Elizabeth I of England and Henry II of France on April 2 and between Henry II and Philip II of Spain on April 3, 1559, at Le Cateau-Cambrésis, around twenty kilometers south-east of Cambrai. Henry II of France died during the tournament held to celebrate the peace, his eye being pierced by a sliver that penetrated the brain, from the shattered lance of Gabriel Montgomery, captain of the King’s Scottish Guard.
BkXXIII:Chap20:Sec1 Chateabriand there in 1815.
1759-1793. Leader of the Vendéans in their revolt against the French Republic, he was a peasant by birth. Mortally wounded in attacking Nantes, he was remembered by the peasants of La Vendée as the ‘Saint of Anjou’. BkXI:Chap3:Sec2 BkXXXV:Chap3:Sec1 Mentioned.
1729-1796. Catherine the Great, Empress of Russia (1762-1796) gained the throne in a coup when her husband Peter III (1728-1762) was assassinated. She fought successful wars against the Turks and engineered the partition of Poland, expanding Russian territory.
Catherine de Médici
1519-1589. Regent of France (1560-1563) during the minority of her second son Charles IX she was virtual ruler till his death in 1574. The daughter of Lorenzo de’ Medici, Duke of Urbino, she married Henry II of France in 1533. She was largely responsible for the St Bartholomew’s Day massacre. Her influence waned during the reign of her third son Henry III.
Catiline, Lucius Sergius Catalina
d. 62BC. The Roman politician plotted to seize power in 62BC. Thwarted by Cicero, Catiline fled to a rebel force in Etruria while his fellow conspirators were executed. He was defeated and killed in battle.
BkXXXIV:Chap12:Sec1 The revolutionaries compared to him.
1637-1712. A Marshal of France. The son of a magistrate, he won promotion by merit rather than by wealth or descent. In the War of the Grand Alliance he commanded against Duke Victor Amadeus II of Savoy, whom he defeated in N Italy at Staffarda (1690) and at Marsaglia (1693). Early in the War of the Spanish Succession, he commanded the French army in Italy, against Prince Eugene of Savoy, but after suffering reverses he was replaced. He retired in 1705 and later wrote his memoirs.
Cato the Elder, Marcus Portius Cato
234-149BC. A Roman statesman he wrote the first history of Rome. A moral and political conservative, as Censor in 184 he legislated against luxury and sponsored improvements in public works. He opposed Carthaginian power in the Mediterranean, and supported the Third Punic War in 149 which destroyed Carthaginian influence. He was taken as an example of moral uprightness and severity.
BkVI:Chap7:Sec1 A representative of early Roman severity.
Cato of Utica
Marcus Portius Cato, the Younger, 95-46BC was a Roman politician, the great-grandson of Cato the Elder, and an opponent of Julius Caesar. He supported Pompey in the Civil War in an attempt to save the Republic. He escaped to Utica in North Africa after Pompey’s death, but committed suicide after Caesar’s victory at Thapsus. He was taken as an example of loyalty to an ideal, and he figures as a moral exemplar in Dante’s Purgatorio.
BkXVIII:Chap2:Sec1 His house at Utica.
BkXXIX:Chap7:Sec2 Addison’s play mentioned.
c84-c54BC. The Roman poet was born in Verona. He became the leader of the new poetic movement in Rome, his poems including those to Lesbia, elegies and satires.
BkXI:Chap4:Sec1 The quotation, addressed to his brother, given in Catullus LXV, lines 9-11, depends on a plausible reconstruction of the missing mid-section of lines 9 and 10.
BkXL:Chap1:Sec1 He was born in Verona.
A long-lived lady of Dieppe, she was still of sound mind at a hundred and fifty years old in 1645.
Cauchois-Lemaire, Louis François Auguste
1789-1861. A French journalist, he was proprietor of the Liberal Nain jaune. He took refuge in Brussels 1816-1819. He was imprisoned in 1821 and 1827. In 1836, he founded a new opposition journal Le Siècle, but abandoned journalism for history and took a post in the Royal Archives.
BkXXXII:Chap11:Sec1 A member of the Republican Municipal Commission in July 1830.
Caud, Jaques-Louis-René de
BkIII:Chap6:Sec1 His marriage to Lucile.
Caud, Lucile-Angelique de Chateaubriand, Madame de, see Lucile de Chateaubriand
The Caudine Forks, 321 BC, was a decisive battle during the Samnite Wars. The Romans chose a route though the Apennines (near Caudium between Capua and Benevento) entered only by two defiles, between which they were trapped. Were the Samnites to set the Romans free without harm, they would gain the Roman’s friendship. Were they to kill the entire Roman army then Rome would be so weakened that it would not pose a threat for many generations. The idea of a middle way was rejected as antagonising the Romans without weakening them. According to Livy, the Romans were made to surrender and pass under the yoke. This was agreed to by the two commanding consuls, as the army was facing starvation. Livy describes in detail the humiliation of the Romans. It is an example used to illustrate the dangers of the middle way in strategic settlements, for example the humiliation of Germany after World War I without a total weakening of her powers.
Caulaincourt, Armand-Augustin-Louis, Marquis de, Duc de Vicenza
1772-1827 Aide-de-camp to Bonaparte at the time of the execution of the Duc d’Enghien. He was ambassador to Saint Petersburg, and French Foreign Minister under the Empire.
BkXVI:Chap5:Sec1 BkXVI:Chap6:Sec1 Caulaincourt was put in charge of the operation to clear émigrés from Offenburg, relieving Ordener who was sent to Ettenheim with 300 dragoons and a detachment of the gendarmerie to seize the Prince, his accomplices and his papers.
BkXX:Chap13:Sec1 His view of the pretexts for the Russian War.
BkXXI:Chap5:Sec1 His reaction to the retreat.
BkXXI:Chap7:Sec1 Accompanies Napoleon on the journey back to France.
BkXXI:Chap8:Sec1 Accompanied Napoleon during the retreat.
BkXXIII:Chap14:Sec1 He was appointed as Napoleon’s Foreign Minister during the Hundred Days.
BkXXIII:Chap18:Sec2 A member of the executive committee.
Caulaincourt, Auguste-Jean-Gabriel, Comte de
1777-1812. He was the brother of Armand-Louis. A talented cavalry officer, he served as Louis Bonaparte’s Master of Horse in Holland for a period of time before returning to the French military. In the Russian Campaign, Caulaincourt was in charge of Napoleon’s headquarters. On Montbrun’s death at Borodino, Caulaincourt was ordered to assume Montbrun’s command. Murat ordered him to charge the Great Redoubt, and he responded, ‘You shall see me there, dead or alive.’ As he led the charge, he was killed.
Caumont, Marie-Constance de Lamoignon, Marquise de
1774-1823. Married ‘Auguste’ Luc Nompar, Duc de la Force, de Caumont.
BkXI:Chap2:Sec4 Emigrated to London.
Causans, Jacques de Vincens de Mauléon, Marquis de
1751-1826 An army officer and deputy of the nobility of Orange to the Estates General. He emigrated in 1791 and his estates were confiscated. When he returned after 1800, he tried to reconstitute his estates that had been divided among various family members in his absence. Under the Restoration he was given the rank of Lieutenant-General (April 1814), and he was elected representative to the House of Deputies for the Vaucluse from 1815 until his death.
BkII:Chap3:Sec1 Lieutenant-Colonel of the Conti infantry regiment in 1778 (Commanded from 1774).
BkII:Chap3:Sec2 He escorts Chateaubriand round the camp.
A spa town, and commune of the Hautes-Pyrénées département, in southwestern France, Cauterets is located 32 kilometres south-west. of Lourdes in the valley of the Gave de Cauterets.
BkXXXI:Chap1:Sec2 Chateaubriand there at the end of July 1829.
BkXXXV:Chap12:Sec1 Chateaubriand there in August 1832.
Caux, Louis-Victor de Blacquetot, Vicomte de
1775-1845. An officer of engineers, and Councillor of State from 1817, he became a successful administrator in the War department from 1823, and War Minister in 1828.
Caux, Louis Henri de Roger de Cahuzac, Comte de
d.1839. He became a diplomat after the Restoration, and was First Secretary in Berlin from September 1820. In 1823 Chateaubriand sent him on a mission to the Spanish provisional government. He became a Plenipotentiary at Hanover before resigning after the July Revolution.
BkXXVI:Chap1:Sec1 A secretary at the Berlin Embassy in 1821.
1801-1845. A Republican.
BkXXXII:Chap16:Sec1 At the Palais-Royal on the 31st of July 1830.
Cayla, Zoé Talon, Comtesse du
1784-1850. A protégé of Madame Campan during the Revolution, she was supported by Monsieur and the Congregation, contributed to Decazes’ dismissal before replacing him in the King’s favour, whom she brought closer in the latter years of his reign to his brother and the Royalist right.
Cazalès, Jacques de
1758-1805. A captain of dragoons in 1785, deputy to the States General in 1789, he defended the monarchy against Mirabeau and Barnave. He resigned after the arrest of the King, and emigrated to join the army of the Princes in 1792. He returned to France in 1803. His Discours et opinions was published in 1821.
BkXXV:Chap2:Sec1 A noted revolutionary orator.
1719-1792. Educated by the Jesuits, at the age of 27 he obtained public office in Martinique. It was not till he returned to Paris in 1760 with the rank of commissioner-general that he made his public debut as an author. His most popular work was the Diable amoureux (1772), a fantastic tale in which the hero raises the devil. Around 1775 Cazotte embraced the views of the Illuminati, declaring himself possessed of the power of prophecy. It was upon this event that Jean-François de la Harpe based his famous jeu d'esprit, in which he represented Cazotte as prophesying the most minute events of the French Revolution. On the discovery of some of his letters in August 1792, Cazotte was arrested; and though he escaped for a time through the efforts of his daughter, he was executed the following month.
BkX:Chap1:Sec1 His ballad La Veillée de la Bonne Femme ou le Réveil d’Enguerrand.
Cecilia Metella, see Metella
He was the legendary founder of Athens.
The ravine on the east of Jerusalem lies between the Holy City and the Mount of Olives. The word Cedron is usually connected with the root Qadár, ‘to be dark’, and taken to refer to the colour of the stream or ravine; but its exact origin and precise meaning are unknown.
Celakowsky, Franz Ladislaus
1799-1852. A disciple of Herder and Goethe, he developed 19th century Slav poetry.
This Benedictine congregation must not be confused with the Franciscan congregation of the same name. The order was founded in 1254 by Pietro di Murrone, afterwards Celestine V. At first the saint gave no written rule to his monks, but by his own life he provided an ideal for them to strive after. In 1264 Urban IV confirmed the order, and gave to it the Rule of St. Benedict. It was again confirmed by Gregory X in 1274.
Antonio del Guidice, Prince of Cellamare (1657-1733), the Spanish ambassador in France, under instructions from Cardinal Alberoni, plotted with the Duke and Duchess of Maine to overthrow the Regent and appoint Philip V king of France. The Cellamare plot was foiled and the Duke of Maine was jailed from 1718 to 1720. Alberoni retired to Italy in disgrace.
Celles, Antoine, Comte de Vischer de
1779-1841. A Prefect under Napoleon ultimately in Amsterdam in 1811, he then entered the service of Holland, and was sent to Rome to negotiate a new Concordat.
Celles, Louise-Felicite-Philippine de Valence, Comtesse de
1787-1828. The wife of the Comte.
Celles, Pulchérie, de Vischer de
1811-1888. Daughter of the Comte.
Celles, Antonine, Vischer de
1812-? Daughter of the Comte.
1740-1806. He was the creator of a botanical garden at Montrouge, stocking rare plants, which he converted into a celebrated nursery.
He was a nobleman of Rome, a cousin of the Imperial Prefect, friendly to Henry IV of Germany, who ordered an attack on Pope Gregory VII in 1075.
A pass (6893 ft.) in Savoy (France), it forms the limit between the Cottian and Graian Alps. A carriage road was built across it between 1803 and 1810 by Napoleon. To the south-west of the Mont Cenis is the Little Mont Cenis (7166 ft.) which leads from the summit plateau (in Italy) of the main pass to the Étache valley on the French slope and so to Bramans in the Arc valley (7 m. above Modane). This pass was crossed in 1689 by the Vaudois, and by some authors is believed to have been Hannibal’s Pass over the Alps. Lanslebourg is on the Arc at the foot of the pass.
An Athenian prince, the grandson of Aeolus.
There were two Rivers named Kephisos in Attika over which this river god presided. The first had its headwaters in the foothills of Mount Parnes, flowing past Athens to enter the Saronic Gulf just south of Peiraios. The second flowed from Mount Kithairon, through the Nysian plain, to enter the sea near the town of Eleusis.
The mythological three-headed watchdog of the Underworld, the foam from his jaws was venomous.
BkVII:Chap6:Sec1 Presumably the snake’s venom is the point of the reference.
BkXXXVI:Chap9:Sec1 An expression for any harsh doorman or guard.
BkXLI:Chap6:Sec1 The guardian of the land of the dead. The Dauphin died at Göritz in 1844.
The Corn Goddess in Roman mythology, Demeter is her Greek equivalent. She is the daughter of Saturn and Rhea, and Jupiter’s sister. As Demeter she is represented in the sky by the constellation and zodiacal sign of Virgo, holding an ear of wheat, the star Spica. It contains the brightest quasar, 3C 273. (The constellation alternatively depicts Astraea.) The worship of her and her daughter Persephone, as the Mother and the Maiden, was central to the Eleusinian mysteries, where the ritual of the rebirth of the world from winter was enacted. Ceres was there a representation of the Great Goddess of Neolithic times, and her daughter her incarnation, in the underworld and on earth.
BkVIII:Chap4:Sec2 Her daughter Persephone was raped and stolen away by Dis (Pluto), the God of the Underworld.
BkXIV:Chap2:Sec4 Goddess of bread and flour.
BkXXXVIII:Chap5:Sec1 A canephorus is a sculptured Greek (youth or) maiden carrying a basket on the head at the feast of Demeter, Dionysus, or Athene.
BkXXXVIII:Chap8:Sec1 Goddess of the crops, therefore the hop fields.
Cervantes, Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra
1547-1616. Nicknamed the Cripple of Lepanto. The Spanish novelist, in 1571, fought at the Battle of Lepanto. Returning to Spain he was captured by pirates and imprisoned for five years in Algiers. After 1580 he worked in the civil service while writing a pastoral novel La Galetea (1585) and several plays. His fame rests on Don Quixote (1605, Part II 1615) his picaresque novel about a self-deluding knight errant and his squire, Sancho Panza.
Preface:Sect4 An example of a writer involved with the events of his times.
BkIX:Chap11:Sec1 BkXXXVI:Chap11:Sec3 The Knight of La Mancha was Don Quixote, who tilted at windmills and espoused lost causes in a spirit of crazed chivalry. For the second reference see Don Quixote Part I: XVIII.
BkXXXV:Chap7:Sec1 See Don Quixote Part I: XXXIX, XL and XLI.
1730-1808 A Paduan Hellenist, at the University his literary progress gained him the chair of rhetoric, and in 1768 the professorship of Greek and Hebrew. On the invasion of Italy by the French, he wrote in support of their cause, received a pension, and was made knight of the iron crown by Napoleon I. He was a translator of Homer and Ossian.
A city of Emilia, in the province of Forlì (Italy), in the former Papal States it is situated on a hill at the base of which flows the Savio.
Cessac, Jean-Gérard Lacuée, Comte de
1752-1841. Member of the Legislature, then Brigadier and Member of the Council in 1795, he was a Councillor of State in 1801, Minister under Napoleon 1810-1813. He was made a Peer in 1831.
Ceva, Battle of
16th-17th April 1796. Augereau took the castle at Ceva, a town in Italy in the province of Cuneo, in the region of Piedmont. It lies 33 miles east of Cuneo. In the middle ages it was a strong fortress defending the confines of Piedmont towards Liguria. The fortifications on the rock above the town were demolished in 1800 by the French.
Following plans designed by Vauban, engineer Siméon de Garangeau (1647-1741) extended the town, revamped its fortifications and built sea forts on the small islands off the city, Petit Bé, Grand Bé and Fort Royal, later renamed Fort National, La Conchée, and Cézembre.
1759-1794. A French revolutionary, he had been a Franciscan friar before the Revolution. After the civil constitution of the clergy he continued to act as constitutional priest, becoming grand vicar of Henri Grégoire, bishop of Blois. He was later elected to the Legislative Assembly, sitting at the extreme left and forming with Claude Bazire and Merlin de Thionville the ‘Cordelier Trio’. Re-elected to the Convention, he voted for the death of Louis XVI. He opposed the proposal to prosecute the authors of the massacre of September, as there were heroes of the Battle of Jemmapes among them. Some of his sayings are well known, such as ‘Christ was the first sans-culotte.’ Compromised in the falsification of a decree suppressing the East India Company and in a plot to bribe certain members of the Convention, especially Fabre d'Églantine and Claude Bazire, he was arrested and brought before the Revolutionary Tribunal. He was condemned and executed at the same time as the Dantonists.
BkXXV:Chap2:Sec1 A revolutionary priest.
Chabrol de Crouzol, Christophe-André-Jean, Comte de
1771-1836. Prefect for the Rhône 1814, 1815 and 1818, then Deputy for the Puy-de-Dôme 1820, he became a Peer of France in 1823. He was named Minister for the Navy in August 1824, and took part in Polignac’s ministry until his dismissal 18th May 1830.
BkXXXI:Chap5:Sec1 Joined the Cabinet in 1829.
BkXXXI:Chap7:Sec1 Retired from the Cabinet in May 1830.
Chabrol de Volvic, Gilbert Joseph Gaspard, Comte de
1773-1843. Brother of Christophe, he was Prefect for the Seine 1812-1833. A poyltechnician he did much to pave Paris and give it gas lighting. He had been in Egypt with Bonaparte.
BkXXXII:Chap1:Sec1 Mentioned in 1830.
BkXXXII:Chap6:Sec1 His name invoked on the 29th of July 1830.
A character in Atala (1801) by Chateaubriand, he is an old Natchez Indian who meets René and tells him the story of his youth. Rescued from captivity by a young Indian girl, Atala, who was consecrated to the Virgin, he met a priest Père Aubry who wished to convert Chactas and unite him to Atala. She would not break her vow, and preferred to die.
BkXIII:Chap6:Sec1 Popular engravings of him.
A district of Paris, where the Pompe de Chaillot steam pumping plant built by the Périer Brothers that supplied Paris with water from about 1782 stood close to what is now the Pont de l’Alma.
BkXXXV:Chap7:Sec1 Dr. Pinel’s Sanatorium there, almost facing the Rue des Vignes, later became a Convent of the Assumption.
A French commune, located in the Haute-Loire in the Auvergne, La Chaise-Dieu derives its name from the Latin casa dei (House of God), in reference to the Benedictine abbey which was founded on the site in 1043 by Robert de Turlande. Pope Clement VI began his vocation as a monk at Chaise Dieu and was the patron of the vast abbey church (built 1344–1350). The monks were driven out and the abbey secularized during the French Revolution. Clement’s vast abbey church, his tomb and the abbey cloister remain. BkXXXV:Chap11:Sec1 Its fresco of the Dance of Death (ca 1470) is a famous example of the motif that gained wide currency following the visitations of the Black Death.
The inhabitants of southern Babylonia in ancient times, their civilisation reached its height under Nebuchadnezzar II (reigned 604-562BC), centred on the rebuilt city of Babylon, and dominated the Middle East until overthrown by the Achaemenians in 539.
BkX:Chap1:Sec1 Noted astronomers, responsible for early star-charts, and planetary and star-tables.
He was the chaplain at Combourg.
Châlons-sur-Marne, now Châlons-en-Champagne, France
Capital of the Marne department, and the Ardenne-Champagne region, the city lies 93 miles east of Paris in north-eastern France on the right bank of the River Marne. Tradition has it that Attila the Hun was defeated near there during his attempt to invade France, at the Battle of the Catalaunian Plains in 451, by the Roman general Aëtius and the Visigoth Theodoric. It is the centre for the Champagne wine trade.
BkXXVIII:Chap21:Sec1 Madame Récamier, exiled from Paris, withdrew there in 1811.
BkXXXVIII:Chap10:Sec1 Chateaubriand there in June 1833.
A small village and commune in the Haute-Vienne département of France, in the Limousin région.
Noah’s younger son saw his father’s nakedness, while his brothers Shem and Japheth covered their father’s nakedness.
BkXII:Chap1:Sec1 See Genesis IX:20-27
A town in Savoy (Rhône-Alpes), and its capital since the 13th century, it lies in a valley between the Bauges and the Chartreuse. It is associated with the House of Savoy.
The largest castle in the Loire Valley, it was built to serve only as a hunting lodge for King François I who maintained his royal residences at Château de Blois and at Château d’Amboise. The original design of the Château was by Domenico da Cortona, but it was altered considerably during the twenty years of construction (1519‑1539). Leonardo da Vinci, a guest of King Francois at Clos Lucé near Amboise, is believed to have been involved in the original design.
Chambord, Comte de, see Henri V
Chambray, Georges, Marquis de
1783-1848. An artillery officer, and the author of the anonymous Histoire de l'expedition de Russie. Par M*** (1823), among other works.
Chamfort, Sébastien-Roch Nicolas
1741-1794 Moralist. He is remembered for his maxims and epigrams. His acute observations on literature, morals, and politics made him popular at court, despite his republican beliefs. In the Reign of Terror, he was denounced, and committed suicide.
BkIV:Chap12:Sec4 Description. Raised in Clermont, a bastard son of the procureur-général Dauphin de Leyval. After the fall of the Girondins, and Marat, Chamfort was hard pressed. He was denounced in September 1793 and imprisoned, subsequently under house arrest, After a warning he tried to commit suicide (according to Ginguené) first with a pistol then a razor on the 15th November; he died probably of his wounds on the 13th April 1794.
BkV:Chap15:Sec2 Argued with Chateaubriand over his politics.
BkIX:Chap6:Sec2 His reaction to the invasion of the Tuileries in 1792.
BkXI:Chap2:Sec2 A native of the Auvergne.
Chamisso, Ludolf Adelbert von (Louis Charles Adelaide de Chamisso de Boncourt)
1781-1838. A German poet and naturalist, he was born at the Château de Boncourt, France. He served as page at the court of Frederick-William II of Prussia and, after army service and travels, became keeper of the royal botanical gardens. He edited (1804-6) the Musenalmanach and was a member of Mme de Staël’s circle. His sentimental poetic cycle Frauenliebe und Leben (1830) was set to music by Schumann. Peter Schlemihls wundersame Geschichte (1814) is his tale of a man who sold his shadow to the devil. He also wrote plays, an account of his travels in the Pacific (1836), and a work on linguistics (1837).
BkXXVI:Chap3:Sec1 Chateaubriand met him in Berlin in February 1821. He had taught at Napoléon-Vendée, founded by Napoleon, now La Roche-sur-Yon, in the Pays-de-la-Loire, for a few months (1810-1811). His ancestral home Château de Boncourt was in Champagne. His poem Das Schloss Boncourt was written in 1827.
Chamisso, Charles Louis Marie Hippolyte, Comte de
The town in eastern France in the Haute-Savoie department near the Swiss and Italian borders. It is close to Mont Blanc.
BkXVII:Chap3:Sec1 Chateaubriand there in 1805.
BkXXXV:Chap16:Sec1 Montenvers is connected to Chamonix by a rack and pinion railway, and is an access point for the Mer de Glace glacier.
The best candidate for Chateaubriand’s tchampas is the champa of Sanskrit literature, Plumeria, or Frangipani e.g. Plumeria rubra, which has been grown on St Helena as an exotic introduction. R. O. Williams, in his manuscript book ‘Plants on St Helena’ (1989) lists Plumeria rubra (Frangipani) and mentions that ‘Strangely, except for the Jamestown valley it does not thrive.’ The common name ‘Frangipani’ comes from a sixteenth-century Italian noble family, a marquess of which invented a plumeria-scented perfume. Known as the Temple Tree, Pagoda Tree, Champa or Khairchampa in different parts of India, Frangipani (Family Apocynaceae) is one of the most extensively grown flowering trees. An emblem of immortality to both Buddhists and Muslims, it is frequently planted near monasteries and graveyards. The tree is grown in temples also for its daily supply of sweet, scented, fresh and creamy flowers. The exotic flowers open, bloom and fall on the earth almost throughout the year in temperate climates. It is not to be confused with champak another highly perfumed species of evergreen timber tree (Michelia champaca) native to India, with fragrant orange-yellow flowers that yield oil used in perfumery, and the flowers of which Indian women wear in their hair. (See Shelley’s Indian Serenade. ‘The Champak odours fail...’)
Champagny, see Duc de Cadore
Champagny, Nicolas Charles Stanislas Marie Louis Nompère, Vicomte de
1789-1863. Marshal, and Under Secretary of State for War in 1830.
The town in north-eastern France.
BkXXII:Chap9:Sec1 Napoleon fighting there in February 1814. He almost destroyed a Russian corps in Blücher’s army.
Champcenetz, Louis-René Quentin de Richebourg, Chevalier de
1759-1794. An officer of the French Guards, he was a collaborator in the production of the Actes des Apôtres.
Champlain, Samuel de
1567-1635. French explorer. In 1603, following in Cartier’s footsteps, he explored the St Lawrence and the coast from a base in Acadia. In 1608 he founded a colony at Quebec – New France – of which he became commandant in 1612. When Quebec was captured by the English in 1620 he was taken prisoner. Lake Champlain which he visited in 1609 is named after him.
BkVII:Chap10:Sec1 His description of the Canadian Indians.
The chateau, at Epinay near Luzarches 17 miles north of Paris, was built between 1751 and 1753 for Jean-Baptiste Molé, President of the Paris Parliament, who married the daughter of Samuel Bernard, financier to Louis XIV and Louis XV.
Champmeslé, Marie Desmares, called La
1642-1698. French actress. She made her first appearance on the stage at Rouen with Charles Chevillet (1645-1701), who called himself Sieur de Champmeslé, and they were married in 1666. By 1669 they were playing in Paris at the Théatre du Marais, her first appearance there being as Venus in Boyer’s Fête de Venus. The next year, as Hermione in Racine’s Andromaque, she had a great success at the Hôtel de Bourgogne. Phèdre was the climax of her triumphs, and when she and her husband deserted the Hôtel de Bourgogne, it was selected to open the Comédie Française on the 26th of August 1680. Here, with Mme. Guérin as the leading comedy actress, she played the great tragic love parts for more than thirty years. La Fontaine dedicated to her his novel Belphégor, and Boileau immortalized her in verse.
1790-1832. A French classical scholar, philologist, orientalist, and Egyptologist, Champollion is generally credited as the father of Egyptology. Based on work by Thomas Young and William Bankes, Champollion translated parts of the Rosetta stone in 1822, showing that the ancient Egyptian was similar to Coptic, and the writing system was a combination of phonetic and ideographic signs.
BkXLII:Chap18:Sec1 Mentioned. Chateaubriand uses the Hebrew name Mezraim for Egypt.
Chantelauze, Jean-Claude-Balthazard-Victor de
1787-1859. Keeper of the Seal (Chancellor and Justice Minister) from May-July 1830. He was subsequently condemned and detained until 1836.
BkXXXI:Chap7:Sec1 Joined the Cabinet briefly in 1830.
The village is near Amboise. Of the château, the country seat of the Duc de Choiseul, only the well-known pagoda remains.
A town and Château, it lies in the Oise. Rising from the confluence of the Seine and Oise rivers, twenty miles north of Paris, the Château de Chantilly is one of France’s largest estates. Built in 1560 by the architect Jean Bullant, for Anne de Montmorency, it came into the hands of the Condé family at the end of the 18th century. During the French Revolution, all of its works of art were transferred to the Louvre and it was used as a prison. Its last royal owner, the Duc d’Aumale donated the estate to the Institut de France in 1886. Its vast collection of manuscripts includes the fifteenth-century Tres Riches Heures du Duc de Berry. The White Queen’s Castle is a 12th century hunting lodge. The Commelle lakes, or pools, were laid out between 1204 and 1208 by the monks from Chââlis Abbey.
BkXXXVII:Chap14:Sec1 The Condé family seat.
Chapelier, correctly Le Chapelier, Jean, also called Isaac
1754-1794. Deputy for Rennes, he was the founder of the Breton Club (Jacobin Club). He introduced a motion in the National Assembly which prohibited guilds and trade unions. Le Chapelier and other Jacobins interpreted demands by Paris workers for higher wages as contrary to the new principles of the Revolution. The measure was enacted law on June 14, 1791 (It was subsequently known as the ‘Le Chapelier Law’) and effectively barred guilds and trade unions in France until 1884. During the Terror, he temporarily emigrated to England, but returned to France in 1794 in a hopeless effort to prevent the confiscation of his assets. He was arrested and guillotined on the 22nd April 1794 with Chateaubriand’s brother and Malesherbes.
BkV:Chap12:Sec2 Introduced Chateaubriand to opposition deputies.
Chapelle, Claude Emmanuel Luillier
1626-1686. Chapelle, and François Lecoigneux de Bachaumont (1624-1702) were poets and authors of Voyage en Provence et en Languedoc (1656).
Chaptal, Jean-Antoine-Claude, Comte de Chanteloup
1756-1832. French chemist, industrialist, and statesman. He became (1781) professor of chemistry at Montpellier, and during the Revolution he was active in gunpowder production. Later, as minister of the interior (1801–9) and director-general of commerce and manufactures (1815) under Napoleon he introduced far-reaching reforms in medicine, industry, and public works. His writings pioneered the application of chemical principles to industrial processes.
BkXVII:Chap5:Sec1 Chateaubriand met him At La Chartreuse in 1805. At the start of the Consulate, he bought the estate of Chanteloupe which had belonged to the Duc de Choiseul. He developed sugar-beet production which replaced sugar cane production in Europe. Sugar cane has been known for at least 2200 years. Alexander’s army saw it during his conquest of India in 326BC. Theophrastus described ‘honey produced from reeds’, while Dioscorides, in the first century AD, described ‘a honey called sakkharon collected from reeds in India and Arabia Felix with the consistency of salt and which could be crunched between the teeth’. Hence Chateaubriand’s ‘Indian reeds’: sugar cane being cultivated throughout the Mediterranean, and planted by the Spanish in the West Indies.
1777-1847. A judge in the Seine Tribunal and a Paris Deputy.
BkXXXII:Chap8:Sec1 Named as Commissioner for Postal Services of the Municipal Commission, 29th July 1830.
A suburb located to the south-east of Paris, Charenton-le-Pont lies at the junction of the Marne and Seine. A large mental hospital known as Charenton is situated in neighbouring Saint-Maurice, and the word Charenton is often used in French to signify an asylum, as Bedlam is used in English.
BkII:Chap7:Sec5 On the 22nd of October 1685 the Act of Revocation of the Edict of Nantes was registered, and on the same day the Protestants were notified by a public spectacle that its execution had commenced. The great Church of Charenton built by the celebrated architect Jacques Debrosse, and capable of containing 14,000 persons, was razed to the ground, and a cross twenty feet high, adorned with the royal arms, was erected over the demolished edifice.
BkXXXIX:Chap17:Sec1 Mentioned, as the easterly direction from central Paris.
BkXXXIX:Chap19:Sec1 The asylum at Charenton mentioned.
Charette, François Athenase de La Contrie de
1763-1796. He served in the Navy under Toussaint de La Motte-Picquet, notably during the American War of Independence. He quit the Navy in 1789 and emigrated to Coblenz in 1792 (a common move for royalist aristocrats). He soon returned to France to live on his estate in Machecoul. In 1793, the Revolt in the Vendée broke out, and the peasants fighting against the Republic asked him to be their leader. He joined Cathelineau and fought in most of the battles of the "Armée catholique et royale". After the dispersal of the Vendean leaders in september 1793, he retired with his men. He became the leader of Basse-Vendée and successfully used guerilla warfare against the Republican troops, even managing to capture a Republican camp in Saint-Christophe, near Challans. On the 17th of February 1795, Charette signed a peace treaty with the emissaries of the National Convention, but broke his parole and returned to battle in July to help the invasion by emigrated aristocrats at Quiberon. The Count of Artois made him Lieutenant General, but he refused to lead the Royal Army. Charette later refused to join Orléans. Pursued by General Louis Lazare Hoche, he was defeated at Quiberon; wounded, he was captured and executed by firing squad in March 1796.
A Paris auctioneer.
c742-814. King of the Franks (771-814), and the first post-classical western Emperor (800-814), he was the son of Pepin the Short. He conquered the Saxon tribes, and became King of Lombardy (773). Having subsequently conquered most of Western Christendom he was crowned Emperor of the West by Pope Leo III, His court at Aix-la-Chapelle became a major administrative and cultural centre as part of the Carolingian Renaissance.
BkVII:Chap11:Sec1 The opening of his tomb c.1450.
BkIX:Chap8:Sec2 Louis XI instituted a cult of Charlemagne and in 1483 offered a reliquary and a cover of cloth of gold to re-clothe his tomb, as well as an annual offering paid until 1775. Louis XVI offered his predecessor’s mortuary robe for the tomb.
BkXIX:Chap14:Sec1 His epic stature.
BkXX:Chap5:Sec3 Charlemagne created a type of academy, called the palace school or scola palatina, in Aachen. Another one was founded near Noyon by Carolingian leaders. The staff of scholars; the aristocrats and clergymen; and Charlemagne himself, shared the vision of educating the population in general, and of training the children of aristocrats in how to manage their lands and protect their states against invasion or squandering. These initiatives foreshadowed the rise, in the 11th century, of the universities of Western Europe.
BkXXI:Chap2:Sec1 His piety before battle.
BkXXI:Chap7:Sec1 His empathy. The source of the quote not known. Literally it means ‘the savage child trapped by the ice while playing on the Ebro.’
BkXXIV:Chap17:Sec1 Mourned at his death, the death of an age.
BkXXIX:Chap12:Sec1 The feudal period following him.
The town in south-central Belgium is on the River Sambre.
Charles of Austria, Duke of Teschen, Archduke,
1771-1847. The son of Leopold II, Holy Roman Emperor (1747 – 1792) and his wife Maria Luisa of Spain (1745 – 1792), he was also a younger brother of Francis II of Germany, Holy Roman Emperor. Despite being epileptic, Charles achieved respect both as a commander and as a reformer of Austria’s army.
BkXIX:Chap12:Sec1 In 1795 he served on the Rhine, and in the following year was entrusted with the chief control of all the Austrian forces on that river. His conduct of the operations against Jourdan and Moreau in 1796 marked him out at once as one of the greatest generals in Europe.
BkXX:Chap5:Sec1 In the short and disastrous war of 1805 Archduke Charles commanded what was intended to be the main army in Italy, but events made Germany the decisive theatre of operations, and the defeats sustained on the Danube neutralized the success obtained by the archduke over Masséna in the Battle of Caldiero.
Charles-Edward, see Stuart
Charles-Emmanuel IV of Savoy, King of Sardinia
1751-1819. Brother-in-law of Louis XVI, who, widowed, abdicated in June 1802 in favour of his brother, and retired to Frascati.
BkXIV:Chap8:Sec1 BkXXIX:Chap6:Sec1 Chateaubriand committed a gaffe by visiting him in 1803, but it was the visit to his brother, and successor, Victor-Emmanuel I (1759-1824), which caused disquiet in Paris, since the new King having lost Piedmont in 1802, intrigued at Rome, supported by Russia.
Charles-Felix of Savoy, King of Sardinia
1765-1831. He was married by proxy to Maria Cristina, Princess of Bourbon-Two Sicilies (1779-1849) on 7 March 1807. She was a daughter of Ferdinand I of the Two Sicilies and Marie Caroline of Austria.
BkXXXIX:Chap3:Sec1 He died in 1831.
Charles the Fat, Emperor
839-888. King of the East Franks, King of Italy, King of France and, as Charles III, Holy Roman Emperor, he was granted lordship over Alemannia in 876, and became King of Italy in 879 upon the abdication of his older brother Carloman. Crowned Emperor in 881, his succession to the territories of his brother Louis the Younger the following year reunited the entire Kingdom of the East Franks (Germany). Upon the death of Carloman, the King of the West Franks (France), in 884, he achieved that throne as well, thus reviving, if only briefly, the entire Carolingian Empire, aside from Provence, which was in rebellion under Boso.
Charles, Julie Bouchaud, Madame
1784-1817. Born in Dominique she became the wife (1804) of the well-known chemist, physicist and aeronaut, Jacques Alexandre César Charles (1746-1823) who invented the hydrogen balloon and devised Charles’ Law which relates the pressure, volume and temperature of gases. She ran a literary salon patronised by Louis de Fontanes among others, and suffered from tuberculosis. She was muse to Lally-Tollendal and later Lamartine whom she met in 1816 at Aix les Bains while taking the waters.
BkXXIII:Chap5:Sec1 Her relationship with Lally-Tollendal.
c688-741. Known as ‘the Hammer’, the Frankish ruler and illegitimate son of Pepin of Heristal, he was the grandfather of Charlemagne. After the death of his father (714) he seized power in Austrasia from Pepin’s widow, who was ruling as regent for her grandsons, and became mayor of the palace. He subsequently subdued the W Frankish kingdom of Neustria and began the re-conquest of Burgundy, Aquitaine, and Provence. He defeated the Spanish Muslims at the battle of Tours (732–33) and began the military campaigns that re-established the Franks as the rulers of Gaul. Although he never assumed the title of king, he divided the Frankish lands, like a king, between his sons Pepin the Short and Carloman.
BkXXIX:Chap12:Sec1 His defeat of the Moors at Tours.
Charles of Prussia, Friedrich Karl Alexander, Prince
1801-1833. He was the third son of Frederick-William III.
Charles-Quint (Charles I of Spain)
1500-1558. Holy Roman Emperor as Charles V (1519-1556). He inherited Burgundy and the Netherlands (1506) from his father Philip of Burgundy; he became King of Spain and Naples (1516) on the death of his maternal grandfather Ferdinand II of Aragon, and Holy Roman Emperor on the death of his paternal grandfather Maximilian I. He fought intermittent wars against France, and the Ottoman Turks, saw the emergence of the Reformation, and eventually retired to a Spanish monastery dividing his possessions between his son who became Philip II of Spain, and his brother Emperor Ferdinand I.
BkX:Chap5:Sec2 The legend is that he rehearsed his own funeral a month before his actual death.
Charles IV de Bourbon
1748-1819. King of Spain (1788–1808), he was the second son of Charles III, whom he succeeded in place of his imbecile older brother. Unlike his father, Charles IV was an ineffective ruler and in 1792 virtually surrendered the government to Godoy, his chief minister and favourite of his wife, María Luisa. Spain entered the French Revolutionary Wars in 1793, but in 1795 made peace with France in the second Treaty of Basel. By the Treaty of San Ildefonso (1796) Spain allied itself with France and became involved in the war with England. It suffered major naval defeats at Cape St. Vincent (1797) and Trafalgar (1805). The convention of Fontainebleau (1807) precipitated the events leading to the Peninsular War. As French troops marched on Madrid in March 1808, a popular uprising led to a coup at Aranjuez; the king was forced to abdicate in favour of his son, Ferdinand VII. Napoleon I tricked both father and son into a meeting with him at Bayonne, France, and forced them to abdicate in turn. The royal family was held captive in France until 1814, while Joseph Bonaparte was king of Spain. Charles IV and his family have been frankly portrayed by Goya, one of their court painters.
Charles I, Charles Stuart, King of England
1600-1649 King of England 1625-1649. His Catholic leanings and high-handedness with Parliament resulted in Civil War. His military campaigns were lost to Cromwell and the New Model Army of the Puritans. He was beheaded 30 January 1649.
BkII:Chap7:Sec3 The signing of his death warrant.
BkIX:Chap11:Sec1 His monarchist army.
BkX:Chap5:Sec2 Charles was buried privately, at night on 7 February 1649, in the Henry VIII vault inside St. George's Chapel at Windsor Castle. The King's son, Charles II, later planned an elaborate royal mausoleum, but this was never built.
BkXXII:Chap 25:Sec1 In the Common Prayer Book of the Church of England, the 30th January was designated ‘The Day of the Martyrdom of the Blessed King Charles I’ and ‘A Form of Prayer, with Fasting, to be used yearly’ upon its recurrence determined.
BkXXVIII:Chap11:Sec1 His Catholicism.
BkXXXII:Chap7:Sec1 Not saved by the House of Lords.
BkXXXIII:Chap9:Sec1 The delayed effects of his reign.
Charles II, Charles Stuart, King of England
1630-1685 King of England 1660-1685. Crowned by the Scots after his father’s execution, but defeated by Cromwell, he was forced into exile. George Monck negotiated his return. He showed active Catholic sympathies. Attempts by Parliament to exclude his Catholic brother, later James II, from the succession, failed and from 1681 Charles ruled without Parliament.
BkVI:Chap1:Sec1 A life-size bronze statue of James II by Grinling Gibbons (1648-1721) stood in the Court of Whitehall, has been moved a number of times, and is now sited in front of the National Gallery in Trafalgar Square. Chateaubriand frequently and wrongly refers to it as a statue of Charles II. It is one of the finest outdoor statues in London.
BkXII:Chap5:Sec1 In 1675 Charles created his illegitimate son Charles duke of Richmond, earl of March. This Charles (1672–1723), on whom his father bestowed the surname of Lennox, was the son of the celebrated Louise de Kéroualle, Duchess of Portsmouth.
BkXII:Chap5:Sec1 His mistresses included Lucy Walter, Barbara Villiers, Nell Gwynn, Moll Davis, Louis de Kéroualle, Elizabeth Killigrew, Catherine Pegge, Winifred Wells, Mrs Jane Roberts, Mrs Knight, Mary Killigrew, Elizabeth Countess of Kildare, and Frances Stuart.
BkXXII:Chap 21:Sec1 His English Restoration compared to Louis XVIII.
Charles V, The Wise, King of France
1338-1380. King of France (1364–80). Son of King John II, he became the first French heir apparent to bear the title of dauphin after the addition of the region of Dauphiné to the royal domain in 1349. Regent during his father's captivity in England (1356–60, 1364), Charles dealt successfully with the Jacquerie revolt, with the intrigues of King Charles II of Navarre, and with the popular movement headed by Étienne Marcel, who armed Paris against the Dauphin. Becoming king in 1364, Charles stabilized the coinage and took steps to rid France of the companies of écorcheurs, marauding bands of discharged soldiers. Aided by his great general, Bertrand Du Guesclin, he almost succeeded in driving the English from France. Charles and his ministers, the Marmousets, strengthened the royal authority, introduced a standing army, built a powerful navy, and instituted reforms that put fiscal authority more firmly in the hands of the crown. A patron of the arts and of learning, he established the royal library and interested himself in the embellishment of the Louvre and in the construction of the palace at Saint-Pol. However, his love of pomp and his lack of economy put a severe economic burden on the country. In the last year of his life he sided with Pope Clement VII against Pope Urban VI at the beginning of the Great Schism.
BkXI:Chap3:Sec2 The peasants, Les Jacques (so called from the name Jacques Bonhomme that lords used of their servants) rebelled in 1358 in Beauvais and Meaux (La Jacquerie). Having taken Meaux they were massacred by Charles II of Navarre. The uprising was caused by the ravages of the English army and French nobility during the Hundred Years’ War, which reduced the rural population to destitution.
BkXXXII:Chap3:Sec1 The barricades in Paris during the revolts.
Charles VI, The Well-Beloved, later The Mad, King of France
1368-1422. King of France from 1380.
BkXXXVII:Chap5:Sec1 Playing cards widespread during his reign. La Hire was a contemporary warrior.
Charles VII, The Well-Served, King of France
1403-1461 King of France 1422-1461, he was the son and successor of Charles VI. His reign saw the end of the Hundred Years War. Charles waged only perfunctory warfare against the English. He was prodded into action by the siege of Orléans (1429) in which Joan of Arc helped save the city. After the capture of Orléans, Charles was crowned (1429) at Reims. In 1435, Charles agreed to the Treaty of Arras, which reconciled him with the powerful duke, Philip the Good of Burgundy, who had been an ally of the English. He recovered Paris the following year. By the battle of Formigny and the capture of Cherbourg (1450) the English were expelled from Normandy, and the battle of Castillon (1453) resulted in their withdrawal from Guienne. Charles, although dominated by his mistress, Agnès Sorel, proved an able administrator. He reorganized the army and remodeled French finances, established heavy taxation, particularly through the taille, a direct land tax. In 1438, Charles issued the pragmatic sanction of Bourges, which established the liberty of the French Roman Catholic Church from Rome. In his reign commerce was expanded by the enterprise of Jacques Cœur. The end of Charles's rule was disturbed by the intrigues of the dauphin, who succeeded him as Louis XI.
BkXI:Chap3:Sec2 The peasant armies drove out the English.
Charles VIII, King of France
1470-1498. King of France 1483-1498. He unsuccessfully claimed the throne of Naples. He entered Naples in 1495, but was forced to withdraw faced with an alliance between Austria, Milan, Venice and the Papacy. He married Anne of Brittany.
Charles IX, King of France
1550-1574 King of France 1560-1574. He succeeded his brother Francis II under the regency of his mother, Catherine de’ Medici. She retained her influence throughout his reign. After 1570, however, Charles was temporarily under the sway of the French Huguenot leader Gaspard de Coligny. Catherine, fearing for her power, persuaded her weak son to approve the massacre of Saint Bartholomew’s Day in which Coligny and thousands of other Huguenots were murdered. Charles IX was succeeded by his brother Henry III.
BkXXII:Chap 25:Sec1 St Bartholomew’s Day mentioned.
BkXXXII:Chap14:Sec1 A Valois.
Charles X, King of France
1757-1836 King of France 1824-1830. Younger brother of King Louis XVI and of King Louis XVIII, whom he succeeded, as Comte d’Artois he headed the reactionary faction at the court of Louis XVI. He left France (July, 1789) at the outbreak of the French Revolution and became a leading spirit of the émigré party. After his failure to aid the Vendée insurrection, he stayed in England until the Bourbon restoration (1814). During the reign of Louis XVIII he headed the ultra-royalist opposition, which triumphed after the assassination (1820) of Charles’ son the Duc de Berry. The event caused the fall of the ministry of Élie Decazes and the advent of the Comte de Villèle, who continued as chief minister after Charles’ accession. Among the many attempts of Charles and Villèle to re-establish elements of the ancien régime, as the pre-revolutionary order is called, the law (1825) indemnifying the émigrés for lands confiscated during the Revolution and measures increasing the power of the clergy met with particular disapproval. The bourgeoisie and the liberal press joined in attacking the Villèle cabinet, which resigned in 1827. Villèle's successor, the vicomte de Martignac, vainly tried to steer a middle course, and in 1829 Charles appointed an uncompromising reactionary, Jules Armand de Polignac, as chief minister. To divert attention from internal affairs, Polignac initiated the French venture in Algeria. However, his dissolution (March 1830) of the liberal Chamber of Deputies and his drastic July Ordinances, establishing rigid control of the press, dissolving the newly elected chamber, and restricting suffrage, resulted in the July Revolution. Charles abdicated in favour of his grandson, the Comte de Chambord, and embarked for England. However, the Duc d’Orléans, whom Charles had appointed lieutenant general of France, was chosen “king of the French” as Louis Philippe.
BkXVI:Chap1:Sec1 His ignorance of Chateaubriand’s 1804 resignation.
BkXXIII:Chap3:Sec1 Monsieur in 1815, as the King’s eldest brother. Chateaubriand suggested he leave Paris for Le Havre.
BkXXVI:Chap10:Sec1 Chateaubriand’s note to him of 26th February 1828.
BkXXVIII:Chap4:Sec1 His coronation on the 29th of May 1825.
BkXXVIII:Chap5:Sec1 Chateaubriand’s support for the new monarch. He had held the title Duke of Normany from 1785 to 1789.
BkXXVIII:Chap14:Sec1 His name day, St Charles’ day, was the 4th of November. Chateaubriand published the article in the Journal des Débats on the 3rd November 1827, from which extracts appear in the Memoirs.
BkXXVIII:Chap15:Sec1 Chateaubriand writes to him on 27th April 1827.
BkXXVIII:Chap16:Sec1 At the review of the National Guard on 29th of April 1927, and a description of his character.
BkXXIX:Chap7:Sec3 He died aged 79.
BkXXXI:Chap1:Sec1 Chateaubriand has an audience with him in 1829.
BkXXXI:Chap7:Sec1 His handling of the opening Session of March 1830, and the vote of the 221.
BkXXXI:Chap8:Sec1 His stubbornness in early 1830.
BkXXXII:Chap7:Sec1 Chateaubriand writes to him at Saint Cloud on the 29th of July 1830.
BkXXXIII:Chap4:Sec1 His flight from Rambouillet in August 1830.
BkXXXIII:Chap8:Sec1 His journey into exile in 1830.
BkXXXIII:Chap9:Sec1 His fall a delayed consequence of Louis XVI’s demise during the Revolution.
BkXXXIV:Chap11:Sec1 The Act of 1831 banishing Charles X and his family.
BkXXXV:Chap1:Sec1 His advisers in Paris.
BkXXXV:Chap9:Sec1 He offers Chateaubriand a Peer’s pension (12000 francs) in 1832.
BkXXXV:Chap11:Sec1 He had entered France via Vesoul in February 1814, and in August 1832 left Holyrood for London, leaving for Prague on the 18th of September and arriving on the 25th of October 1832.
BkXXXVI:Chap5:Sec1 His indifference to Chateaubriand.
BkXXXVII:Chap12:Sec1 At the Hradschin.
BkXXXVII:Chap13:Sec1 Chateaubriand’s view of his situation. He refers the reader to Le Roi est Mort: vive le Roi his pamphlet of September 1824 for the portrait of Charles.
BkXXXIX:Chap3:Sec1 He died in 1836.
BkXLII:Chap9:Sec1 He died 6th November 1836 of cholera.
Charles IV of Luxembourg, King of Bohemia, Holy Roman Emperor
1316-1378. He was King of Bohemia 1346 to 1378. He made Prague his Imperial capital (note the Charles Bridge and Charles Square), and is regarded as a father of the country (Czech Republic). He was the son of Jan the Blind.
Charles XII, King of Sweden (Karl XII, Carolus Rex)
1682-1718 King of Sweden 1697-1718. He fought a series of brilliant campaigns in the Northern War (1700-1721) but suffered a disastrous defeat at the hands of the Russians at Pultava and fled to Turkey. In 1714 he unexpectedly arrived at Swedish-occupied Stralsund and defended it against the Prussians and the Danes until December 1715. When it fell he escaped to Sweden and proceeded to invade (1716) Norway. He was killed in the Swedish trenches while besieging the fortress of Fredrikssten.
Charles XIII, King of Sweden
1748-1818. King of Sweden (1809–18) and Norway (1814–18). Called to the throne at the forced abdication (1809) of his nephew, Gustaf IV, Charles accepted a new constitution that limited the monarch’s power, and signed treaties with Denmark, France, and a treaty ceding Finland to Russia. In 1810 he adopted the French marshal Bernadotte (later King Charles XIV) as his heir, and thereafter left all affairs in his hands.
Charles XIV, King of Sweden, see Bernadotte
Charleston, South Carolina
The city in South Carolina near the Atlantic Coast, was founded in 1670, the first military action of the Civil War took place here in 1861.
Charlevoix, le Père François-Xavier
1682-1761. Jesuit historian. He taught in Quebec for four years, and later (1720-1723) explored the French colonies in America, at the request of the government. For twenty-two years he was an editor of the "Memoires de Trevoux," a monthly journal of bibliography, history, and science. His Histoire et description generale de la Nouvelle France is his most important work.
BkVII:Chap10:Sec1 His description of the Canadian Indians.
Squadron-Commander in the Alsace Gendarmerie (attached to the 19th Legion) in 1804, he was attached at the time to Sergeant Pfersdorff of Benfield’s Brigade. He ws made Commandant of the 3rd Gendarmerie Legion at Hamburg in 1811 on his appointment as Colonel. Commandant of the 34th Legion of the Imperial Gendarmerie (Villes Hanséatiques) (1811-1814).
Charmel, correctly Chalmel, Abbé
Charras, Jean-Baptiste, Colonel
1810-1865. He had been expelled from the Polytechnique for singing the Marseillaise and toasting Lafayette. He later served in Algeria until the February Revolution. He played a role in the Second Republic but was proscribed after 2nd December 1851 and spent the rest of his life on his History of the 1815 Campaign (1863) and an unfinished History of the 1813 War in Germany.
BkXXXII:Chap5:Sec1 Mentioned in July 1830.
Charrière, Agnes Isabel Émilie, Madame de
1740-1805. Known as Belle van Zuylen in the Netherlands and Madame de Charrière elsewhere, she was a Dutch-born writer who lived the latter half of her life in Switzerland. She is now best known for her letters although she also wrote novels, pamphlets and plays.
BkXXVIII:Chap4:Sec1 Her first novel Lettres neuchâteloises of 1784 contains the characters named.
BkXXVIII:Chap10:Sec1 Her best known novella Caliste (1787) was a sequel to Lettres écrites de Lausanne (1785) and usually published with it.
c1385-c1443. A French writer, he was secretary to Charles VII. His most popular work was the love poem La Belle Dame sans mercy (1424), which provided Keats with a title. Le Quadrilogue invectif (1422), a political pamphlet in vigorous prose, called for French solidarity to combat the turmoil of the Hundred Years War.
The town, in North Central France, is capital of the Eure-et-Loire department on the River Eure. The Gothic Cathedral begun c1194 is famous, especially for its 13th Century stained glass. It is the principal market town of the Beauce region.
A mythical whirlpool it lay between Italy and Sicily in the Messenian straits. Charybdis was the voracious daughter of Mother Earth and Neptune, hurled into the sea, and thrice, daily, drawing in and spewing out a huge volume of water. See Homer’s Odyssey.
Chasteler de Courcelles, Johan Gabriel de
1763-1825. A career soldier and Austrian general he was badly wounded on more than one occasion. In 1809 he commanded the VIII army corps in Italy, entered the Tyrol and was heavily defeated at Wörgl. He died in Venice.
BkXIX:Chap16:Sec1 Commanding in the Tyrol in 1809.
Chastenay, Madame de
A friend of Annibal Moreau. She may possibly be identified with Catherine Louise d’Herbouville, born at Rouen, the wife of Erard Louis Guil Comte de Chastenay de Lanty (1748-1830). By him she had two children, a daughter, the famous and precocious Louise Marie Victorine (1771-1815), a writer and the author of two volumes of memoirs published posthumously in 1896, and a son, Henri Louis (born 1772), the last to bear the title of Comte de Chastenay. There is a portrait, 1785, which may be of her, by Madame Le Brun.
BkIV:Chap8:Sec1 Chateaubriand walks past her house in 1787.
Chastenay, Louise Marie Victorine Lanty, Comtesse de
1771-1855. Daughter of Madame de Chastenay, she was the author of Memoires published posthumously in 1896, Du Génie des Peuples Anciens (1808) and Le Calendrier de Flore, as well as translations of Ann Radcliff (The Mysteries of Udolpho, 1797) and Goldsmith. She was the friend of writers, politicians and scientists.
BkXIII:Chap7:Sec1 Chateaubriand quotes from her Memoires (not then published).
Chateau d’Assy, Monsieur de
A gentleman of the neighbourhood of Combourg.
Chateaubourg, Bénigne-Jeanne de Chateaubriand, Comtesse de Québriac, then de la Celle de,
1761-1848 Sister of Chateaubriand. Born 31st August 1761. Married Jean-François Xavier, Comte de Québriac 1780, widowed 1783. Married Paul-Marie-François de la Celle, Comte de Chateaubourg 1786, widowed 1816. Died 16th May 1848.
BkI:Chap2:Sec1 Her birth.
BkIV:Chap4:Sec1 Remarried in 1786.
Chateaubourg, Charles-Marie-François de la Celle, Comte de
d. 1777 Elder brother of Paul.
BkV:Chap6:Sec1 His ghost.
Chateaubourg, Paul-Marie-François de la Celle, Comte de
1752-1816 Married Bénigne-Jeanne de Chateaubriand 24th April 1786.
BkIV:Chap4:Sec1 He gave Chateaubriand letters of recommendation to the officers of the Navarre Regiment in 1786.
BkI:Chap1:Sec6 Their role in history.
BkXII:Chap5:Sec1 The family line mentioned.
BkI:Chap1:Sec6 First recorded ancestor of Chateaubriand, probably fought in the Battle of Hastings 1066.
Chateaubriand, Geoffroy IV, Baron de,
c1216-1263. Died 29th March 1263, aged 47. Son of Sire Geoffroy III, de Châteaubriand, Sénéchal de la Mée, and of Béatrice de Montrenault. He married (his third wife after Amourie de Thouars, and Agnès de Laval) Sybille de la Guerche. His son Briant married Jeanne de Beaufort.
BkI:Chap1:Sec6 Agnès de Laval his second wife.
Chateaubriand, Geoffroy V, Twelfth Baron de
1237-1284. Son of Geoffroy IV.
Chateaubriand, Sybille de la Guerche, de
c 1220-1251. Daughter of Guillaume III de la Guerche. Wife of Geoffroy IV de Chateaubriand.
BkI:Chap1:Sec3 Died of joy and shock at her husband’s return from imprisonment in the Holy Land, according to Chateaubriand.
Chateaubriand de la Roche (or de Roches) Baritaut, Les
BkI:Chap1:Sec4 A branch of the Chateaubriand Family. Also called the Seigneurs du Lion d’Angers. Note Isabeau de Chateaubriand, daughter of Geoffroi Ier Brideau de Chateaubriand, Dames des Roches Baritaut, c1365-c1410 She married Guyon II or Guy du Puy du Fou.
Chateaubriand de Beaufort, Dame Renée de
Last of the direct line of the Sires de Beaufort.
Chateaubriand, Françoise de Foix, Comtesse de
1495-1537. Dame de Châteaubriant in Brittany, she was mistress of François I from 1518 to 1528, and was present at the Field of the Cloth of Gold in 1520.
Chateaubriand, Madame Claude de
Possibly this is a pseudonym for the young Chateaubriand himself. The verse would then be a pastiche.
Chateaubriand de la Guerrande (or Guérande), Christophe II de
1597-1675 Paternal great-great-great grandfather of Chateaubriand.
BkI:Chap1:Sec4 BkI:Chap1:Sec8 He established his nobility and hereditary rights in 1669. The ancestral land of La Guerrande was in the parish of Hénanbihen (Côtes-du-Nord) ten or so kilometres to the north-west of Plancoët, and is here confused with the town of Guérande in Morbihan.
Chateaubriand de la Guerrande, Jean de,
1631-1711. Son of Christophe II.
Chateaubriand de la Guerrande, Michel de,
Chateaubriand de la Guerrande, Alexis de
Elder son of Michel.
BkI:Chap1:Sec8 Mentioned as head of the family at the beginning of the eighteenth century.
Chateaubriand, Amaury de, Seigneur de la Ville-André
Chateaubriand de la Villeneuve, Jacques-François de, Seigneur des Touches
1683-1729. Born 19th February 1683, he was the son of the preceding. Paternal grandfather of Chateaubriand, he married Pétronille-Claude Lamour de Lanjégu 27th August 1713, and died 28th March 1729.
BkI:Chap1:Sec8 Mentioned. The division of his estate was in fact deferred, due to the young age of his sons, and to support their widowed mother, and the division of the inheritance among the sons was not made until 1761 when René bought Combourg. It was then that Joseph removed to Paris with his share.
Chateaubriand, Pétronille-Claude Lamour de Lanjégu, Madame de
1691-1781 Paternal grandmother of Chateaubriand, she married Jacques-François 1713. She was widowed in 1729. After 1775 she moved to live near her third son, and died 22nd October 1781.
Chateaubriand, François-Henri, Abbé de
Chateaubriand du Plessis, Pierre-Anne-Marie de,
1727-1794. Second son of Jacques-François, he was uncle to Chateaubriand. A Sailor, he married Marie-Jeanne-Thérèse Brignon de Lehen, 12th February 1760. Imprisoned during the Terror, he died in prison, at Saint-Malo, 20th August 1794.
BkI:Chap1:Sec10 Made captain in 1758, commanding slave ships till 1776 for his brother. He retired to Val Guildo by the Rance in 1779.
Chateaubriand, Marie-Jeanne-Thérèse Brignon de Lehen, Dame de
Wife of Pierre. Aunt of Chateaubriand.
BkI:Chap2:Sec1 Signatory at Chateaubriand’s baptism.
Chateaubriand, Marie Anne Renée de
Daughter of Pierre.
Chateaubriand du Parc, Joseph-Urbain de,
1728-1772. Youngest son of Jacques-François. Uncle of Chateaubriand, he served as a sailor alongside his brothers for fifteen years. He was an ensign in the New World from 1746 (aged 18) aboard the Tiger where René was a lieutenant: a lieutenant himself in 1752, then second in command in 1759 of the Villegenie where his other brother Pierre was captain. He did not retire to Paris till 1761, where his life became mysterious. He died 13th August 1772 at Guitté, close to his mother.
BkI:Chap1:Sec8 The account of his life somewhat distorted by Chateaubriand.
Chateaubriand du Plessis, Stanislas-Pierre: Jean-Marie de,
1767-1785. Born 23rd February 1767, he was the elder son of Pierre, cousin of Chateaubriand, page to the Queen, then sailor, drowned off Africa. Admitted as a candidate at Brest on the 25th April 1782, he was dismissed after failing twice in his examination for the Marine Guard. He set sail on 3rd October from Saint-Malo on a trade voyage aboard the Marquis de Castries which lasted until 1785. The cause of his death is unknown, happening on board, off the coast of Madagascar, 15th March 1785, three weeks after a violent revolt of the slaves aboard the transport.
Chateaubriand du Plessis, Armand-Louis-Marie de,
1768-1809 Born 15th March 1768, he was the younger son of Pierre. A Cousin of Chateaubriand, he fought with him in the Army of Princes. Emigrating to Jersey, he married Jeanne (Jenny) Le Brun at Jersey, 14th September 1795. Shipwrecked and captured 1809, he was executed on the 31st March 1809.
BkXVIII:Chap6:Sec1 The ‘fatal incident’ was Armand’s execution.
BkXVIII:Chap7:Sec1 Remained in England, when Chateaubriand returned. His mission to France.
BkXVIII:Chap7:Sec2 His arrest.
Chateaubriand tried to intercede with Fouché on his behalf.
Chateaubriand, Frédérick de
Born 11th November 1799, he was the son of Armand.
BkI:Chap5:Sec1 Placed by Chateaubriand in Monsieur’s Guard after Armand’s death. He married Mademoiselle de Gastaldi at Nancy, and they had two sons. He subsequently retired from the service. (Chateaubriand’s footnote.)
Chateaubriand, Jeanne Thérèse de Gastaldi, Dame de
Wife of Frédérick.
BkI:Chap5:Sec1 Mentioned in a footnote.
Chateaubriand (de Combourg), René-Auguste de
1718-1786. Chateaubriand’s father, married Apolline-Jeanne-Suzanne de Bedée, in the church at Bourseul, 3rd July 1753. He died 6th September 1786. Disinterred and remains burnt by villagers of Combourg at the start of the Revolution.
BkI:Chap1:Sec8 His parenthood.
BkI:Chap1:Sec9 His entry into the Navy. Having served as an officer in the New World he received his master’s papers in June 1747, and sailed to Saint Dominique or Guinea in 1756. At forty he retired to Saint-Malo where he set up on his own account with the capital he had acquired, while his brothers Pierre and Joseph replaced him at sea.
BkI:Chap1:Sec11. His marriage. He made a last voyage (1754-56) after his marriage, his sole trading trip, for a Nantes ship-owner. His young wife lived in her father’s house, the Manoir de la Boitardais, till he returned. They moved to Saint-Malo in 1757 (1st September, Rue des Juifs, in a house rented from Monsieur Magon de Boisgarein). The Seven Years War 1756-1763 (especially thanks to privateering) contributed to his prosperity, so much so that in 1762 he had a fortune of 560,000 livres. Having bought Combourg for 300,000 livres in 1761 which he paid to the Marshal de Duras in four years (re-selling part of the domain for 40,000 livres) he still had more than 200,000 livres which allowed him to trade on his own account or with others, but in increasingly difficult trading conditions.
BkI:Chap2:Sec1 His desire for a second son to secure the family line.
BkI:Chap3:Sec1 His desire to regain Combourg.
BkI:Chap3:Sec2 His disdain for the court.
BkI:Chap5:Sec2 Ignores his son’s mishap.
BkI:Chap6:Sec1 He calls on his family to join him at Combourg (in 1777).
BkI:Chap7:Sec2 He greets his family’s arrival at Combourg (in 1777).
BkII:Chap2:Sec1 His revival of ancient customs at Combourg.
BkII:Chap3:Sec1 Lodges the colonels of two regiments at Combourg.
BkII:Chap4:Sec3 His belief in quack remedies.
BkII:Chap10:Sec1 His reception of his son.
BkXXXVII:Chap5:Sec1 His father’s nature and life at Combourg.
BkIII:Chap3:Sec1 He takes his son hunting.
BkIII:Chap12:Sec1 His gloomy nature.
BkIII:Chap14:Sec2 His farewell to his son.
BkIII:Chap14:Sec3 Chateaubriand’s return to Combourg in 1787 after his father’s death. His father’s dreams of reviving the family fortunes. His father’s ashes were snatched from the grave in 1794 during the Revolution, and his remains burnt in the public square.
BkIV:Chap5:Sec1 Mentioned in the death certificate of Chateaubriand’s mother.
BkIV:Chap6:Sec1 Chateaubriand mourns him.
Chateaubriand, Apolline-Jeanne-Suzanne de Bedée, Madame de
1726-1798 Wife of René, daughter of Ange-Annibal de Bedée, she was the mother of Chateaubriand. Born 7th April 1726, married 3rd July 1753, she was widowed 6th September 1786. Imprisoned in 1794, she died 31st May 1798.
BkI:Chap3:Sec2 Her character.
BkI:Chap6:Sec1 Her wishes for his education.
BkII:Chap6:Sec1 She attends her son’s first communion.
BkII:Chap10:Sec1 Her reception of her son.
BkIII:Chap13:Sec1 Her wish for her son to be a priest. The decision is left to him.
BkIII:Chap14:Sec2 Her sighs at his destiny.
BkIII:Chap14:Sec3 Her visit with Chateaubriand to Combourg in December 1788.
BkIV:Chap5:Sec1 Her death certificate, dated 12th Prairial year VI of the Republic, i.e. the 31st May 1798.
BkV:Chap15:Sec4 She witnessed Chateaubriand’s departure for America on 7th April 1791.
BkIX:Chap1:Sec1 She sends Chateaubriand the money to clear his debts, in January 1792.
BkX:Chap8:Sec1 Arrested 10th February 1794, transferred to Paris at the start of May, released in October, a little before her daughters.
Chateaubriand, Geoffroy-René-Marie de,
Born 4th May 1758. Eldest brother of Chateaubriand, died in infancy.
Chateaubriand, Jean-Baptiste-Auguste, Comte de
1759-1794 Elder brother of Chateaubriand, born 23rd June 1759, he was Counsellor at the High Court of Brittany in 1779. Entered the Royal Cavalry regiment, and joined the diplomatic corps. He married Aline-Thérèse Le Pelletier de Rosanbo in 1787. He was guillotined with her, Madame de Rosanbo and Malesherbes on the 22nd of April 1794.
BkI:Chap1:Sec8 Mentioned as writing quite good verse, and dying on the scaffold.
BkI:Chap2:Sec1 His birth.
BkII:Chap3:Sec3 Takes Chateaubriand to the theatre.
BkII:Chap10:Sec1 His career.
BkIII:Chap14:Sec2 Obtains a commission for Chateaubriand.
BkIII:Chap14:Sec3 His death referred to.
BkIV:Chap3:Sec2 Looks after Chateaubriand in Paris in 1786.
BkIV:Chap7:Sec1 Visits Combourg to divide the inheritance in 1787. He applied for the military in 1787.
BkIV:Chap8:Sec1 Looks after Chateaubriand in Paris in 1787.
BkIV:Chap9:Sec3 His disappointment at Chateaubriands’ behaviour.
BkIV:Chap10:Sec3 Living with his father-in-law, in Paris, in 1788.
BkIV:Chap13:Sec1 Right wing and monarchist in his politics.
BkV:Chap15:Sec2 Argued with Chateaubriand over politics.
BkX:Chap8:Sec1 Chateaubriand learnt of his death and those of his other relatives, executed on the 22nd of April 1794 at 5pm, in the Place de la Révolution, from the newspapers (as reported in the London press, and the Norfolk Chronicle of 10th May 1794)
BkX:Chap8:Sec2 His death warrant exhibited.
BkXI:Chap6:Sec1 His armorial bearings.
Chateaubriand, Aline-Thérèse Le Pelletier de Rosanbo, Comtesse de
Wife of the Comte. Sister-in-Law of Chateaubriand, she married in 1787. She was guillotined with her husband 22nd April 1794.
BkIV:Chap7:Sec1 About to marry in 1787.
BkX:Chap8:Sec1 Chateaubriand learnt of her death and those of his other relatives, executed on the 22nd of April 1794 at 5pm, in the Place de la Révolution. Her wedding ring found in 1820 (!) in the Rue Cosette.
BkXXX:Chap14:Sec1 Her good works.
Chateaubriand, Marie-Anne de (Marianne), see Marigny, Comtesse de
Chateaubriand, Bénigne-Jeanne de, Comtesse de Québriac, See Chateaubourg, Comtesse de
Chateaubriand, Julie-Marie-Agathe de, See Farcy de Montvallon, Comtesse de
Chateaubriand, Lucile, see also Caud, Lucile-Angélique, Dame de
1764-1804. Born 7th August 1764, she was the wife of Jacques-Louis-René de Caud, and sister of Chateaubriand. She was admitted with the title of Comtesse to Chapter of L’Argentière 1783. Imprisoned 1793-1794. She married Jacques de Caud 1796, and was widowed 1797. She spent last weeks of her life in an Augustine convent, and died 10th November 1804.
BkI:Chap1:Sec8 Mentioned. She had a literary gift.
BkI:Chap2:Sec1 Her birth.
BkI:Chap3:Sec3 Description of her as a child.
BkI:Chap4:Sec6 She helped the young Chateaubriand mend his torn clothes.
BkI:Chap5:Sec1 Her childhood girlfriends.
BkIII:Chap6:Sec1 Her writing. Her persecution mania.
BkIII:Chap7:Sec2 She inspired Chateaubriand’s early literary efforts.
BkIII:Chap12:Sec1 Her unhappiness.
BkIII:Chap14:Sec3 Chateaubriand refers to her having died.
BkIV:Chap9:Sec4 Chateaubriand stays with her and Julie.
BkIV:Chap10:Sec1 Her instinct towards a wider life.
BkIV:Chap10:Sec3 Her return to Paris with Julie from Fougères, possibly early in 1788.
BkIV:Chap13:Sec1 She acts in a domestic play.
BkV:Chap7:Sec1 Wished to return to Paris in 1789.
BkV:Chap8:Sec1 Arrived in Paris with Chateaubriand on 30th June 1789.
BkV:Chap15:Sec4 Mentioned, as Chateaubriand recalls leaving for America.
BkIX:Chap2:Sec1 Travelled to Paris with Chateaubriand in mid-1792.
BkIX:Chap6:Sec2 Spent the 14th July 1792 with Chateaubriand and his brother, and Julie, in the Tivoli Gardens.
BkX:Chap8:Sec1 BkX:Chap8:Sec2 BkXXXV:Chap6:Sec1 Arrested at Fougères, with Julie and Céleste, in mid-October 1793. Imprisoned in the town and then transferred to the Convent du Bon-Pasteur at Rennes. Released 5th November 1794.
BkXV:Chap2:Sec1 Alluded to. Writes from Rennes in October 1803.
BkXVII:Chap6:Sec1 Her death occurred on 9th of November 1804 at 6 Rue d’Orléans.
BkXLI:Chap3:Sec1 Chateaubriand remembers her in 1833.
Chateaubriand, Francois-Rene, Chevalier, then Vicomte de
1768-1848 The Author. He was born on the 4th of September 1768.
BkI:Chap2:Sec1 His birth and baptismal entry. The stormy weather at the time of his birth is attested by contemporary records, there were public prayers and processions aimed at securing its abatement! It had lasted for about a month, and ended about the 24th of the month.
BkVIII:Chap5:Sec1 Chateaubriand quotes from his own verses, see Book XXXI, Chapter 1.
BkXXIV:Chap14:Sec1 Mentioned by Napoleon.
BkXXIX:Chap2:Sec1 The Benedictine, Clair’s nickname for Chateaubriand himself.
BkXXX:Chap5:Sec1 He was suffering from rheumatism, neuralgia and vertigo in Rome in 1829.
BkXXXVIII:Chap7:Sec1 His name mentioned.
BkXLII:Chap18:Sec1 The received text reads ‘this 16th of November 1841’, however the time of sunrise and the moon phase and position as described did not occur that morning, though all the conditions described were substantially met on the 1st of November (true sunrise was at 6.37 a.m. on the 1st, but the dawn glow would have been visible earlier, the moon was 95% full, at 30deg altitude, and positioned above the Invalides as seen from the Rue du Bac, assuming the weather allowed it to be visible. Redshift-4 software has been used to check the astronomical details). The conditions were substantially met at other dates after Chateaubriand’s taking up residence at 112 Rue du Bac in August 1838, and Chateaubriand continuously edited his manuscript before, during and after 1841. That suggests three main possibilities: that there has been a transcription error at some stage, for the 1st of November: or that Chateaubriand wished to use the chosen sunrise time, moon phase and position, at a real date, but miscalculated or mis-remembered the date: or that the 16th of November was the date on which the coda was actually drafted but Chateaubriand used a symbolic rather than actual moon phase and position for that day (despite it being open to him to select a date of actual occurrence without the reader being any the wiser), thus merging actuality, memory and symbol but not in a way obvious to the reader.
Chateaubriand, Céleste Buisson de la Vigne, Vicomtesse de
1774-1847 Chateaubriand’s wife, who was, when he married her, a young orphaned Breton friend of Lucile’s who was thought to be wealthy.
BkIX:Chap1:Sec2 The initial marriage ceremony was performed on the 21st February 1792 by a certain Abbé Buard. The marriage was registered on the 29th but without the Buisson family signing. The child was a minor, and by the law of 14th September 1791 a marriage performed by a priest who had not sworn the oath was invalid in civil law. Reconciliation was achieved between the families, and a valid marriage contract was signed on 17th March 1792 in the presence of both. Financially it had only a limited impact on Chateaubriand’s situation.
BkIX:Chap2:Sec1 Travelled to Paris with Chateaubriand in the spring of 1792. The young couple probably spent the first few weeks of their marriage at the Manoir des Chênes at Paramé, near Saint-Malo. They then travelled to Fougères, and spent the first fortnight in May there.
BkIX:Chap6:Sec1 Her financial situation on marrying.
BkIX:Chap6:Sec2 Spent the 14th July 1792 with Chateaubriand and his brother in the Tivoli Gardens.
BkX:Chap8:Sec1 BkX:Chap8:Sec2 Arrested at Fougères, with Julie and Lucile, in mid-October 1793. Imprisoned in the town and then transferred to the Convent du Bon-Pasteur at Rennes. Released 5th November 1794.
BkXIII:Chap8:Sec1 Re-united with Chateaubriand after his return to France.
BkXIV:Chap2:Sec5 Chateaubriand visited her at Fougères from 27th November to 5th December 1802.
BkXIV:Chap5:Sec1 She prepared to rejoin Chateaubriand to accompany him to Rome in 1803.
BkXVI:Chap1:Sec1 Joined Chateaubriand in Paris to travel to the Valais. Chateaubriand travelled via Florence, Milan, Lyons (6th February) and Villeneuve (where he stayed with Joubert), to arrive in Paris on the 15th February 1804.
BkXVII:Chap5:Sec1 With Chateaubriand, visiting La Chartreuse in 1805.
BkXXII:Chap10:Sec1 Gatherings at her house in 1814.
BkXXIII:Chap4:Sec1 At the start of the Hundred Days.
Residents of Ghent in 1815.
BkXXVI:Chap11:Sec1 She remained in France when he was appointed Ambassador to London in 1822.
BkXXVIII:Chap10:Sec1 She travelled to Seyne near Toulon in March 1826 to take the sun. At the start of May she was ready to return to Paris from Lyons. The Chateaubriands then went on to Lausanne on the 10th of May, for a holiday having originally intended a longer stay. She returned to Paris on the 16th July, Chateaubriand on the 30th.
BkXXIX:Chap2:Sec3 His wife rides in the carriage while he walks up Somma with the lead-oxen, hitched in front of the horses.
BkXXIX:Chap16:Sec1 Her opposition to the ladies (‘Jesuitesses’) of the Convent of Santissima Trinitàdei Monti, near the Villa Medici, built for the Order of Minims but transferred to St Madeleine-Sophie Barat, who founded the Sisters of the Sacred Heart. Her support of the Convent of St Denis founded in Rome in 1815.
BkXXXIV:Chap15:Sec1 In Paris during the cholera epidemic of 1832.
BkXXXV:Chap4:Sec1 Present in the Rue d’Enfer during Chateaubriand’s arrest on the 16th of June 1832.
BkXXXV:Chap6:Sec1 She visits Chateaubriand while he is under house-arrest.
BkXXXV:Chap9:Sec1 Her desire to leave France in 1832.
BkXXXV:Chap17:Sec1 She did not leave Paris until the beginning of September 1832.
Chateaubriand, Geoffroy-Louis, Comte de
1790-1873 Son of Jean-Baptiste-Auguste, he was a nephew of Chateaubriand. He married Zélie d’Organdes on the 8th October 1811. He was a serving officer from 1814-1830, retiring with the rank of Colonel. His son Geoffrey (1828-1889) restored Combourg, leaving it to his second daughter, the Comtesse de Durfort. At her death, in 1962, Combourg returned to Geoffroy’s line, to the Comtesse de la Tour du Pin-Verclause.
BkX:Chap8:Sec1 His mother’s wedding ring found in the gutter.
BkXVII:Chap1:Sec1 Married at Mesnil in 1811.
BkXXXIII:Chap4:Sec1 In command of the 4th Chasseurs in August 1830.
BkXXXV:Chap10:Sec1 He lends Chateaubriand 20,000 francs in 1832.
Chateaubriand, Zélie d’Orglandes, Comtesse de
BkI:Chap1:Sec6. Marriage to Louis (1811), and children.
BkXVII:Chap1:Sec1 Married at Mesnil in 1811.
Chateaubriand, Christian-Antoine, de
1791-1843. Younger brother of Geoffroy-Louis, he was a nephew of Chateaubriand. In Rome in 1813, he was in the Royal Guard and accompanied the King to Ghent, and served in the war in Spain in 1823. His religious vocation then declared itself. He entered the College of Jesuits in Rome in 1824. He died at Chieri near Turin, 27th May 1843.
BkXXX:Chap14:Sec1 Chateaubriand meets him in Rome in 1829.
BkXXXVI:Chap4:Sec1 Mentioned in 1833.
Chateaubriand de la Guerrande, Charles-Hilaire, Abbé de
1708-1802. Son of Jacques de Chateaubriand de Bellestre, younger brother of Christophe II, he was a cousin of Chateaubriand. The last member of this branch of the family he was curé, successively, of several Breton parishes, then Rector of the parish of Saint-Étienne at Rennes.
BkII:Chap5:Sec1 Visits Chateaubriand at school.
Chateaubriand, Guy de
c1260-c1314. Grandson of Geoffroy IV de Chateaubriand.
BkI:Chap1:Sec6 His embassy to Rome in 1309.
Chateaugiron, Abbé de
A teacher at Rennes college.
Châteauroux, Marie-Anne de Mailly-Nesle, Duchesse de
1717-1744. Marquise de La Tournelle, she was a mistress of Louis XV.
BkXVII:Chap2:Sec1 Her sisters were the Comtesse de Mailly (Louise-Julie de Mailly-Nesle, 1710-1751), the Comtesse de Vintimille (Pauline-Félicité de Mailly-Nesle, 1712-1741), and the Duchesse de Lauraguais (Diana-Adélaïde de Mailly-Nesle, 1713-1760). All were mistresses of Louis XV.
1575-1594. He attempted to assassinate Henri IV of France on 27 December 1594. The son of a cloth merchant he managed to gain entry to the King's chamber. When Henry stooped to help two officials rise who knelt before him, Châtel attacked him with a knife, cutting his lip.
A town about 10 kilometres south-west of Paris in the Hauts-de-Seine, and not far from Versailles which is to its west, it was the location of Chateaubriand’s house in the hamlet of Aulnay, where he lived off and on for ten years. There is a persistent legend that Voltaire who was born in Paris was actually born at Châtenay.
Chatham, William Pitt the Elder, 1st Earl of,
1708-1778. The British political leader and orator who directed his country’s military effort during the Seven Years’ War was known as the Great Commoner.
A commune of north-eastern France, about 56 miles east-northeast of Paris, it is a sous-préfecture of the Aisne département, in the Picardie administrative région.
BkXXXVIII:Chap10:Sec1 Chateaubriand there in June 1833. The reference is to an anecdote of Racine’s in which La Fontaine arrived there to see his wife who was at prayer and so he left without seeing her.
The town is on the River Seine south-east of Troyes.
Châtillon, Henri de
A Governor for the Crown of France, probably Chateaubriand intends Jacques de Chatillon-sur-Marne (d.1302), who was Governor of Flanders and against whom Ghent rose in 1302.
Châtillon, Pauline de Lannoy, Duchesse de
1774-1826. The widow of the Duke de Châtillon-Montmorency, she later married Raymond de Bérenger.
Chaulieu, Guillaume Amfrye, Abbé de
1639-1720. A French poet and wit, he was born at Fontenay, Normandy. He became a familiar face among the circle of the Temple at the time of the Duc de Vendôme. In his later years Chaulieu spent much time at the little court of the Duchesse du Maine at Sceaux. There he became the trusted and devoted friend of Mlle Delaunay, with whom he carried on an interesting correspondence. Among his poems the best known are his Ode to Fontenay and La Retraite.
BkXLII:Chap14:Sec1 A quotation from the Ode.
Chaulnes, Charles d’Albert d’Ailly, Duc de
1625-1698. Governor of Brittany 1669-1694.
BkV:Chap2:Sec 2 Mentioned.
Chaumette, Pierre Gaspard, called Anaxagoras
1763-1794. Born at Nevers. Studied medicine in Paris, and joined the Cordeliers Club. Prosecutor of the insurrectionary Commune. An enemy of the Girondists, he nevertheless fell foul of Robespierre who distrusted the power of the Commune, and was ultimately arraigned and guillotined.
The town in the Haute-Marne is on the River Marne east of Troyes.
BkXXII:Chap9:Sec1 The Allies signed a treaty of alliance there in early 1814.
Originating in the 11th century, it was built by Eudes II, Count of Blois. In 1560, the castle became the property of Catherine de’ Medici. On the death of her husband, Henry II, Catherine used her power to take over the much coveted Château de Chenonceau from her husband’s mistress, Diane de Poitiers. As certain legalities had to be met, Diane was forced to accept Chaumont as payment for her beloved Chenonceau. Diane lived at Chaumont for only a short time after which the castle was sold.
A commune in the Aisne department of Picardy, it was loyal to Henri IV in 1591.
BkXXXVI:Chap11:Sec1 The story of the cowherd of Chauny.
Chauvin, Pierre Athanase,
1774-1832. Based in Rome, he was one of the earliest of the ‘Troubadour’ style painters.
BkXXIX:Chap16:Sec1 His daughter in a play in 1829.
Cheftel (Chèvetel), Louis
BkIII:Chap13:Sec1 He attended Chateaubriand.
Cheftel (Chèvetel), Valentin
1758-1834. Son of Louis, and also a doctor. Engaged by the Marquis de Rouërie to treat his wife (Louise-Caroline Guérin, Marquise de Saint-Brice) and in his confidence, he denounced him, and his Royalist conspiracy, to Danton, in September 1792. In 1794 he married an actress who died in 1818. He ended his life in poverty, perhaps marrying again a servant who begged for him from door to door. After his death it was she perhaps who approached Chateaubriand.
The notorious cape, the southernmost point of the Bay of Antalya, Turkey, (the coastal region was ancient Pamphylia) lies east of Rhodes and north of Cyprus. The plain of Antalya to the east is bordered by a mountainous coast.
BkXVIII:Chap2:Sec1 Chateaubriand near there in September 1806.
Chênedollé, Charles-Julian Lioult de
1769-1833. French poet. Emigrating in 1791, he fought two campaigns in the army of Condé, and eventually found his way to Hamburg, where he met Antoine de Rivarol, of whose brilliant conversation he has left an account. He also visited Madame de Staël in her retreat at Coppet. On his return to Paris in 1799 he met Chateaubriand and his sister Lucile (Mme de Caud), to whom he became deeply attached. After her death in 1804, Chênedollé returned to Normandy, where he married Aimée de Banville. He eventually became inspector of the academy of Caen (1812-1832). He published his Genie de l'Homme in 1807, and in 1820 his Etudes poétiques, which had the misfortune to appear shortly after the Meditations of Lamartine, so that the author did not receive the credit of their real originality. Chênedollé had many sympathies with the romanticists, and was a contributor to their organ, the Muse française. His other works include the Esprit de Rivarol (1808) in conjunction with Fayolle.
BkXIII:Chap7:Sec2 The man described.
BkXIII:Chap8:Sec1 Wished to marry Lucile in 1802-3. He had however already married in 1796 in Hamburg, though he claimed it to be invalid, and the liaison was terminated.
BkXV:Chap1:Sec1 He announced a visit to Lascardais in a letter of the 12th July 1803, which Lucile received on the 19th and replied to positively on the 23rd. He arrived soon after.
BkXVII:Chap6:Sec1 Mentioned in a letter of Lucile’s.
Chénier, André de
1762-94. The French poet born in Istanbul of Greek-French parentage, he studied in Paris and worked in London before returning to revolutionary France in 1789. An outspoken political journalist he was arrested and guillotined. His posthumously published poems, notably the Iambes and Odes, influenced later Romantic poets.
BkXVIII:Chap8:Sec2 Mentioned in Chateaubriand’s Academy speech.
1764-1811. Younger brother of the poet, known for his tragedy Charles IX, performed with Talma in 1789. A Member of the Convention he voted for the death of the King. Chateaubriand succeeded to his chair at the Academy in 1811.
BkIX:Chap2:Sec1 The success of Charles IX in 1792.
BkXVIII:Chap8:Sec1 Chateaubriand succeeded to his chair at the Academy (The Literary Academy is one of the five Academies of the Institut de France).
BkXVIII:Chap8:Sec2 His death reported. Mentioned in Chateaubriand’s Academy speech.
c2600 BC. King of Egypt: a Pharaoh of the 4th Dynasty, and the father of Khafre. He ordered the construction of the Great Pyramid at Giza. His funeral barge was excavated in good condition.
BkI:Chap7:Sec2 The Great Pyramid’s sloping entrance passages.
Cherasco, Armistice of
The defeated Piedmontese signed an Armistice with Bonaparte on April 28th 1796. Cherasco in the province of Cuneo, is a medieval town with a Visconti castle.
The seaport is in north western France, in the Manche department on the Cotentin peninsula.
BkXXXIII:Chap3:Sec1 BkXXXIII:Chap8:Sec1 Charles X embarked there for England in 1830. At the end of the Hundred Year’s War Edward III disembarked his troops at Saint-Vaast-La-Hougue, on the 12th of July 1346, and ravaged Cotentin and lower Normandy.
1718-1785 The Généalogiste official des Ordres Royaux, Genealogist of the King’s Orders, in the reign of Louis XVI, his son Louis-Nicolas-Hyacinthe Chérin (1762-1799) also followed him in that role. To prove their noble status, individuals were asked to submit proofs of their noble ancestry, including, marriage contracts, family histories, notarial contracts, abstracts of parish registers, etc.
At the time of European contact, the Cherokees numbered about twenty-two thousand and controlled more than forty thousand square miles of land. Their homeland consisted of parts of eight present states: the Carolinas, the Virginias, Kentucky, Tennessee, Georgia, and Alabama. The original holdings were gradually eliminated by more than three dozen land cessions with the British and the United States between 1721 and 1835. By 1819, Cherokee territory included only the adjacent mountainous areas of North Carolina, Tennessee, Georgia, and Alabama. In December 1835, the Treaty of New Echota ceded the last remaining territory east of the Mississippi. In exchange the Cherokees received equivalent holdings in what is now north-eastern Oklahoma.
Chesapeake Bay, USA
An inlet of the Atlantic Ocean separating the Delmarva Peninsula from mainland Maryland and Virginia. Explored and charted by John Smith in 1608, it is an important link in the Intra-coastal Waterway. Chesapeake Bay was the site of the Battle of the Chesapeake in 1781, during which the French fleet defeated the British Royal Navy in the decisive naval battle of the American Revolutionary War.
BkVI:Chap6:Sec2 The pilot came on board on Saturday the 2nd July 1791 since he was present at Mass on the Sunday.
1806-1879. One of the leaders of the French Liberal School in the mid-19th Century, a Saint-Simonian in his youth, he was imprisoned in 1831 for his activities. In 1842, he helped found the Société d'Économie Politique and the influential Journal des économistes. He ascended in 1845 to Say’s old chair at the Collège de France to be one of the most dominant professional economists in France. He was a frequent and highly-influential advisor to the French political establishment. He also kept in contact with liberal movements worldwide, particularly the Manchester School. Together with Richard Cobden, he was responsible for the 1860 ‘Cobden-Chevalier’ treaty which loosened restrictions on trade between Britain and France.
BkXXXII:Chap11:Sec1 A member of the Republican Municipal Commission in July 1830.
Chéverus, Jean-Louis Anne Madelaine Lefébure, Mgr de
1768-1838. A French Churchman, and the first Roman Catholic bishop of Boston (1810–23). He was ordained in France and had to flee (1792) during the French Revolutionary Wars. In England he lived by teaching until 1796, when he went to Boston. He worked all over New England and was known for his work with Native Americans in Maine. He was also highly esteemed as a physician. In 1810 he was consecrated bishop of Boston. At length his health began to fail, and he asked for transfer to France. Catholics and Protestants in the United States begged him to remain, but he accepted a transfer to the see of Montauban (1823). In 1826 he became a Peer, Archbishop of Bordeaux and in 1836 Cardinal. He did much to extend the tolerance of Roman Catholicism in America.
BkXXVIII:Chap16:Sec1 Chateaubriand suggests him in 1828 as tutor to the Duc de Bordeaux but the nomination was rejected by the King.
The famous Parisian caterer and food retailer, Germain Charles Chevet, who died of cholera in 1832, had established a shop in the Palais Royal and subsequently founded a dynasty of caterers. His shops were frequented by the likes of Brillet Savarin and Rossini for the high quality venison, pâtés, and seafood he supplied. His son Joseph (Chevet II) took over the business after his death. Joseph ran the business from 1832-1857.
BkXXXV:Chap26:Sec1 Joseph, or possibly another member of the family, was a juror at Chateaubriand’s trial in 1833.
Chevreuse, Marie de Rohan-Montbazon, Duchesse de
1600-1679. French beauty and politician, an intimate of the French queen, Anne of Austria. Her continuous intrigues in opposition to King Louis XIII’s minister, Cardinal Richelieu, caused her to be banished repeatedly from the court and to be exiled. She proved to be even more dangerous abroad because of her intrigues with France’s enemies, notably Duke Charles IV of Lorraine. In the Fronde she at first served as a link with Spain against Cardinal Mazarin, Richelieu’s successor, but subsequently she became Mazarin’s ally.
1552-1637. He was an Italian poet (Canzoni eroiche).
BkXXXIX:Chap4:Sec1 See the poem Per Vittorio Capello.
Chiaramonti, Gregorio Barnabé, see Pius VII
The Chickasaw Indians were a tribe whose towns were located near the headwaters of the Tombigbee River in north-eastern Mississippi, but who ranged the whole Mississippi valley region. The Chickasaw, along with the Cherokee, Choctaw, Creek and Seminole, were one of the Five Civilized Tribes which were removed to Indian Territory (now Oklahoma) in the 1830’s.
A city in Piedmont in the province of Turin in North-west Italy, it was the location of a novitiate of the Society of Jesus, the Jesuits.
Childe Harold’s Pilgrimage
The work is by Byron, who appears beneath the guise of his eponymous hero.
Chilpéric, or Childeric, King of the Franks
d. 584, Frankish king of Neustria (561-84), son of Clotaire I. He feuded bitterly with his brother Sigebert I, who had inherited the E. Frankish kingdom that came to be known as Austrasia. Their struggle became savage after Chilpéric and his mistress and future wife, Fredegunde, murdered (567) Chilpéric’s second wife, Galswintha; she was the sister of Sigebert’s wife, Brunhilda. In the wars between the two brothers, Sigebert overran Neustria before his death (575). Later, Chilpéric was murdered, probably at the instigation of Brunhilda. The feud was inherited by Chilpéric’s son and successor, Clotaire II.
She is the Spanish heroine of Corneille’s play Le Cid.
The Greek island lies in the north-eastern Aegean off the coast of Ionia.
BkVIII:Chap4:Sec1 Chios mastic gum, ‘Chios tears’, a resin produced by the Pistacia lentiscus tree (an evergreen shrub from the pistachio tree family), has been used since ancient times for various applications, including drinks, sweets, spices and medicinal products.
BkXVIII:Chap1:Sec1 Chateaubriand touched there in 1806.
BkXXXIX:Chap5:Sec1 Its churches.
Choiseul, Étienne-François, Duc de
1719-1785. A French statesman, after successful service in the army he entered the diplomatic service and gained support from Mme de Pompadour. As ambassador to Vienna (1757) he strengthened the Austrian alliance by conducting first negotiations toward the marriage of Marie Antoinette with the future Louis XVI. Later, in his capacity as minister of foreign affairs (1758-70), Choiseul negotiated the Family Compact and the Treaty of Paris at the end of the Seven Years War, and he annexed Lorraine (1766) and Corsica (1768). As minister of war (1761-70) and of the navy (1761-66) he reorganized the fighting forces and introduced reforms. He supported the publication of the Encyclopédie and aided suppression of the Jesuits, which weakened his position at court. A clique surrounding King Louis XV’s mistress Mme du Barry caused his downfall and exile from court in 1770.
BkXXX:Chap11:Sec1 He negotiated the Family Compact an accord between the reigning branches of the Bourbon Family (France, Spain, Naples and Parma) in 1761.
Choiseul-Stainville, Claude-Antoine-Gabriel, Duc de
1760-1838. A French soldier, he was brought up by his uncle, Étienne François, Duc de Choiseul, who was childless. Colonel of Dragoons at he outbreak of the Revolution. He took part in the attempt of Louis XVI to escape from Paris in June 1791; was arrested with the king, and imprisoned. Liberated in May 1792, he emigrated in October, and fought in the ‘army of Condé’ against the Republic. Captured in 1795, he was confined at Dunkirk; escaped, set sail for India, was wrecked on the French coast, and condemned to death by the decree of the Directory. Nevertheless, he was fortunate enough to escape once more. Napoleon allowed him to return to France in 1801, but he remained outside politics until the fall of the Empire. At the Restoration he was called to the House of Peers by Louis XVIII. At the Revolution of 1830 he was nominated a member of the provisional government; and he afterwards received from Louis Philippe the post of aide-de-camp to the king and governor of the Louvre.
He was an office-worker in the Police bureau who wrote a poem in praise of Chateaubriand in 1832.
Choteck (Chotek), Karel, Count
1783-1868. A Czech statesman he was Supreme Burgrave of Bohemia 1826-1843, effectively the Governor of the Czech territory representing the Austrian Emperor. He had held posts in a number of areas of the Austrian monarchy - he was in turn the governor of Trieste, Venice, and Naples, and held high-ranking posts in Tirol and Vorarlberg, and finally at the Imperial court in Vienna. Worldly-wise and intelligent, as Supreme Burgrave he brought to Prague, then a sleepy provincial town new energy, translated well-devised plans into reality and made the entire country a modern in-dustrial state. He built the family château of Velké-Brĕzno (1842-1845) in the valley of the Elbe, having purchased the old castle and estate there.
BkXXXVI:Chap10:Sec1 Chateaubriand writes to him in 1833.
BkXXXVI:Chap12:Sec1 He replies from Prague to Chateaubriand’s letter.
BkXXXVII:Chap2:Sec1 Chateaubriand visits him in Prague on the 25th of May 1833.
BkXXXVII:Chap7:Sec1 Chateaubriand visits Countess Choteck.
BkXXXVII:Chap8:Sec1 His father was Jan Nepomuk Rudolf Choteck (1749-1824) Privy Counsellor and Imperial Chamberlain.
BkXXXVII:Chap12:Sec1 Arranges horses for Chateaubriand’s departure.
BkXXXIX:Chap1:Sec1 His gardens.
BkXLI:Chap6:Sec1 Chateaubriand visits him in September 1833.
Royalist insurgents who took their name from four brothers named Cottereau, known more often as Chouan, a corruption of chat-huant, screech owl, because they imitated the bird’s cry as a signal. Three of the four were killed in battle. Chouans were active in La Vendée, Brittany, and Normandy.
BkX:Chap7:Sec1 Affecting Brittany in 1793.
BkXIX:Chap11:Sec1 Their uniforms, grey with a black collar.
BkXXXI:Chap8:Sec1 Still active in the July revolution of 1830.
BkXXXV:Chap1:Sec1 Referred to antoagonistically.
1761-1838. A Member of the Convention, he was a supporter of Robespierre. Involved in various plots after the fall of Robespierre, he fled, returned to France after the fall of the Empire but was exiled under the Bourbons as a regicide. He died in Brussels.
Choulot, Comte Paul de, called Paolo
1794-1864. The principal agent of the Duchess de Berry.
Christ, see Jesus-Christ
Christina, Queen of Sweden
1626-1689 Queen of Sweden 1632-1654. Her secret conversion to Catholicism led to her abdication, after which she lived in Rome. She became a patroness of the arts sponsoring Scarlatti, Corelli, and Bernini.
Christine de Pisan
1364-1430. A medieval poetess, rhetorician, and critic born in Venice, she was the daughter of Tommaso di Benvenuto da Pizzano (Thomas de Pizan), a physician, professor of astrology, and Councillor of the Republic of Venice, who accepted an appointment to the court of Charles V of France, as the King’s astrologer, alchemist, and physician.
Christophe, Henri, King of Haiti
1767-1820. Ruler of Haiti, an ex-slave, he served with Toussaint L’Ouverture against the French and then joined Dessaline’s revolt. After Dessaline’s assassination in which Christophe took part he ruled North Haiti (1808-1820, as king from 1811). His cruelty caused a revolt and he committed suicide.
A martyr killed in the reign of the 3rd century Roman emperor Decius (reigned 249 - 251) he is the patron saint of travellers.
Chrysostom, Saint John
347-407. A notable Christian bishop and preacher from the 4th and 5th centuries in Syria and Constantinople, he is famous for eloquence in public speaking and his denunciation of abuse of authority in the Church and in the Roman Empire of the time. He had notable ascetic sensibilities. After his death he was named Chrysostom, which comes from the Greek chrysostomos, ‘golden mouthed’.
BkXX:Chap9:Sec3 St John Chrysostom died in Comana, Pontus, on the way to Constantinople from his exile at Cocysus in the Anti-Taurus. The remains of Comana are still to be seen near a village called Gumenek on the Tozanli Su, 7 miles from Tokat.
1782-1863. A Paris theatrical designer, he was the principal creator of stage-sets and designs for Romantic theatre and opera.
Cicero, Marcus Tullius
106-43 BC. The Roman orator and statesman, was a prominent lawyer by 70, he was elected consul in 63. His execution of the Catiline conspirators without trial lost him support, and he was exiled for 18 months in 58. During the Civil War he supported Pompey. After Caesar’s assassination he attacked Antony in the Philippics for which he was later arrested and killed.
BkX:Chap8:Sec1 See Pro Archia, XV. ‘…adversis perfugium ac solatium praebent: they provide a refuge and a solace in adversity.’
BkXII:Chap3:Sec1 The precise harmonies in the classical pronunciation of his work are unknown today.
BkXII:Chap4:Sec2 The letter from the Stoic, Sulpicius, to Cicero, Ad Familiares IV:5
BkXIV:Chap2:Sec3 Chateaubriand quotes Pro L. Flacco XXVI.
BkXXVIII:Chap20:Sec1 His comments on exile are numerous, and often contradictory.
BkXXXIII:Chap5:Sec1 His rallying to Caesar after Pharsalia.
BkXXXVI:Chap10:Sec1 See Pro Plancio XXVI. Cicero returning in fact from his Quaestorship in Sicily halted at Puteoli (Pozzuoli) and was dismayed to find that he was unknown there.
BkXXXIX:Chap3:Sec1 Mentioned in Voltaire’s Candide.
Cicognara, Count Francesco Leopoldo
1767-1834. An archaeologist, historian and connoisseur, as President of the Venice Academy, he directed the publication of the copiously illustrated Le Fabbriche più conspicuo di Venezia (Venice 1815-1820) There were important contributions by Antonio Diedo and the architect Antonio Selva. To defray the costs of publication which had employed so many of the young artists of the Academy for years, Cicognara was obliged to sell his library to the Vatican (after publishing a catalogue in 1821), and the family silver and property in Ferrara.
BkXXXIX:Chap7:Sec1 He recovered Titian’s Assumption now in the Frari (above the altar).
BkXXXIX:Chap15:Sec1 Chateaubriand visits him in September 1833.
Cicognara, Massimiliana Cislago, Countess
She was the wife of the Count.
BkXXXIX:Chap15:Sec1 Chateaubriand meets her in Venice in 1833.
c1040-1099. Rodrigo Diáz de Vivar, Spanish warrior, also known as El Campeador, the Champion, immortalised in the epic poem Cantar del mio Cid. A vassal of Alfonso VI of Castile he was exiled in 1079 and became a soldier of fortune, fighting Spaniards and Moors. He remained loyal to his King and was made protector and then ruler of Valencia.
BkVIII:Chap4:Sec2 His horse Babieca (nicknamed ‘stupid’ because the Cid chose a wild creature, supposedly a white Andalusian as a gift).
1749-1801. An Italian operatic composer, he wrote almost 80 operas, which were successfully produced in Rome, Naples, Vienna, and St. Petersburg. His works, of which Il matrimonio segreto (1792) is the best known, are good examples of pure opera buffa. He also wrote serious operas and church and instrumental music notable for its clear and Mozartean effect.
Cincinnatus, Lucius Quinctius
5th Century BC. The Roman statesman was made dictator in order to rescue a Roman legion besieged by an Italian tribe. After his victory he returned to his farm, despite pleas for him to remain. His rejection of autocratic rule made him a symbol of traditional Roman values.
Cinzio, Passeri Aldobrandini, Cardinal
1551-1610. Pope Clement VIII was his maternal uncle. He distinguished himself for his generosity to the poor and as a protector and supporter of the arts and letters; he founded an academy that counted among its members Francesco Patrizio, Giambattista Raimondi, Scipione Pasquale, bishop of Casale; Pietro Nores, a gentleman from Cyprus; and the poet Torquato Tasso, who dedicated to him his famous Gerusalemme liberata.
BkXL:Chap2:Sec4 His plan for a mausoleum to the poet.
The sea-nymph, daughter of Helios and Perse, and the granddaughter of Ocean (Kirke or Circe means a small falcon) she was famed for her beauty and magic arts and lived on the ‘island’ of Aeaea, which is the promontory of Circeii. (Cape Circeo between Anzio and Gaeta, on the west coast of Italy, now part of the Parco Nazionale del Circeo extending to Capo Portiere in the north, and providing a reminder of the ancient Pontine Marshes before they were drained, rich in wildfowl and varied tree species.) Cicero mentions that Circe was worshipped religiously by the colonists at Circeii. (‘On the Nature of the Gods’, Bk III 47)
A town, the ancient Etruscan Falerium, in the province of Viterbo, 65 km from Rome. Mount Soracte lies about 10 km to the south-east.
BkXXIX:Chap2:Sec3 BkXXX:Chap12:Sec1 Chateaubriand there in October 1828. Santa Maria di Falleri is about four miles west, the ruined 13th Century convent lies within the extensive dilapidated walls of the Roman Falerii Novi, established in 241BC when the ancient Falerium was demolished. However this town in turn was abandoned and the ancient site re-instated.
A sea port on the Tyrrhenian sea, it is located 50 miles west-north-west of Rome, across the Mignone river. The harbor is formed by two moles and a breakwater, on which is a lighthouse. Civitavecchia means ‘ancient town’.
Clanwilliam, Richard Charles Francis Christian Meade, 3rd Earl of
1795-1879. A British ambassador, he was the only son of the 2nd Earl of Clanwilliam, whose titles he inherited, aged ten. He was educated at Eton and afterwards joined the Diplomatic Service. He was part of Castlereagh’s suite at the Congress of Vienna in 1814 and was his private secretary from 1817–19 in the latter’s capacity as Foreign Secretary. He became Under-Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs in 1822 and afterwards Envoy to Berlin from 1823–27. In 1828, he was created Baron and married Lady Elizabeth Herbert (a daughter of the 11th Earl of Pembroke) in 1830.
Clancarty, Richard Le Poer Trench, 2nd Earl of
1767-1837. A diplomat, he was an Irish, and later British, MP and a supporter of Pitt. He was credited with resolving various border disputes regarding Holland, Germany and Italy at the Congress of Vienna, 1814–15, and in his role as Ambassador to the Netherlands. For his service as ambassador to The Hague, he was awarded the hereditary title of Marquess van Heusden (1815) in the peerage of The Netherlands. In order to sit in the House of Lords he was made Baron Trench (created 4 August 1815) and Viscount Clancarty (created 8 December 1823). He was a Commissioner for the Affairs of India.
Clarendon, Edward Hyde, 1st Earl of
1609-1674. An English historian and Statesman, during the Civil War, he served in the King’s council as Chancellor of the Exchequer, and was one of the more moderate figures in the royalist camp. By 1645 his moderation had alienated him from the King, and he was made guardian to the Prince of Wales, with whom he fled to Jersey in 1646. As Lord Chancellor from 1658 at the Restoration, Clarendon was the author of the ‘Clarendon Code’, designed to preserve the supremacy of the Church of England. He spent the rest of his life in exile, working on his History of the Rebellion and Civil Wars in England, a classic account of the English Civil War. He died in Rouen, his body being returned to England, and he is buried in Westminster Abbey.
Clarke, see Feltre, Duc de
Clary, Julie, see Bonaparte, Madame Joseph
Clary, Desirée, Queen of Sweden, see Madame Bernadotte
Brother of the preceding.
Claude de France
1499-1524. French Queen consort and duchess of Brittany in her own right, was the eldest daughter of King Louis XII of France and Anne, duchess of Brittany. As the first wife of François I, she was the mother of King Henri II, and thus grandmother of the last three kings of the Valois line and also of Elisabeth, queen of Spain, Claude, duchess of Lorraine, and Marguerite de Valois, the queen of Henri IV.
1600-1682. Born in Lorraine, he lived most of his life and died in Rome, where he had become a pioneer of landscape painting.
BkXXIX:Chap9:Sec1 His landscapes.
BkXXXV:Chap16:Sec1 His 1636 painting of the Campo Vaccino (the Cow Field, the name the Italians gave to the buried area of the Roman Forum during the Middle Ages)
c 370-c404. Claudius Claudianus, Anglicized as Claudian, was the court poet to the Emperor Honorius and ther Emperor’s father-in-law Stilicho. He wrote a number of panegyrics on the consulship of his patrons, praise poems for the deeds of Stilicho, and invectives directed at Stilicho’s rivals in the Eastern court of Arcadius. These efforts resulted with such gifts as the honor of the rank of vir illustris, a statue, and a rich bride selected by Stilicho’s wife, Serena, the niece of Theodosius I.
BkXXVII:Chap11:Sec1 His praise-poem for Serena:line 30 quoted.
Clausel de Coussergues, Jean-Claude
1759-1846 A friend and adviser of Chateaubriand, he emigrated, returning to France in 1797. He was Mayor of Coussergues (Aveyron), and a friend of Fontanes. An editor and journalist during the Consulate, he was deputy to the Legislature in 1807, and 1813.
BkXVI:Chap1:Sec1 Edits Chateaubriand’s resignation letter in 1804.
BkXXIII:Chap4:Sec1 Brings Chateaubriand the news of the King’s flight in 1815.
BkXXVIII:Chap1:Sec1 He was the old friend who shared the meal in 1823.
Clausel de Montals, Claude-Hippolyte
1769-1857. He became Bishop of Chartres in 1824, but as a canon at Amiens he had written a severe criticism of Les Martyrs which a third party brought to Chateaubriand’s attention. He took up the cause of the freedom of Catholic scholarship under the July Monarchy.
1538-1612. A German Jesuit astronomer and mathermatician, he helped Pope Gregory XIII to introduce the Gregorian calendar. He was the author of Commentaries on Euclid.
Clémence de Bourges
A noblewoman and poetess of Lyons, addressed in a letter and poem (1555) by Louise Labé.
Clémence Isaure, see La Belle Paule
Clément of Alexandria, Titus Flavius Clemens, Saint
c. 150-c. 215. The Greek Christian theologian, probably born in Athens, who studied at Alexandria, became head of the Christian school there in 190. He was succeeded by Origen, after being forced to flee persecution in 202. He was influenced by Gnosticism.
BkIV:Chap3:Sec1 Chateaubriand refers to Clement’s Paidogogus: The Tutor, Book II.8, III.2, and III.11
BkVII:Chap9:Sec1 Chateaubriand refers to Clement’s Stromateis: Miscellanies.
Clément IV, Guido le Gros, Pope
d.1268. Elected Pope February 5, 1265, in a conclave held at Perugia that took four months, while the Cardinals argued over whether to call in Charles of Anjou, the youngest brother of Louis IX, to carry on the papal war against the last of the house of Hohenstaufen.
Clément VII, Guilio de Medici, Pope
c1475-1534. Pope (1523–34). The nephew of Lorenzo de’ Medici, in 1513 he became a cardinal and as archbishop of Florence was noted as a reformer. His relations with Holy Roman Emperor Charles V were never very cordial, since Clement allied himself with Francis I of France in the League of Cognac (1526). As a result of his hostility to the emperor, the imperial troops attacked Rome in 1527, sacked the city, and held the pope for some months. Eventually (1529) peace was achieved and Clement crowned Charles emperor. He was a patron of Raphael, Michelangelo, and Benvenuto Cellini. He was succeeded by Paul III.
Clément VIII, Ipollito Aldobrandini
1536-1605. Pope 1592-1605, he was the Pope at the time of Tasso’s death.
BkXL:Chap2:Sec3 Mentioned without being named.
Clément XII, Lorenzo Corsini, Pope
1652-1740. Pope from 1730, he is known for building the new façade of the Basilica di San Giovanni in Laterano and beginning the Trevi Fountain and the purchase of Cardinal Albani’s collection of antiquities for the papal gallery.
Clement XIV, Giovanni Vincenzo Antonio Ganganelli, Pope
1705-1774. Pope (1769-1774). At the time of his election, he was the only Franciscan friar in the College of Cardinals. He inherited from his predecessor the hostility of every state of Catholic Europe. His part in the suppression of the Jesuits has been greatly discussed. It eliminated the Pope’s only independent support and left the church in the hands of the secular princes. He was succeeded by Pius VI. There were rumours that he died of poisoning.
69-30BC. The Egyptian queen (51–49 and 48–30) was noted for her beauty and charisma. Octavian defeated the forces led by Cleopatra and Mark Antony at Actium (31).
BkXIX:Chap14:Sec2 Cleopatra’s Needles is the name in popular use for two obelisks of red granite from Egypt. Originally erected at Heliopolis (c.1475 BC) by Thutmose III, they were transported to Alexandria (c.14) under Augustus and in the 19th century were sent separately as gifts of Ismail Pasha to England (1878) and the United States (1880). The British obelisk, 68.5 ft high, stands on the Thames embankment in London. The American one, 69.5 ft high, is in Central Park in New York City.
BkXXIX:Chap7:Sec1 A bust in the Vatican has been tentatively identified as of her.
Clerfayt or Clairfayt, François Sebastien Charles Joseph de Croix, Comte de
1733-1798. A distinguished Austrian Field Marshal, a Walloon by birth, who fought in the Seven Years’ War, against the Turks in 1788, and then against the troops of the French Revolution.
BkIX:Chap14:Sec1 Leading the Austrian contingent in 1792.
1741-1779. Served in the Seven Years War. He voyaged with Captain John Byron to the Pacific in 1764, and sailed with Cook on his voyages. Commander of Cook’s ship Resolution near Hawaii on the last voyage, after Cook was killed, he died himself of tuberculosis en route to Kamchatka.
Capital of the Puy-de-Dôme in the Auvergne. The Roman Nemessos, it witnessed the Battle of Gergovia won by the Gauls in 52BC. In 848 it was renamed Clairmont. It was the starting point for the First Crusade. In 1610 it became Crown property and was merged with Montferrand in 1630.
BkXVII:Chap3:Sec1 Chateaubriand there in 1805.
Clermont-Tonerre, Anne-Antoine-Jules, Cardinal de
1749-1830. Bishop of Châlons from 1782, he emigrated, and gave up his see in 1801. Archbishop of Toulouse 1820, he became a Cardinal 1822.
BkXIV:Chap5:Sec1 He hoped to gain a pension from the Holy See, but was disappointed.
BkXV:Chap7:Sec2 In Rome in 1803.
BkXXIX:Chap17:Sec1 An ultra-montanist he had spoken violently against the decrees of 1828, and been forbidden to appear at Court.
BkXXX:Chap5:Sec1 He writes to Chateaubriand.
BkXXX:Chap6:Sec1 Chateaubriand’s letter to him of the 28th March 1829.
Clermont-Tonerre, Stanislas Marie Adelaide, Comte de
1757-1792. Spokesman for the liberal nobles who joined the Third Estate in 1789. A moderate, he favoured an English-style Constitution. Elected President of the Constituent Assembly, he was co-founder of the Société des Amis de la Constitution Monarchique in 1790, which was attacked and shut down in 1791. He was murdered by the mob during the rising of (9th and) 10th August 1792.
Clermont-Tonerre, Louise de Rosières-Sorans, Comtesse de, see also Talaru
1766-1832. Married, 1782, Comte Stanislas de Clermont-Tonnerre who was killed on the 10th August 1792. She later married the Marquis de Talaru. She was noted for her eccentricity.
Clermont-Tonerre, Aimé-Marie-Gaspard, Duc de
1759-1809. Valet to Louis XVI, whom he served in the Temple prison, then joined the Royal family in exile in England. His Memoirs appeared in London in 1798.
BkXI:Chap3:Sec1 Arrives in London.
BkXXIII:Chap6:Sec1 His Memoirs were doctored.
A town 25 kilometres south-east of Nantes, it is in the Western Loire.
Clisson, Oliver de, Constable of France
1336-1407. French soldier, b. Brittany. He fought on the English side in the War of the Breton Succession but entered the French service as companion in arms to Bertrand Du Guesclin. In 1380 he became constable of France. He defeated (1382) the insurgents of Ghent under Philip van Artevelde at Roosebeke (modern-day Westrozebeke). One of the Marmousets (Fr.,=little fellows), ministers of King Charles V of France, so called by the great nobles, who were contemptuous of their humble origins, he made use of his position to satisfy his boundless avidity, and became one of the richest men of his time. After King Charles VI became (1392) insane, Clisson retired to Brittany, where he served as guardian of the duchy after the death (1399) of Duke John de Montfort.
BkI:Chap1:Sec9 The Chateaubriands went surety for him.
Clive, Robert, 1st Baron Clive of Plassey
1725-1774. Also known as Clive of India, he was a soldier of fortune and commander who established the military supremacy of the East India Company in Southern India and Bengal.
d. 448. A Frankish chieftain of the Merovingian dynasty, he began his series of conquests in Northern Gaul about the year 430.
BkXXIII:Chap9:Sec1 The Merovingian claims on Flanders.
522-560. A grandson of King Clovis of the Franks and the youngest son of King Clodomir of Orleans, he and his brothers were raised by their grandmother St. Clotilda, Queen of the Franks. Two of his brothers, Theodoald and Gunther, were slain at the ages of ten and nine by their uncle Clotaire, king of the Franks from 558-561. Clodoald survived by being sent to Provence, France. There he became a hermit and a disciple of St. Severinus. He resided at Nogent, near Paris, which became known as Saint-Cloud.
475–545. Also spelled Clotilda, Clotild, Clothilde, or Chlothilde, was the daughter of Burgundian king Chilperic. Her uncle was the Burgundian king and Roman general Gundobad. Clotilde was the wife of Clovis I and contributed to her husband’s conversion to Catholic christianity. Her early life with her mnother was spent in Geneva. The end of her life was spent in Tours.
Clovis, King of the Franks
c466-511. Son of Childeric I. King of the Salian Franks 481-486. King of the Franks 486-511. Clovis inherited his father's kingdom in 481, at which time he unified the Salian and Ripurian Franks. In 486 he defeated the Roman general Syagrius who ruled northern Gaul out of Soissons. By 493 he had married the Burgundian princess Clotilda. In 496, after defeating the Alamanni, he was baptized, thus becoming the first Christian ruler of post-Roman Gaul. By 506 the Alamanni were subdued, and the next year Clovis finished his expansion by taking Aquitaine from the weak Visigothic king Alaric II.
BkXX:Chap5:Sec3 Ancestor of the French kings.
BkXXII:Chap13:Sec1 Baptised at Rheims in 496.
BkXXIII:Chap9:Sec1 The Merovingian claims on Flanders.
BkXXXV:Chap11:Sec2 Chateaubriand mocks the contemporary debate over the transcription of Clovis’ name in modern French.
BkXLII:Chap9:Sec1 The Germanic tribe of the Sicambri were noted by Caesar in his Gallic Wars. The 6th century historian Gregory of Tours (II, 31) states that the Merovingian Frankish leader Clovis I, on the occasion of his baptism into the Catholic faith, was referred to as Sicamber by Saint Remigius, the officiating bishop of Rheims, recalling a link between the Sicambri and the Salian Franks who were Clovis’ people.
Cluzel, Madame de
? Marie Thérèse du Cluzel, daughter of François-Pierre du Cluzel, whom Le Brun painted in 1775. In 1778 she married her German cousin, Antoine-Marie, Comte du Cluzel.
BkXI:Chap2:Sec4 Mentioned, in London
1762-1835. The Radical English pamphleteer.
BkXXXVII:Chap14:Sec1 He wrote an open letter to Chateaubriand in March 1823 on French and Spanish policy. See The Congress of Verona Part I:XLIX.
Cobenzl, Count Johann Ludvig Joseph Graf von
1753-1809. An Austrian diplomat and politician, and cousin of Austrian chancellor Philipp Graf von Cobenzl, he became Minister at St. Petersburg in 1779. In 1800, he became Foreign Minister of Austria. As such, he recognized the imperial title of Napoleon, which did not stop Austria in engaging against him in the War of the Third Coalition in 1805. This engagement lead to the defeat of Austria, ending in the Battle of Austerlitz in 1805, which lead to Cobenzl's dismissal. The Austrian signatory to the Treaty of Campo-Formio.
The city in West Germany in the Rhineland Palatinate, at the confluence of the Rhine and the Moselle, and the seat of Frankish Kings in the 6th Century AD, it was annexed by France in 1798. During the Revolution it was a centre for the exiled French aristocracy.
BkV:Chap14:Sec1 The Boulevard des Italiens ironically called Coblentz since the aristocracy met there.
BkIX:Chap8:Sec1 Chateaubriand departs for there in 1792.
BkIX:Chap8:Sec3 Chateaubriand reaches Coblentz.
Cockburn, Sir George
1772-1853. A British admiral, he served in the Mediterranean, and in the War of 1812 he participated in the Chesapeake Bay expeditions and in the burning of Washington. He conveyed Napoleon I in the Northumberland to St. Helena, remaining there as governor (1815–16).
Coco Lacour, Barthelmy
He was assistant and successor to Vidocq at the Sûreté (1827 until 1830 when Vidocq was re-instated).
One of the rivers of the underworld, fed by the tears of the guilty, on the banks of which dead souls wandered which had been deprived of burial.
BkXXXIX:Chap9:Sec1 Chateaubriand uses the new word omnibus, first registered at the Academy in 1835.
He was the primal Greek Sky-God, equivalent to the Roman Uranus.
Coëtlogon, Monsieur de
A Breton gentleman, contemporary with Madame de Sévigné.
BkV:Chap2:Sec 2 Mentioned.
A Breton family, owning estates at Dinan. In the seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries they were lords of Combourg.
BkI:Chap3:Sec1 The Chateaubriands acquired Combourg, according to Chateaubriand, through marriage with the family. But see the Combourg entry. The Marshal du Duras was the last of the Coëtquen-Chateaubriands.
Coëtquen, see Duras, Louise-Françoise-Maclovie-Céleste de
A Venetian baker’s wife, called La Fornarina, she was Byron’s mistress in Venice in 1817-18.
Cohorn or Coehorn, Baron Menno van
1641-1704. Dutch military Engineer, he was the inventor of the Cohorn mortar, a small brass mortar first used at the siege of Grave in 1674. During the American Civil War, both the North and the South used Cohorn mortars.
Coigny, Marie-François-Henri de Franquetot, Duc de
Coislin, Marie-Anne de Mailly-Nesle, Marquise de
1732-1817. Favourite of Louis XV. Daughter of Louis de Mailly, Comte de Rubempré, and niece of the Marquis de Nesle. Married 1750 Charles du Cambout, Marquis de Coislin (1728-1771). Widowed, and childless.
1619-1683. A French statesman and financial reformer, he was a protégé of Mazarin’s. He became comptroller general of finance in 1665 and made France under Louis XIV a dominant power in Europe. He was a significant patron of the arts.
BkVII:Chap11:Sec1 The language of his time.
BkXXVII:Chap9:Sec1 Adverse public reaction at his funeral.
Colbert, Pauline de Montboissier, Comtesse de
1777-1839. Grand-daughter of Malesherbes, she was the cousin of Chateaubriand’s sister-in-law. In 1803 she had married the Comte de Colbert de Maulévrier (1758-1820), naval officer, who retired during the Restoration as a Commodore, having been a deputy in the Chambre of 1815. From 1796-1799 he had lived in Philadelphia, and in October 1798 even made a trip to Niagara.
Colbert-Chabanais, Auguste-François-Marie de
1777-1809. A distinguished Cavalry officer, the younger brother of Pierre-David (Edouard) also a distinguished soldier. He served in Egypt, Austria, Prussia, and Poland. He was killed by a sharpshooter, Thomas Plunkett of the 95th Rifles, at Cacabelos in Spain.
Colet, Louise, see Revoil
Coligny, Admiral, Seigneur de Châtillon, Gaspard II de
1519-1572. French Huguenot leader. He became an Admiral of France in 1552 and was converted to Protestantism several years later. He commanded the Huguenots during the second and third Wars of Religion, but Catherine de’ Medici, mother of Charles IX, arranged his murder during the St. Bartholomew’s Day massacre.
Pastoral lover of Babet in a popular comic opera Les Sabots by Cazotte and Sedaine (1768). Note the painting The Clogs (1768) by Boucher in the Art Gallery of Ontario, Toronto which depicts a scene from the operetta.
fl. 1800-1822. Composer and flautist.
BkX:Chap7:Sec1 He and Philippe Musard (1782-1859) conductor-composer of the Michau, Collinet, and Musard band, played their own quadrilles at Almack’s for the Prince Regent in 1821. He/they also seem to have performed at the Theatre Royal, Drury Lane. Here he played for Chateaubriand’s reception in 1822.
BkXII:Chap5:Sec2 Mentioned again as playing for Chateaubriand.
BkXXVII:Chap3:Sec1 Mentioned as conducting at Almack’s.
1808-1853. A writer and historian, his eulogy for Chateaubriand in 1848 was prized. A Catholic correspondent, from Lyons, of Chateaubriand’s, he published their correspondence in his study Chateaubriand, his Life and Writings, in 1851.
Collot d’Herbois, Jean-Marie
1759-1796. He was a French revolutionary, and originally an actor and playwright. Although a member of his Jacobin club, he favoured a constitutional monarch. His Almanach du Père Gérard (1791) was criticized for its royalism, although its patriotism won a competition sponsored by the Jacobins. He was a member of the revolutionary Commune of Paris and his politics became increasingly militant. Elected to the National Convention (September 1792), he became identified as a supporter of Jacques René Hébert and favoured the elimination of the Girondists. In September 1793, he was appointed to the Committee of Public Safety, which suppressed the counter-revolutionary attempts at Lyons. Although he turned against Robespierre on 9 Thermidor (July 27, 1794), he fell in the Thermidorian reaction and was deported to French Guiana.
BkXIX:Chap10:Sec1 His arrest in March 1795.
The city in West Germany, on the Rhine, was founded by the Romans it became the capital of the northern Empire in 258AD, and later the seat of the Frankish kings. It flourished as a mercantile and cultural centre in the middle ages. It was annexed by France in 1798, passing to Prussia in 1815.
BkIX:Chap8:Sec2 Chateaubriand passed through in 1792.
BkXXIX:Chap13:Sec3 The French border was not established as Chateaubriand hoped.
Colombier, Caroline, Mademoiselle du
d.1329. A bitter enemy of the Pope, he was excommunicated, and fled to the court of King Philip IV of France, and led, with Chancellor Nogaret, the French expedition that captured (1303) Boniface. As senator of Rome, Sciarra supported the Holy Roman Emperor during his Italian expedition and bestowed the imperial crown on him in 1328, but was forced into exile when Louis departed shortly afterward.
1451-1506. The Italian navigator, born in Genoa, pioneered European contact with America. He sailed to the Bahamas, West-Indies and eventually the American mainland in 1492, and again in 1493-1496 and 1498-1500 under Spanish (Ferdinand and Isabella) patronage. He was relieved of his command and sent back to Spain in chains in 1499, but was released and sailed again in 1502-1504, returning ill and disheartened, and still convinced he had voyaged to the east coast of Asia.
BkVI:Chap3:Sec1 His discovery of the New World. The quote from the Bible is from Genesis I.31
BkVII:Chap6:Sec1 Those following in his wake introduced European bees to the New World.
The lakeside village is east of Dinan, and north of Rennes in Brittany. The Château and estate were purchased by Chateaubriand’s father in May 1761. The château is extant, in good repair, and open to the public.
BkI:Chap3:Sec1. It was a long time before the château, in disrepair on purchase, was habitable, and his father’s business affairs kept him in Saint-Malo, delaying his move there. His father’s desire to regain the estate was illusory, since in fact none of the Chateaubriand ancestors ever possessed Combourg, which had passed through many hands since its eleventh century beginnings (built by Junken Bishop of Dol in 1016 according to Chateaubriand). It had been elevated to a Count’s domain by Henri III in 1575. The Chateaubriand’s de Beaufort did though have secular connections with the diocese of Dol.
BkI:Chap7:Sec3 Chateaubriand completes his description of the château and locale.
BkII:Chap2:Sec1 Holidays at Combourg. Description of life there.
BkII:Chap2:Sec2 The chief inhabitants.
BkII:Chap3:Sec1 Troops billeted there.
BkII:Chap3:Sec3 Chateaubriand’s eldest sisters received the nuptial blessing in the chapel there on the 11th January 1780.
BkII:Chap7:Sec1 Chateaubriand received the sacrament of Confirmation in July 1781. The cross he mentions which appears in the land registry for 1820, was portrayed in a lithograph by Ciceri in Baron Taylor’s Voyages romantiques et pittoresques.
BkII:Chap9:Sec1 Proust in Le Temps retrouvé associates the thrush’s song with the taste of the madeleine, as an example of involuntary memory.
BkIII:Chap1:Sec2 Chateaubriand’s description of the château’s contents of 1783-1786 matches the various inventories published by Collas (Annales de Bretagne t. XXXV, 1921-23, pp1-31 and 268-299).
BkIII:Chap1:Sec4 Life at Combourg, and the Combourg ghost.
BkIII:Chap7:Sec1 His farewell to its woods.
BkIII:Chap14:Sec3 His three returns to Combourg after his departure in the summer of 1786, namely after his father’s death in March 1787, with his mother in December 1788, and on his way to Saint-Malo to embark for America in 1791.
BkIV:Chap7:Sec1 The family met there in the first fortnight of March 1787 to divide the inheritance. Lucile and René in principle received 25000 francs held by their brother until they were 25 years old. The measures taken by the Constituent Assembly nullified these arrangements.
BkX:Chap7:Sec1 Chateaubriand assumed the name Combourg in England since his own name was unpronounceable there.
BkX:Chap8:Sec1 To be commandeered as a State stronghold. This was not effected.
BkXXIII:Chap4:Sec1 Chateaubriand remembers the crows at Combourg.
BkXXXVIII:Chap7:Sec1 The swallows that nested in the eaves there.
BkXXXIX:Chap10:Sec1 The Venetian mirrors there.
Comines (Commines, Commynes), Philippe de
c1447-c1511. A French historian, courtier, and diplomat, in 1472 he left the service of Charles the Bold of Burgundy to enter that of Louis XI of France. After Louis’ death he plotted against Charles VIII and was banished from court. He later regained favour, accompanied Charles to Italy, and was briefly ambassador to Venice. His Mémoires sur les règnes de Louis XI et de Charles VIII is a historical and literary work of the highest rank.
BkXXXIX:Chap4:Sec1 See his Memoirs VII:15
Comnène, Mademoiselle de, see Abrantès, Duchesse de
Commentaries, of Julius Caesar
The Commentaries are Caesar’s account of the Gallic and Civil Wars (58-47BC).
Compans, Jean-Dominique, General
1769-1845. A Napoleonic General in 1811, he fought in Austria, Prussia, Russia and Germany. He was the commander of the Fifth Division in Russia in 1812.
Compère, Claude Antoine, General
1774-1812. A Napoleonic officer he served in the Kingdom of Naples, and joined the Russian Campaign.
The Château was a royal residence built for Louis XV and restored by Napoleon. Compiègne was one of the three seats of royal government, the others being Versailles and Fontainebleau. It is located in Compiègne in the Oise département.
Part of the first palace of the kings of France (They later moved to the Louvre), the Conciergerie became the first Paris prison in 1391. Located on the Cité island near Notre-Dame cathedral and the Sainte-Chapelle, it became famous during the Revolution: in 1793 and 1794, 2780 men and women were sentenced to death and detained in the Conciergerie until they left for the Place de La Révolution (Concorde) where they were guillotined.
BkX:Chap8:Sec2 Where Chateaubriand’s relatives were imprisoned. His mother was actually in an annex, the Collège du Plessis, which under the Terror became the Maison de Force Égalité.
Concini, Contino, Conte della Penna, Marquis et Maréchal d’Ancre
d 1617. The favourite of the Regent, Marie de Mèdicis, he was assassinated with the acquiesence of Louis XIII.
An important French branch of the house of Bourbon, its members played a significant role in French dynastic politics. The line began with Louis I de Bourbon (1530–69), 1st prince de Condé, a military leader of the Huguenots in France's Wars of Religion. The family’s most prominent member was the 4th prince de Condé, one of Louis XIV’s greatest generals. The princely line died out when Louis-Antoine-Henri de Bourbon-Condé (1772–1804), Duc d’Enghien and sole heir of the last prince de Condé, was falsely arrested and, on Napoleon’s orders, shot for treason.
BkI:Chap3:Sec1 They acquired the barony of Chateaubriand.
BkXXIV:Chap4:Sec1 The Duc d’Enghien and his relations.
Condé, Louis II, Prince de, the Great Condé
1621-1686. During the Thirty Years’ War he won victories against Spain at Rocroi (1643) and Lens (1648). He was recalled to suppress the first Fronde (Civil War). In the second Fronde he joined the rebels and fled to Spain. After being defeated by Turenne at the Battle of the Dunes he was pardoned and became one of Louis XIV’s outstanding generals.
BkXXII:Chap9:Sec1 As the type of a great warrior.
BkXXIV:Chap16:Sec1 His statue, in 1840.
Condé, Charlotte de Montmorency, Princesse de
1594-1650. The last mistress of Henri IV, affianced to Bassompierre but forced to marry the King’s nephew the Prince of Condé, in 1609, father of the Great Condé. She was mistress to the King before her marriage.
Condé, Louis-Henri-Joseph, Duc de Bourbon, Prince de, see Bourbon
Condé, Louis-Joseph de Bourbon, Prince de
BkIX:Chap1:Sec1 Declared a traitor in December 1791.
BkXXIII:Chap2:Sec1 Swears allegiance to the Charter in March 1815.
A town and comune of Veneto, Italy, in the province of Treviso, 17 miles north of Treviso it was the birthplace of the painter Cima da Conegliano, a fine altar-piece by whom is in the cathedral (1492). It is overlooked by a hill on which stands the remains of a 1000-year old castle, formerly belonging to the Bishop of Vittorio Veneto. The remaining tower now houses the small Conegliano museum.
BkXLI:Chap1:Sec1 Chateaubriand there September 1833.
Condorcet, Marie Jean Antoine de Caritat, Marquis de
1743-1794 Mathematician, philosopher and politician, he was elected to the Legislative Assembly in 1791. As a moderate Girondin he was arrested in 1793, dying, perhaps by his own hand, in prison. His most famous work Esquisse d’un tableau historique des progrès de l’esprit humain was published posthumously in 1795.
BkXIII:Chap10:Sec1 A major European name.
1772-1828. Inventor of the Congreve Rocket in 1804: the rocket was made up of an iron case of black powder for propulsion and either an explosive or incendiary ‘cylindro-conoidal’ head. The warheads were attached to wooden guide poles and were launched in pairs from half troughs on simple metal A-frames. They were used against Boulogne (1806) at Copenhagen (1807), off Rochefort (1809), and then at Waterloo in 1815. They were in use until the 1850’s when the design was superceded.
Congrès de Vérone, Le
A work by Chateaubriand, it was published 28th April 1838.
BkXX:Chap7:Sec1 See Chapters I-IV of the work. The Congress of Verona of 1822, held in Verona, Italy, was the last European conference held under the provisions of the Quadruple Alliance of 1814. The main problem discussed was the revolution in Spain against Ferdinand VII, and the congress decided that a French army, under mandate of the Holy Alliance, should suppress the rebellion. This decision was protested by the British foreign minister, George Canning, and led to a growing rift between Great Britain and the other powers.
BkXXVI:Chap5:Sec1 Mentioned as an example of Chateaubriand the politican.
BkXXIX:Chap12:Sec1 See Part I: LII
Conradin, of Suabia
1252-1268. Duke of Swabia, titular king of Jerusalem and Sicily, the last legitimate Hohenstaufen, son of Holy Roman Emperor Conrad IV. While Conradin was still a child in Germany, his uncle Manfred made himself (1258) king of Sicily. When Manfred died the kingdom was seized (1266) by Charles I (Charles of Anjou). Young Conradin went to Italy in an attempt to recover his kingdom. Several cities rallied to his support, but he was defeated (1268) by Charles at Tagliacozzo. He was captured and executed at Naples.
BkXIX:Chap2:Sec1 He was executed by Charles of Anjou (c1226-1285, King of Sicily 1262-1282).
Consalvi, Ercole, Cardinal
1757-1824. Italian cardinal and papal diplomat, in his first term (1800–1806) as secretary of state for Pope Pius VII he negotiated the Concordat of 1801 with Napoleon. Despite Consalvi’s astute diplomacy, Napoleon annexed the Papal States in 1809. Consalvi was compelled to go to Paris, where his refusal to attend Napoleon’s second marriage (1809) resulted in exile at Rheims. Reinstated as secretary of state after Napoleon’s second abdication (1814), Consalvi vainly struggled against reactionary elements to reform the administration of the Papal States.
BkXIV:Chap7:Sec1 Chateaubriand met him in Rome in 1803.
BkXX:Chap9:Sec1 Exiled in 1809.
BkXXXIX:Chap3:Sec1 He died in 1824.
The Conservative, a political periodical, founded by Chateaubriand in October 1818, in collaboration with Louis de Bonald and Félicité de Lamennais. With a circulation of only a few thousand it still had significant influence. It appeared over the following two years, until March 1820. It was ultra-royalist in tone, and opposed the government.
BkXIII:Chap10:Sec2 Chateaubriand’s article of December 1818, for the paper: ‘De la morale des intérêts et de celle des devoirs, ou du Système ministériel considéré dans ses effets moreaux’.
BkXXIV:Chap14:Sec1 His article of 17th November 1818 entitled Mélanges.
BkXXV:Chap9:Sec1 Printed from the 8th of October 1818 to the 30th of March 1820, it had a stable circulation of about six thousand copies. Its banner was ‘The King, the Charter, and honest men.’
BkXXV:Chap11:Sec1 Chateaubriand’s article of 18th February 1820 in memory of the Duc de Berry, and a quotation from that of the 3rd March. A few further issues followed, the last edition being that of the 30th March.
BkXXXVII:Chap10:Sec1 The image is much quoted throughout the Memoirs (XXV:10, XXVIII:12, XXXIII:8)
The town of Constance (Konstanz) is in south-west Germany in Baden-Württemberg on Lake Constance, the lake on the River Rhine lying in West Germany, Switzerland, and Austria. It has an 11th century church.
Constant, Henry Benjamin, de Rebeque
1767-1830 A French-Swiss political writer and novelist, his affair (1794–1811) with Germaine de Staël turned him to political interests. He accompanied her to Paris in 1795 and served (1799–1801) as a tribune under the first consul, Napoleon. When Mme de Stäel was expelled (1802), however, he went into exile with her, spending the following 12 years in Switzerland and Germany. In 1813 he published a pamphlet attacking Napoleon and urging constitutional government and civil liberties. On Napoleon’s return from Elba, however, Constant accepted office under him. After Napoleon's final defeat at Waterloo and the restoration of the Bourbons, Constant continued his political pamphleteering, calling for a constitutional monarchy. He served (1819–22, 1824–30) in the chamber of deputies. Constant gained a great reputation as a liberal publicist, and his funeral (shortly after the July Revolution, 1830, which he had supported) was the occasion for great demonstrations. His most important work, the introspective and semiautobiographical novel, Adolphe (1816), is highly regarded for its style. Parts of his correspondence and journals have been published, the latter as Le Journal intime (1887–89) and Le Cahier rouge (the Red Notebook) (1907). The discovery of an unfinished novel, Cécile (1951), has contributed to a new appreciation of Constant's literary merit.
BkXIII:Chap11:Sec2 An exemplar of the new nineteenth century literary style.
BkXXIII:Chap18:Sec2 Accused by Napoleon of conspiring against him in 1815.
BkXXVIII:Chap14:Sec1 He writes to Chateaubriand complimenting him on his pamphlet Opinion sur le project de loi rélatif a la police de la presse, of 1827.
BkXXVIII:Chap17:Sec1 He writes to Chateaubriand on the 20th September 1830 less than three months before his own death.
BkXXIX:Chap12:Sec1 His Appeal to the Christian Nations in favour of the Greeks, of September 1825.
BkXXXII:Chap8:Sec1 Speaking in the Chamber of Deputies on the 30th of July 1830.
BkXXXIV:Chap7:Sec1 Mentioned in 1831.
BkXXXVIII:Chap5:Sec1 His five-act tragedy Wallenstein of 1809, which he sent to Chateaubriand who thanked him in a letter (1st February 1809).
BkXXXIX:Chap18:Sec1 Chateaubriand dined with him in 1802 on the Quai de la Râpée in Paris.
Constant, Charles de
1762-1835. Cousin of Benjamin, he had lost his wife in 1830, and retired to live with his sister.
Constant, Rosalie de
1758-1834. Sister of Charles, she was a friend of the Duchesse de Duras, and first met Chateaubriand in 1826.
?285-337. Emperor of Rome (306–337), he adopted the Christian faith and suspended the persecution of Christians. He rebuilt Constantinople (now Istanbul) as the new Rome (330).
BkXIII:Chap11:Sec2 His conversion to Christianity.
BkXXIII:Chap1:Sec1 Chateaubriand uses the word labarum for the tricololur standard. The labarum was Constantine’s Imperial standard with Christian symbols added to the Roman military ones. The word signifies a symbolic banner.
BkXXIX:Chap4:Sec1 His victory over Maxentius at the Milvian Bridge in Rome in 312 was a prelude to the Christian Empire.
The city in Western Turkey on both sides of the Bosphorus, ancient Byzantium, it was renamed Constantinople in 1330, when Constantine I declared it the capital of the Eastern Roman Empire. Captured by the Ottoman Turks in 1453 it was renamed Istanbul and became their capital in 1457.
BkVIII:Chap5:Sec2 Its busy waterways.
BkXVIII:Chap1:Sec1 Chateaubriand there in 1806.
BkXVIII:Chap3Sec2 A letter dated from there.
BkXXIII:Chap8:Sec1 An example of French influence.
BkXXIX:Chap2:Sec2 Its Byzantine architecture.
BkXXXIX:Chap5:Sec1 The Byzantine church of Sancta Sophia (Hagia Sophia, or Holy Wisdom) converted to a Mosque is now a Museum.
The principal liberal newspaper of the period, it had been hostile to the Spanish War of 1823.
BkXXX:Chap5:Sec1 Mentioned. The paper on the 24th of March accused an ultra journal the Messager of failing to publish Chateaubriand’s speech.
Contades de Plouër, Francoise-Marie-Gertrude, Comtesse de
Died 1776. She was the daughter of the Marquis, Louis-Georges.
BkI:Chap2:Sec1 Godmother of Chateaubriand.
BkI:Chap3:Sec2 Intimate friend of his mother.
Contades, Louis-Georges-Érasme, Marquis de, Marshal of France
1760-1813. Actress. Debuted 1776 as Atalide in Bajazet. Retired 1809. Created the role of Suzanne in Beamarchais’ Figaro in 1784. As the soubrette in the plays of Molière and Marivaux, she found opportunities exactly fitted to her talents. She retired in 1809 and married de Parny, nephew of the poet. Her sister Marie Émilie Contat (1769-1846), an admirable soubrette, especially as the pert servant drawn by Molière and de Regnard, made her début in 1784, and retired in 1815.
BkIV:Chap11:Sec1 Actress at the Théâtre-Français.
Contencin, Alphonse (?), de
Prefect. Councillor of State for the Administration of Religion, c 1857.
BkX:Chap8:Sec2 Found, in the City archives, in 1835, the order condemning Chateaubriand’s brother to death.
Conyngham, Henry Francis, Earl of Mount Charles
1795-1824 Master of the Robes, he was then Chamberlain to George IV. His sister in law, Elizabeth Denison, Marchioness of Conyngham, was a notorious mistress of the king.
BkVII:Chap11:Sec1 Signatory to an invitation written to Chateaubriand in 1822.
Conyngham, Elizabeth Denison, Marchioness of Conyngham
Cook, Captain James
1728-1779 A British Navigator and Cartographer, he entered the Royal Navy in 1755 and served in the Seven Year’s War (1756-63), surveying the St Lawrence River. He was given command of an expedition to Tahiti to observe the transit of Venus and search for a southern continent. In Endeavour he charted New Zealand and the east coast of Australia (1768-1771). His second voyage (1772-1775) circumnavigated Antarctica. He then charted Easter Island, and found New Caledonia, the South Sandwich Islands and South Georgia Island. On his third voyage (1776-1779) he was killed on Hawaii.
His voyages in the Pacific.
Cooper, James Fenimore
1789-1851. The American Novelist, expelled from Yale, served in the navy before marrying in 1811. He achieved success with a series of novels about frontier life including The Pioneers (1823), The Last of the Mohicans (1826) and The Pathfinder (1840). He lived in Europe from 1826 to 1833.
BkVIII:Chap5:Sec3 Mentioned as taking refuge in Europe.
1473-1543. The German astronomer who provided the first modern formulation of a heliocentric (sun-centered) theory of the solar system, in his book, De revolutionibus orbium coelestium (On the Revolutions of the Celestial Spheres).
He was a resident of Ghent in 1815.
BkXXIII:Chap7:Sec1 Chateaubriand dined with him.
The Château de Coppet was built by Jacques Necker. In 1784, he bought the barony of Coppet to serve as a safe haven. Necker retired to Coppet in 1790 after the Revolution, at a time when his daughter Germaine’s (Madame de Staël’s) literary and philosophical salon began to attract the leading intellects of the day. The Swiss author Benjamin Constant (with whom de Staël may have conducted a long-lasting affair) was a regular visitor, as were the philosopher Schlegel, Byron, and others. Madame de Staël organized life at the château around her constant flow of guests. In 1804 Necker died, and the Château passed into the hands of Madame de Staël, who was forced to remain there in permanent exile after 1806 following her persistent public denunciations of Napoleon.
BkXVII:Chap3:Sec1 Chateaubriand visited Madame de Staël there in 1805.
BkXXVIII:Chap21:Sec1 Madame Récamier joined Madame de Staël in exile in August 1811, and was herself exiled in the September.
BkXXIX:Chap1:Sec5 A view of Coppet by moonlight in Madame Récamier’s apartment in the Abbaye-aux-Bois.
BkXXXV:Chap21:Sec1 BkXXXV:Chap22:Sec1 Chateaubriand visited in mid-October 1832. It was then owned by Madame de Staël’s daughter-in-law, née Adèle Verlet, who married Auguste de Staël, and was widowed in 1827.
He was a claimant on the French Embassy in London in 1822.
Coquereau, Felix, Abbé
1808-1866. The chaplain of the Belle Poule in 1840, he published his Souvenirs du voyage a Sainte-Hélène in 1841.
Corbière, Jacques Joseph Guillaume Pierre, Comte de
1766-1853. A lawyer from Rennes, he became a member of the Council of Five Hundred in 1797. Deputy for Rennes in 1815, he was Minister for the Interior (1821-28). He left politics after the July Revolution.
BkXXV:Chap13:Sec1 His appointment to office in 1820.
BkXXVI:Chap10:Sec1 His resignation with Villèle on the 27th of July 1821.
BkXXVIII:Chap2:Sec1 His involvement in Chateaubriand’s dismissal as Foreign Minister in 1824.
BkXXVIII:Chap15:Sec1 Provoked by the Opposition in 1827.
Corbineau, Jean-Baptiste-Juvenal, Comte
1776-1848. A Napoleonic General, he fought with great distinction in central Europe, Spain and Russia. He was present at Waterloo. He later served under the Bourbons. During his career he received thirty-three wounds.
BkXXI:Chap7:Sec1 He discovered a ford across the Berezina in November 1812.
1768-1798. The assassin of Jean Paul Marat, although of aristocratic background, sympathized with the Girondists in the French Revolution and felt that Marat, in his persecution of the Girondists, was acting as the evil genius of France. She resolved to emulate the action of Brutus and destroy the ‘tyrant.’ Leaving her native Normandy for Paris, she gained an audience with Marat by promising to betray the Girondists of Caen and stabbed him (July 13, 1793) in his bath. She was guillotined.
Cordeliers and Cordeliers Club
The Society of the Friends of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen formed when the Commune re-divided Paris and the Cordeliers’ District was absorbed into the section Théâtre-Français. It took as its model the Jacobin Club, styled itself the ‘elixir of Jacobinism’ and took as its emblem the open eye. Its members met first in the church of the Cordeliers (Franciscan Observantists), then in a hall in the Rue Dauphine. After 10th August 1792, the moderates such as Danton and Desmoulins stopped attending and it was dominated by the Enragés.
BkIX:Chap1:Sec1 Its affiliated clubs in the regions in 1792.
BkIX:Chap3:Sec1 The citizen soldiers from Marseille were quartered in the Cordeliers Church in July 1792.
BkIX:Chap3:Sec2 Its pre-eminent position in 1792.
BkXIII:Chap4:Sec1 The Cordeliers in 1800.
Cordellier-Delanoue, Etienne Casimir Hippolyte
1806-1854. He was a French dramatist and collaborated with Dumas.
The city in Andalusia on the Guadalquivir River was founded in 1573.
BkXXXVIII:Chap6:Sec1 La Mesquita is the 10th century Cathedral Mosque of Cordoba, it was re-consecrated as a Christian Cathedral in 1236 when Cordoba was re-conquered from the Moors. It contains a forest of pillars.
c375 -? He was the first Bishop of Cornouaille in Brittany.
BkV:Chap2:Sec 2 Mentioned.
An island belonging to Greece, in the Ionian Sea. It lies off the coast of Albania, from which it is separated by a strait varying in breadth from less than 2 to about 15 miles. Traditionally Homer’s Scheria, land of the Phaeacians. By the Treaty of Campo Formio, Corfu was ceded to the French, who occupied it for two years, until they were expelled by the Russian squadron under Admiral Ushakov. For a short time it became the capital of a self-governing federation of the Hephtanesos (‘Seven Islands’); in 1807 its faction-ridden government was again replaced by a French administration, and in 1809 it was vainly besieged by a British fleet. By the Treaty of Paris of 1815, the Ionian Islands became a protectorate of the United Kingdom, until ceded to Greece in 1864.
BkXVIII:Chap8:Sec1 The island is mentioned by Chateaubriand in his Itinerary.
BkXXX:Chap13:Sec1 The pseudonym of Ovid’s lover in his early poetry.
BkXXVI:Chap1:Sec1 BkXXVIII:Chap19:Sec1 Gérard painted a scene with Corinne, the poetess heroine, at Cape Misenum (1819, now at Lyons). The picture hung in Madame Recamier’s salon till her death where Chateaubriand could contemplate it on his visits to the Rue de Sèvres.
BkXXXIX:Chap13:Sec1 Quotes from Book XV:7-9 and XVI:1-3. Oswald parts from Corinne in Venice.
Corinne (Corinna or Korinna)
Late 6th Century BC. The Greek poetess came from Tanagra in Boeotia, and according to later legend was the teacher of the much better-known Theban poet Pindar. Although two poems survive in epitome, most of her work exists currently in fragments.
The port, in the Greek Peloponnese, lies on the Isthmus of Corinth. Settled before 3000BC, and developing rapidly in the 8th century BC, Corinth became the second largest and richest Greek city state after Athens. Corinth opposed Athens in the Peloponnesian War, and was destroyed by Rome (Mummius) in 146BC. It revived as a Roman colony in 44BC.
BkVIII:Chap4:Sec2 Corinthian urns. Corinth was famous for its bronze urns which became collector’s items in Augustan Rome. They are characterised by flowery bodies and wide overhanging and decorated rims. Also its acropolis is mentioned.
BkXVIII:Chap3:Sec5 The Church of Corinth was established about AD52, Corinth itself changed hands during the wars between Venice and the Ottoman Turks (therefore Islam and Christianity) during the late seventeenth century.
BkXXVII:Chap1:Sec1 Its mixed origins.
BkXXXVI:Chap9:Sec1 See Chateaubriand’s Itinerary.
BkXXXVIII:Chap2:Sec1 The priestesses of Aphrodite at Corinth indulged in sacred prostitution. Glycera was a famous courtesan and a generic name for a courtesan. The spring of Pirene supplied much of the city’s water, and had its nymph Pirene after which it was named. The winged horse Pegasus born of the blood of Medusa was tamed by Bellerephon King of Corinth.
1606-1684. Dramatist: after a Jesuit education he worked in government service in Rouen until 1650. Richelieu admired his early comedies. Le Cid (1636) the seminal play of French classical tragedy excited controversy and paved the way for Racine.
BkV:Chap8:Sec1 Chateaubriand quotes from the orange-tree’s ‘speech’ in La Guirlande de Julie (1634), where the orange tree flower is also ‘not subject to frail destiny’!
BkVI:Chap8:Sec1 Chateaubriand quotes from his play Attila.
BkXIV:Chap2:Sec4 Chateaubriand quotes a poem of 1668.
BkXIX:Chap12:Sec1 The quotation is from his play Sertorius III:1
BkXIX:Chap18:Sec2 The quotation is from Attila I:2
BkXXVIII:Chap9:Sec1 The quotation is from Horace I:1:29, Sabine the wife of Horace speaks.
BkXXXV:Chap1:Sec1 See Act III of Le Cid (1636).
1st century BC. She became the fifth wife of Pompey in 52 BC. She was a faithful follower of Pompey and met him in Mytilene with his son Sextus Pompeius, after the battle of Pharsalus in 48 BC. Together, they fled to Egypt where Pompey was murdered. On his arrival, Caesar punished the murderers of Pompey and gave Cornelia his ashes and signet ring. She returned to Rome and spent the rest of her life in Pompey's estates in Italy.
She was Tasso’s sister.
Corregio, Antonio Allegri da
1494-1534. The Italian High Renaissance painter is known for his use of chiaroscuro. Among his works are devotional pictures, including Holy Night, and frescoes, such as those in the convent of San Paolo in Parma (1518).
A small market town in Brittany, it is seven kilometres from Dinan.
BkI:Chap3:Sec1 Mentioned. It was the Roman Curiosolites.
Cortes, The Spanish
The National Legislature of Spain during the Spanish Civil War of 1820-1823, fought in the aftermath of the Napoleonic Wars. It was a conflict between royalists and liberals with France intervening officially on the side of the royalists.
BkIX:Chap5:Sec1 Republican Frenchmen supported the liberals.
BkXXVII:Chap7:Sec1 English disapproval of the Cortes.
Cortois de Pressigny, Gabriel, Comte
1745-1823 Bishop of Saint-Malo Elected December 1785, In office 1786-1791. On October 14, 1790, a municipal commission advised him that his diocese had been suppressed by a decree of the Assemblée Nationale. He was the last bishop of Saint-Malo and his diocese was divided between those of Rennes, Vannes and Saint-Brieuc. He resigned the government of the see, September 19, 1801, together with most French bishops at the request of Pope Pius VII to allow the implementation of the Concordat of 1801. Named on July 7, 1814 ambassador extraordinary of France to the Holy See to negotiate an arrangement to the Concordat of 1801; he was recalled to France in 1816. He was named by King Louis XVIII Peer of France, 1816, and given the title of Count, 1817. He was promoted to the metropolitan see of Besançon, 1817. He died when he was about to receive the cardinal’s hat in the consistory of 1823.
Corvaisier, see Le Corvaisier
Corvo, Monastery of
BkXXIV:Chap12:Sec1 Dante stayed in the Monastery of Santa Croce in Corvo in Liguria, where he reputedly negotiated a peace between the Bishop of Luni and the Marquis of Malaspina.
Corvo, Island of
One of the Azores Islands.
BkVI:Chap4:Sec1 The islands appear to have been uninhabited prior to the Portuguese discovery of them in the 15th century. The story of a find of Phoenician coins on Corvo persists, but the coins that were commented on in the eighteenth century were probably owned by a collector and not found in situ. An incident from Les Natchez is set on the island.
Cossé, Emmanuel Desiré Delie Michel Timoléon de Cossé-Brissac, Comte de
1793-1870. Having served in the Imperial Guard he became aide-de-camp to the Duc de Berry and after the Duke’s death remained attached to the Duchess’ housefold.
Cossé, Henriette de Montmorency Princess de Robech, Madame de
1798-1860. The wife of the Comte. They married in 1817.
BkXXXVII:Chap5:Sec1 At dinner in the Hradschin Palace on the 25th of May 1833.
1798-1859. Edior of Les Tabelettes universelles in 1823, an opposition newspaper, and the co-founder of Le Temps in 1829, he was imprisoned for a year in 1824 and sold Les Tabelettes secretly to Sosthènes de La Rochefoucauld.
Cottens, Laure, Madame de
1788-1867. A friend of Madame Récamier, she corresponded with Chateaubriand from 1826 to 1836. A resident of Lausanne in May 1826, she rented the Chateaubriands an apartment on the second story of her house on the Rue de Bourg, belonging to her nephew Monsieur de Charrière de Sivry.
1799-1852. An artist and friend of Louis-Napoleon, he later became Inspecteur des Beaux-Arts.
Coucy, Raoul, Sire de
c1135-1191. A Crusader, he died at the siege of Acre, during the Third Crusade. The Coucy family, of Picardy, had for their device, “Roi ne suis, ne duc, ne comte aussi; je suis le sire de Coucy.”
BkXIII:Chap9:Sec1 Mentioned as an example of knightly chivalry.
Coudrin, Abbé Pierre
1768-1837. Vicar-General of Rouen, he accompanied Cardinal de Croy his Archbishop to Rome in 1829. He founded numerous congregations and pious associations.
BkXXX:Chap4:Sec1 At the Conclave of 1829.
Couëdic de Kergoualer, Charles-Louis, Chevalier du
1739-1780 A Naval officer, he distinguished himself in the American War of Independence. He was made a Chevalier of the Order of Saint-Louis in 1777. He was immortalised for his attack while commanding the Surveillante on the English frigate Quebec, resulting in victory after a fourteen hour battle. He died three months later at Brest of his wounds,
Coulanges, Philippe-Emmanuel, Marquis de
1633-1716. The cousin of Madame de Sévigné, he made two trips to Rome. He left a collection of Chansons, and posthumously published Memoirs.
BkXXIX:Chap7:Sec1 Le petit Coulanges was Madame de Sévigné’s name for him.
Couppart, The Sisters
Residents of Saint-Malo.
A commune in the northwestern suburbs of Paris,it is located in the heart of the Hauts-de-Seine département, at 5.1 miles from the centre of Paris.
BkXXXI:Chap8:Sec1 Chateaubriand was there in July 1830.
Courcelles, Jean Baptiste Pierre Julien, Chevalier de
Genealogist. Author of the twelve volume Histoire généalogique et héraldique des Pairs de France, des grands dignitaries de la Couronne published between 1822 and 1833.
BkI:Chap1:Sec3 Mentioned by Chateaubriand, in a footnote here incorporated in the text.
Courchamp, Madame de
She was a sister of the Messieurs Béquet.
Courier de Méré, Paul-Louis
1772-1825. French political writer and classical scholar. His translation (1810) of the Greek text of Daphnis and Chloë is considered excellent. After the Bourbon restoration, which he opposed, he devoted himself to writing trenchant political pamphlets, the best known of which are Simple Discours (1821), for which he was jailed, and Le Pamphlet des pamphlets (1824), remarkable for its stylistic brilliance. His memoirs and letters (1828) have the same original charm that make his literary works memorable. He was murdered, presumably by one of his servants.
BkXXII:Chap15:Sec2 The quotation is from a letter of May 1804.
Courrier Français, Le
Founded in 1819, the Courrier was an advanced left wing liberal paper.
Courtois, for Courtois de Pressigny
Courvoisier, Jean-Joseph Antoine
1775-1835. French magistrate and politician, he served in the army of the emigres and later in that of Austria. In 1801, under the Consulate, he returned to France and established himself as an advocate at Besancon. At the Restoration he was made advocate-general by Louis XVIII, resigned and left France during the Hundred Days, and was reappointed after the second Restoration in 1815. In 1817, he was again a member of the chamber and also from 1819 to 1824. In 1829 he accepted the offer of the portfolio of justice in the Polignac ministry, but resigned in 1830. During the trial of the ex-ministers, in December, he was summoned as a witness, and paid a tribute to the character of his former colleagues which, under the circumstances, argued no little courage. He refused to take office under Louis Philippe, and retired into private life.
BkXXXI:Chap5:Sec1 Justice Minister in 1829.
BkXXXI:Chap7:Sec1 His resignation in 1830.
A town in Aveyron in the Midi Pyrénées it lies north-east of Rodez.
The town in La Manche in Normandy, famous for its magnificent 13th century Gothic cathedral.
1731-1800. English poet. After a battle with insanity, Cowper retired to the country, to Olney, where he met John Newton, the ardent evangelical preacher. He contributed to Newton's Olney Hymns (1779). After Newton left Olney, Cowper, having recovered from another period of insanity, turned to writing about simple homely subjects, producing his famous long poem, The Task (1785). His letters are considered among the most brilliant in English literature.
BkXII:Chap3:Sec1 A precursor of Romanticism.
1754-1832. English poet. He was befriended by Edmund Burke, whose generous assistance aided in the publication of The Library (1781). He took orders in 1781 and held various livings, becoming rector at Trowbridge in 1814. The Village (1783), his most famous work, is a grim picture of rustic life, written partly in reply to Goldsmith’s nostalgic Deserted Village. His bleak, realistic descriptions of life led Byron to call him “nature's sternest painter, yet the best.” His other works include The Parish Register (1807), The Borough (1810), Tales (1812), and Tales of the Hall (1819).
BkXII:Chap3:Sec1 Mentioned as a recognised living poet in 1822.
The town in north-east France.
BkXXII:Chap9:Sec1 Napoleon fighting there in 1814.
Cresap (for Crasp), Colonel Michael
1742-1775. Prior to the Revolution he was accused of the killings of Mingo Chief Logan’s family at Yellow Creek on 30 April 1774, sparking Lord Dunmore’s War of 1774. He was later shown to have been innocent of the murders. In 1775 he was appointed Captain of the First Company of Maryland Rifles, the first southern unit to join the American Army around Boston, but was forced by ill-health to retire to New York where he died.
Crécy, Battle of
The first major battle of the Hundred Years’ War, fought on 26 August 1346. Philip VI of France was defeated by Edward III of England at the village of Crécy-en-Ponthieu, now in Somme département, France, 11 miles northeast of Abbeville. The English archers played a crucial role in Edward’s victory, which allowed him to besiege and take Calais. The Black Prince, Edward’s son, was instrumental in achieving victory.
Prior to the early 18th Century, most of Georgia was home to American Indians belonging to a South-eastern alliance known as the Creek Confederacy. The Creek Nation, also known as the Muskogee, were the major tribe in that alliance. According to Creek traditions, the Confederacy migrated to the South-eastern United States from the Southwest. The confederacy was probably formed as a defence against other large groups to the north. The name ‘Creek’ came from the shortening of ‘Ocheese Creek’ Indians, a name given by the English to the native people living along the Ocheese Creek (or Ocmulgee River). In time, the name was applied to all groups of the confederacy
BkVIII:Chap2:Sec1 Chateaubriand has contact with the Creek tribes.
BkVIII:Chap5:Sec1 The two Muskogee girls.
Créquy, François de, Marquis de Marines
1625-1687. A Marshal of France he fought in many of Louis XIV’s campaigns, and was on the Rhine in 1667.
Cristaldi, Belisario, Cardinal
1764-1831. Hostile to the zelante party, he was a Cardinal from 1828.
BkXXX:Chap4:Sec1 Rejected as a Papal candidate by France.
Croker, John Wilson
1780-1857. A British Tory politician and author, born in Ireland, he was a member of Parliament from 1807 to 1832 and Secretary of the Admiralty from 1810 to 1830. The most famous of his regular contributions as a critic to the Quarterly Review, which he was a zealous contributor to from 1809, was his virulent attack (1818) on Keats’ Endymion. Croker’s best work was his careful edition (1831) of Boswell’s Life of Johnson.
BkXII:Chap3:Sec1 Mentioned as a recognised man of letters in 1822.
BkXXVII:Chap6:Sec1 A portrait of him. He translated Chateaubriand’s Monarchy according to the Charter, and imported from him the term conservative (Quarterly Review: January 1830)
1599-1658 The English soldier and statesman was Protector of England (1653-1658). A Puritan and critic of Charles I in the Long Parliament he raised troops after the start of the Civil War and with the New Model Army defeated the Royalists. He subsequently signed the King’s death warrant, and established the Protectorate. He practised religious toleration allowing the Jews to return to England in 1656.
BkII:Chap7:Sec3 A story of his inking a colleague’s face at the signing of Charles I’s death warrant. The story was repeated by Villemain (1819), Hugo (1827) and Chateaubriand himself in Les Quatre Stuarts (1828).
BkV:Chap12:Sec3 He came near to bartering his future for a title.
BkX:Chap5:Sec2 He was buried in Westminster Abbey in 1658, but in 1661 his body was exhumed and hung at Tyburn. His head was then cut off and put on public display for nearly 20 years outside Westminster Hall.
BkXIX:Chap3:Sec1 His speech to the first Protectorate Parliament on 12 September 1654 in which he said ‘I was by birth a gentleman, living neither in any considerable height, nor yet in obscurity.’
BkXX:Chap3:Sec1 His refusal of the crown in 1657.
BkXXII:Chap 21:Sec1 The Commonwealth as an interval in the Monarchy.
BkXXIV:Chap5:Sec1 The freedom of the Press during his rule.
BkXXVII:Chap11:Sec1 As a famous Englishman.
BkXXIX:Chap7:Sec3 Refused Queen Henrietta Maria a pension.
BkXXXIII:Chap9:Sec1 His establishment of a new mode of government.
1626-1712. Oliver Cromwell’s son Richard who succeeded him as Lord Protector was forced by the army to abdicate in 1659. He then lived in France in exile until 1680.
BkXXXII:Chap7:Sec1 Not saved by the House of Lords.
Cronier (or Crosnier), Pierre-Narcisse,
d. 1848 A notary from 1816-1822, he was Mayor of the 9th Arrondissement (now the 4th) from 1830 to 1832.
Croy, or Croi, Henri, Sire de
Croy, Gustave-Maximilien, Prince and Cardinal de
1773-1844. Archbishop of Rouen from 1823, he was a Cardinal from 1825.
BkXXX:Chap4:Sec1 He arrives at the Conclave of 1829.
Crussol de Florensac, Alexandre Charles Emmanuel d’Uzes, Bailli de
1747-1815. Former deputy for the nobility to the States General, he was a cavalry brigadier, the captain of Monsieur’s bodyguard, member of the Order of St John, Adminstrator General of the Grand Priory, and Bailiff of the Temple.
BkXXIII:Chap20:Sec3 In Paris in 1815.
Cucé, Mgr de Boisgelin de, Archbishop of Aix
1732-1804. Deputy of the Clergy to the States-General, worked on a translation of the Psalms (1799), and a Discours sur la Poésie sacrée used by Chateaubriand in writing the Gènie.
BkXI:Chap2:Sec4 Emigrated to London.
Cujas, Jacques (Jacques de Cujas, or Cujacius)
1520-1590. Born in Toulouse, he was a jurist and classical scholar whose work on Roman law was part of the humanist revival of classical culture. A teacher at the universities of Valence and Bourges, he attracted outstanding students from all over Europe, among them the Dutch classical scholar Scaliger. In jurisprudence Cujas specialized in Justinian; his Paratitla, or summaries of Justinian’s Digest and Codex, expresses in short, clear axioms the elementary principles of Roman law. He also edited the Codex Theodosianus.
Cuidad Rodrigo stands on a rocky spur overlooking the banks of the River Ague, on the Spanish border with Portugal.
Daughter of Jacques.
Cumberland, Ernest Augustus I, Duke of
1777-1851. Ernest Augustus I, King of Hanover (1837-151) known as the Duke of Cumberland (1799-1837) was the fifth son of George III and Queen Charlotte of England. He lost his left eye during the Battle of Tourcoing (Battle of Cayghem) (18 May 1794). In 1813, he became a field marshal. He served as honorary Colonel of the 15th (The King’s) Regiment of (Light) Dragoons (Hussars) from 1801 to 1827 and as Colonel of the Royal Horse Guards from 1827 to 1830. On 20 June 1837, King William IV died, and his niece, Victoria, the only child of the late Duke of Kent, the fourth son of George III, succeeded as queen of the United Kingdom. However, Salic Law still prevailed in Hanover meaning that as William’s legitimate male heir, the Duke of Cumberland became King of Hanover. Hanover and Great Britain thereby gained diverging royal houses
Chateaubriand met him in Berlin in 1821.
Cumberland, Princess Frederica of Prussia, Duchess of
1778-1841. The daughter of Karl V, Grand Duke of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, she was the former wife of Prince Ludwig of Prussia and the widow of Friedrich-Wilhelm, Prince of Solms-Braunfels. She married her first cousin Ernest. Her sister Louisa (1776-1810) had married Frederick-William III in 1793. She became Queen of Hanover in 1837.
BkXXVI:Chap9:Sec1 Chateaubriand met her in Berlin in 1821.
BkXXVI:Chap10:Sec1 She died 29th June 1841.
Cumberland, George Duke of, see George V
1756-1835. A member of the various Assemblies, following the Legislative Assembly, he was nominated to the Senate in 1807 and made Comte de La Bédissière in 1808, before retiring to his native town of Pézenas.
BkXX:Chap3:Sec1 His motion to the Tribunate.
Curtius, Philippe (Johann W. C. Kurtz or Creutz)
d. 1794 A doctor, who ran a Cabinet des figures de cire, a collection of life-size waxwork figures, from 1770, moving it to the Palais-Royal from 1776. In 1782 the business was extended by the creation of a ‘Caverne des Grands Voleurs’, the nucleus of the ‘Chamber of Horrors’ on Boulevard du Temple. Maternal uncle, and teacher of Madame Tussaud, Curtius proved his patriotism on 14 July, 1789 by taking part in the storming of the Bastille, but three brothers and two uncles of Marie Tussaud were in the Swiss Guard, and all perished bravely in defending the Tuileries on 10 August, 1792. Curtius and his niece were called upon to model the lifeless heads of a number of victims of the Terror. Marie had married Tussaud, and after her uncle’s death moved to England, where she established her own famous Waxworks.
Cussy, Ferdinand, Chevalier de
1795-1866. A former Guards officer, he was second secretary in Berlin from 1816, under Bonnay. He became First Secretary at Dresden in 1823, before pursuing in 1848 a Consular career. He left Souvenirs which cover Chateaubriand’s Berlin Embassy.
BkXXVI:Chap1:Sec1 A secretary at the Berlin Embassy in 1821.
Custine, Delphine de Sabran, Marquise de
1770-1826. Survived the Terror in prison; her husband and father-in-law were both guillotined. Fouché subsequently allowed her to repair her fortune. She became Chateaubriand’s close friend.
BkXIV:Chap1:Sec1 BkXXXVI:Chap11:Sec1 BkXXXIX:Chap3:Sec1 BkXLI:Chap6:Sec1 Her château of Fervaques, near Lisieux, in Normandy, was purchased from the Duc de Laval in October 1803. Chateaubriand visited in the period 1804-6. She died at Bex, in Vaud, Switzerland.
BkXXVII:Chap5:Sec1 Her house Fervaques mentioned.
BkXXVIII:Chap10:Sec1 Chateaubriand receives news of her death. In July 1823 she lost her daughter-in-law, in November 1824 her son Astolphe was involved in scandal, and in January 1826 her only grand-son Enguerrand died. She moved to Bex in the spring of 1826.
BkXXIX:Chap2:Sec1 Her death occurred on the 13th of July 1826.
Custine, Astolphe, Marquis de
1790-1857. He was born at the outset of the French Revolution and died under the Second Empire. His father was guillotined and he and his mother barely survived the Terror. A poet and novelist, Custine gained recognition with the publication of his travel books Spain under Ferdinand VII and Letters from Russia, (La Russie en 1839, published 1843) an enduring analysis of the roots and character of Russian despotism. He was highly regarded by Baudelaire for his novel writing. In Aloys (1827) he portrayed his troubled adolescence and mentions Chateaubriand.
BkXIV:Chap1:Sec1 Mentioned as a child.
BkXXVII:Chap5:Sec1 Visited Chateaubriand in London in 1822, arriving on the 29th July with his friend Sainte-Barbe. He left his new-born son in Paris with his wife Léontine de Saint-Simon de Courtomer (married May 1821).
Custine, Enguerrand de
1822-1826. The only grandson of Delphine.
Custrin (Küstrin, Kostrzyn)
A town of Germany, in the kingdom of Prussia, it was a fortress of the first rank, at the confluence of the Oder and Warthe, 18 miles north-east of Frankfort-on-Oder.
BkXX:Chap6:Sec1 Captured October 29th 1806 by Napoleon.
1769-1832. French naturalist, studied at the academy of Stuttgart. From 1795 he taught in the Jardin des Plantes. He became permanent secretary (1803) of the Academy of Sciences and later was made chancellor of the Univ. of Paris. A pioneer in the science of comparative anatomy, he originated a system of zoological classification that comprised four phyla based on differences in structure of the skeleton and organs. His reconstruction of the soft parts of fossils deduced from their skeletal remains greatly advanced the science of paleontology. The flying reptile pterodactyl was identified and named by Cuvier. He rejected the theory of evolution in favour of catastrophism. Cuvier held various high posts in the government and did much to develop higher education in France. Among his more important works are Tableau élémentaire de l'histoire naturelle des animaux (1798); Mémoires sur les espèces d'éléphants vivants et fossiles (1800); with A. M. C. Dumeril and G. L. Duvernoy, Leçons d'anatomie comparée (5 vol., 1801–5); Recherches sur les ossements fossiles des quadrupèdes (1812); and Le Règne animal destribué d'après son organisation (1817).
The Phrygian great goddess, personifying the earth in its savage state, worshipped in caves and on mountain-tops. She was merged with Rhea, the mother of the gods. Her consort was Attis, slain by a wild boar like Adonis. His festival was celebrated by the followers of Cybele, the Galli, or Corybantes, who were noted for convulsive dances to the music of flutes, drums and cymbals, and self-mutilation in an orgiastic fury.
BkVI:Chap4:Sec1 The Phrygian cap was adopted by freed slaves in Roman times, and thus became a symbol of liberty. The headgear made its last appearance in the 18th century during the French Revolution. Chateaubriand thus connects Cybele to the tricolour emblem of the Revolution.
BkXIII:Chap4:Sec1 The Corybants were priests of the Phrygian worship of Cybele, performed with extravagant dances.
BkXXI:Chap2:Sec1 As the Mother Goddess she was often depicted as many-breasted and with a turreted crown.
BkXXXIX:Chap18:Sec1 As the Phrygian Aphrodite Chateaubriand has her born, as Aphrodite was, from the sea, or Poseidon-Neptune?
They were a race of giants living on the coast of Sicily of whom Polyphemus was one. They had a single eye in the centre of their foreheads. They forged Jupiter’s lightning-bolts. See Homer’s Odyssey.
Character in Les Martyrs, (1809) by Chateaubriand. Eudore is a young Christian who meets with Cymodocée a pagan descendant of Homer. She wishes to convert, and follow his destiny. After various vicissitudes she is martyred with him in the arena.
BkXXIX:Chap7:Sec2 Mentioned by Chateaubriand.
BkXVII:Chap1:Sec1 The initial idea of the character.
BkXVIII:Chap6:Sec1 Critical acceptance of Les Martyrs. The passage quoted is from Book XXIII.
She was the mistress of Propertius. Her name is also a synonym for the moon, an epithet of Diana.
BkXXXVIII:Chap5:Sec1 See Propertius’ Elegies, particularly that to Cynthia after her death.
190-258. Bishop of Carthage in 249, he was martyred in 258 during the persecutions of Valerian. A writer second only in importance to Tertullian as a Latin Father of the Church.
BkXVII:Chap4:Sec1 Chateaubriand quotes him.
BkIV:Chap8:Sec1 Chateaubriand translated from it in Paris in 1787.
Cyrus the Great
590?-529?BC. Cyrus II, King of Persia (550–529) and founder of the Persian Empire, conquered Lydia and Babylon. Tolerant in religious matters, he allowed the worship of native gods and permitted the exiled Jews to return to Jerusalem (537).
BkXIX:Chap14:Sec3 His interment, supposedly in the open air.
Artamène ou le Grand Cyrus, one of the best known novels of Madeleine de Scudéry (1607–1701) appeared in ten volumes, from 1649 to 1653. Both novelist and social figure, Madame de Scudéry wrote immensely popular romans à clef—novels in which identifiable people are disguised as fictional characters. She enlivened her historical romances by including in them fictional representations of well-known figures in the court of Louis XIV.
Czartoryska, Izabela Fleming, Princesse
1746-1835. Polish Comtesse. Writer, art-collector, founder of the Polish Museum.